Página 19 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.062 segundos

‣ Higher occupancy humanism : the trade-offs for encouraging middle income housing in a global city

Konishi, Ryunosuke, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 46, [15] leaves; 3992048 bytes; 7730325 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In high density urban areas where the land acquisition and construction cost components are significant relative to total development costs, the market typically supplies a high-income housing product in order to justify the risks for new construction. In places such as New York, Tokyo, London and other land supply restricted cities, the effect of these rising costs has forced the unsubsidized middle-class to migrate further and further from the center of the city where most of the infrastructural area amenities and jobs are located. This causes extended commuting times that result in the exacerbation of pollution and wasted allocation of resources. In effect, the overall function of the city grows more inefficient. All the while, the demographic texture of the central city becomes a polarized gathering of the wealthy elite and the service oriented subsidized poor. The lack of income diversity results in a spatial built form that also mimics this polarized condition. In these circumstances, might there be a strategy for encouraging a housing prototype that specifically targets the broad middle class market in order for cities to maintain diverse communities, a tapestry of spatial form, and a more efficient competitive city. The hypothesis is that if housing occupancy levels can be doubled from what is currently allowed within spaces that are tighter than typical American standards...

‣ Community asset building in rural development : an analysis of military-base redevelopment in rural host communities

Stanley, Lois A., 1961-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 164 leaves; 17381171 bytes; 17380928 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This dissertation is about opportunities in rural development. Often we think of development as a function of location. In the pursuit of economic development, analysts and practitioners tend to consider the advantages--economic, geographic, and institutional--of one location over another. Rural areas often weigh in toward the bottom of such analyses because they enjoy few of the traditional, i.e., location-dependent, resources for development. The general question underlying this dissertation is: How do rural communities find opportunities for economic development without the traditional resources to serve as stimuli? Local responses to air force bases closures during the 1990s are examined, first, through a comparative analysis between the groups of six rural and 26 metropolitan host communities of closed bases and, second, through case studies of four host communities--three rural and one metropolitan. Principle findings included:; (cont.) *Surprisingly, the rural host communities achieved success in base redevelopment comparable to metropolitan host communities despite significant economic, geographic, and institutional gaps between the two groups in the study. *Residents mobilized in response to base-closure crises in every community. Through participation in base reuse planning activities...

‣ Integrated impact analysis of yellow-dust storms : a regional case study in China

Ai, Ning, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 126 leaves; 4204047 bytes; 4203854 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The dust storm is a meteorological event that is caused by strong winds and proceeds from arid and semi-arid regions, transporting a thick cloud of fine sediments. In China, the sediments of dust storms mainly come from the desert and thus are called "yellow-dust storms." Although these storms can disrupt socioeconomic activities widely and pose hazards to human health as well as to the ecosystem, no one has made a systematic socioeconomic analysis of yellow-dust storms. I provide an integrated regional socioeconomic framework to quantify the impacts of yellow-dust storms, as a conceptual model and a demonstration of applicable methodologies. I conduct a case study using 2000 Beijing data, mainly applying input-output analysis, dose-response analysis, and a benefit-transfer approach, and test my results with sensitivity analysis. I demonstrate that the economic impacts of yellow-dust storms have reached all sectors of the regional economy, and that their delayed impacts were more significant than the immediate impacts. Further, I clarify the extent of the economic impacts of yellow-dust storms by both backward and forward linkage analyses. On the basis of both quantitative and qualitative analysis results, I discuss the policy implications of yellow-dust control and show that water-resource planning is critical both for the prevention and mitigation of yellow-dust storm problems.; by Ning Ai.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ What happened to the three-decker?; What happened to the tripple-decker?

Wegmann, Jacob (Jacob G.)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 p.
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This thesis examines the three-decker, a type of small apartment house ("superposed flats") that is common in the Boston metropolitan region and elsewhere in New England. The three-decker is distinctive in two ways: its physical form, which is moderately dense and yet modest in scale; and its tenancy structure, which typically involves one household owning the entire building, while residing in one apartment and renting out the other two. This thesis poses three, interrelated questions: What is the origin of the three-decker? Why did it substantially disappear in the Boston area after 1920, and altogether by 1930? And what has kept it from coming back? In order to get at these questions, the thesis both examines the three-decker in its local context, and compares and contrasts it with similar building types in three other North American cities that have a rich tradition in them: Chicago, Montreal, and New York City. Chapter 1 introduces the topic and describes the three-decker and its counterparts elsewhere. Chapter 2 is a historical analysis that addresses the questions of the origins and decline of the three-decker.; (cont.) Chapters 3, 4, 5 examine in turn design, economic, and regulatory factors that impinge, either negatively or positively...

‣ Spatial stratification of street vendors in downtown Mexico City

Baroni, Bruno Nazim
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 71 p.
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The fight for space between city administrators and street vendors working in city centers is one of the major controversies about street commerce. Trying to renew and upgrade their downtowns, city administrators of most urban areas have attempted to relocate street vendors from central areas to peripheries, from the streets to indoor public markets. That attempt has almost always found fierce opposition among street vendors, who claim that entering into contact with the greatest number of pedestrians is the key to successful street vending. Most scholars studying street vendors have not questioned such a proposition; on the contrary, they have somehow taken it for granted. Yet, a comparison of four street vendor groups -- two located in the most accessible areas and two in less accessible areas of downtown Mexico City -- revels that street vendors with a more limited access to customers can obtained better working conditions and economic results than others who are located in most accessible areas. The following factors explain the better results of the street vendors located in the less accessible areas of downtown Mexico City. First, street vendors located in the less accessible areas have easier access to storage space, more room for large stalls and are less likely to have their goods confiscated by the police.; (cont.) These advantages provide them the possibility to increase the scale of their commerce. Second...

‣ Localizing public dispute resolution in Japan : lessons from experiments with deliberative policy-making

Matsuura, Masahiro, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 439 p.
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Can consensus building processes, as practiced in the US, be used to resolve infrastructure disputes in Japan? Since the 1990s, proposals to construct highways, dams, ports and airports, railways, as well as to redevelop neighborhoods, have been opposed by a wide range of stakeholders. In response, there is a growing interest among Japanese practitioners in using consensus building processes, as practiced in the US, in order to resolve infrastructure disputes. Scholars and practitioners in the field of negotiation and dispute resolution, as well as policy transfer theorists, have raised concerns about cross-border transfers by referring to a variety of contextual differences between the "importing" and "exporting" countries. This dissertation investigates the relationship between the context and the introduction of consensus building processes from two perspectives: the adaptation of consensus building processes for the Japanese context and the organizational changes that seem to be required to allow processes from the US to work in Japan.; (cont.) Without process adaptation and organizational change, consensus building processes are unlikely to be helpful in resolving infrastructure disputes in Japan, considering the breadth and depth of the contextual differences -- in organizational...

‣ Possibilities for health-conscious assisted housing mobility

Arcaya, Mariana Clair
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 121 p.
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Many poor, segregated, urban neighborhoods are rife with risks to health, which contributes to stark racial and geographic disparities in health. Fighting health disparities requires buy-in from non-health professionals whose work directly impacts the way cities are designed and governed. This thesis provides a case study of one non-health initiative, assisted housing mobility, with clear relevance to health disparities. Research suggests that moving from high- to lower-poverty neighborhoods may confer a range of health benefits on individuals; however, assisted housing mobility programs are, to date, relocation-only interventions. Could these programs more deliberately promote health, and should they do so? Through interviews and a review of counseling materials, I examine. how nine assisted housing mobility programs are linked to health, how health is understood by program staff, and how managers might offer more health-conscious programming. Based on a review of pathways between health and housing and neighborhoods, I identified five areas of intervention around which managers could build healthful programs: housing units, neighborhoods, health behavior and awareness, social connectedness, and access to health services. For each area of intervention...

‣ Local travel habits of baby boomers in suburban age-restricted communities

Hebbert, Francis
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 190 p.
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The baby boomer generation is an unprecedented demographic of 78 million Americans, now entering retirement. Living mostly in suburbs and dependent on private vehicles for nearly all travel needs, boomers face increasing mobility challenges as they age. Evidence suggests that walkable and social neighborhoods are important in sustaining independence and good health during later life. Age-restricted communities may offer a social and physical environment that supports an active lifestyle. I use a travel survey to investigate local activity and sociability in age-restricted communities and unrestricted typical neighborhoods in suburban Boston. I explore three techniques to account for residential self-selection, attempting to isolate the true effect of neighborhood location from personal preferences. Controlling for income, retirement and other factors, residents of restricted communities are more active than residents of typical suburbs, with more people making trips on foot and to visit neighbors. Boomers appear to select age-restricted locations to fulfill latent desires to make trips to neighbors, whereas increased walking in the same communities does not appear to be a result of self-selection. The association between age-restricted communities and increased activity suggest that these developments have lessons for better suburban environments. How the communities influence activity is not understood: in models...

‣ Designing for ecology : the ecological park

Power, Andres M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 144 leaves
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This thesis aims to define a) what an ecological park is, and b) whether it is a new model in park design. Reference to the literature on landscape ecology is used to analyze the natural ecological merit of these parks, while reference to the literature on communicative elements of the landscape is used to analyze the pedagogic, or socio-cultural merit of these parks. Two case studies of recently built ecological parks - Xochimilco in Mexico City and Crissy Field in San Francisco, are analyzed and compared to two older picturesque parks - Golden Gate Park in San Francisco and the Back Bay Fens in Boston.The analysis shows that the ecological park is indeed a new phenomenon and model of park design.This new model redefines the relationship between park and city by connecting the cultural and natural ecological aspects of the park's site with a larger context.The ecological park model moves beyond the experientially isolated urban parks of years past, providing society instead with a sustainable, ecologically viable, self-replicating vehicle to improve the links between the built environment and the landscape.; by Andres M. Power.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 136-144).

‣ Commercial revitalization in Union Square : an analysis of Main Street applied to a multi-ethnic business district

De la Torre, Beatriz
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 114 p.; 7454913 bytes; 7459662 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Urban neighborhoods in the United States have a rich composition of ethnicities within their population and their business community. Understanding that ethnic business owners need to be integrated in commercial revitalization efforts is not only important but is also necessary. Immigrant and ethnic groups are growing at a fast rate in the United States, and entrepreneurship continues to be one of the most viable options for their economic mobility. This thesis explores how diversity can be utilized as an asset within the organizational and promotional efforts of commercial revitalization initiatives. Specifically, it addresses how to broaden participation and how to integrate ethnic business owners in the ethnic diversity as a promotional tool to strengthen the image of a district and broaden the appeal of an area. This thesis draws on lessons and effective practices from a literature review and from the analysis of two case studies, Hyde Jackson Square Main Street and Sunset Park 5th Avenue BID. It concludes by providing specific recommendations to Union Square Main Street on how to best integrate the district's rich diversity in its revitalization efforts.; by Beatriz de la Torre.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Fostering land use dialog : community preservation as a growth management strategy in Massachusetts

Hodges, Christopher J. (Christopher Jon), 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.; 2419207 bytes; 2947967 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The Community Preservation Initiative (CPI) was an innovative attempt by the Massachusetts state government to stimulate discussion about land use and growth management at the local level. Based on land use and zoning information, CPI relied on geographic information systems (GIS) to model a potential development scenario for each of the 351 municipalities in the state. The process for generating these buildout maps purposefully involved officials at local, regional, and state levels. This thesis examines the success of the CPI process in evolving land use dialog within and between communities, and amongst planners at all three levels of government. Town planners in two different metropolitan regions of Massachusetts - Boston and Springfield - were interviewed about CPI's impact on local land use discussions. This research was supplemented by interviews with other regional planners and CPI staff. The results suggest that while CPI may eventually lead to changes in local land use, in the short term few changes have occurred to the dialog on growth management in the state. The results of this investigation should aid state and regional decision-makers in determining what future policies and approaches are needed to promote smart growth and regional planning in Massachusetts and other states.; by Christopher J. Hodges.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Compliance of small firms with the value added tax : a study of the supply chain of small parts for buses in Columbia

Ruiz, Francisco (Ruiz Peronard)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 leaves
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Governments are coming under increasing pressure to augment their revenues to offset the social costs of globalization and ever-widening trade and capital liberalization. Unarguably, the most sustainable way to procure additional resources is taxation. In this context, one of the main challenges for developing countries is how to bring the informal sector into the tax net. Influential institutions such as the World Bank and the IMF see the VAT as the solution. In Colombia, a weak social contract makes citizens perceive taxes as burdens with a marginal contribution to the common good. Consequently, evasion is widespread. This thesis attempts to understand why some small firms evade the VAT and others do not. It revolves around the supply chain for small parts for buses of the informal transportation systems of Colombian cities. This sector slowly evolves-under growing liberalization and top-down formalization of urban transportation-towards higher formality (all firms are now registered and firm owners hold legal titles of their property and machinery). They are informal in that they have varying degrees of compliance with State regulations (most notably tax and labor). Thus, most firms in this study fall somewhere on the continuum between informality and formality.; (cont.) In the dynamic context of the sector studied...

‣ The domestic impact of international remittances : t he role of Dominican remittances in Washington Heights, New York

Spraus, Shanny
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 72 leaves
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There has been a lot of research on, writing about, and celebration of the benefit of remittances on the economies of developing countries. However, there are no studies on the impact of these remittances on the communities within the United States from which these remittances originate. This lack of attention is particularly troublesome, as remitting communities are often concentrated in low-income neighborhoods where many families live below the poverty line. This thesis examines the domestic impact of remittances on money-sending communities: how much money is sent abroad, what sacrifices are made to send this money, what other costs are associated with remitting, and what could be done with the money if it were invested locally instead. Understanding remitting habits and costs from the sending side sheds light on this particular facet of immigrant life, and suggests where funding and support might be targeted to best help local development in communities with large remitting immigrant populations. This study focuses on the remitting habits and economic conditions of Dominican immigrants in Washington Heights.; (cont.) Investigating the Dominican community of Washington Heights provides a lens into the domestic toll of international remittances in one of New York City's poorest neighborhoods. An analysis of the findings of this investigation suggests that remittance sending has a profound impact...

‣ The interests of landowners on the metropolitan fringe

Molinsky, Jennifer H. (Jennifer Hrabchak)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 327 p.
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Numerous authors have noted that the patchy, sprawling pattern of development characterizing the metropolitan fringe results in part from the decisions of individual landowners regarding the use, subdivision, development, sale, or transfer of land. These decisions are related to owners' interests in their land: the set of benefits, derived from ownership, that enhance owners' physical, financial, or emotional well-being. In this dissertation, I develop a framework for exploring landowners' interests in their fringe properties. The framework proposes a set of interests owners might hold in land, explains how they are influenced by personal and external circumstances, and discusses how interests shift over time. In developing this framework, I draw from research on landowners' roles in land conversion and Marxist scholarship on "exchange" and "use" values in urban land. The framework also emerged from research conducted in the Austin, Texas fringe, involving a telephone survey of over 500 landowners, interviews with owners and experts on the region's growth, and a field visit.; (cont.) The study reveals that Austin-area owners are a diverse group whose land interests relate to monetary gain, the use of land for residence or business...

‣ The point of Corumbau : a case study in emerging market (Brazil) real estate development feasibility analysis; Case study in emerging market (Brazil) real estate development feasibility analysis

Clayton, Paul B., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 188 p.
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In 2003, Renata Oliveira, a young Portuguese architect, has re-discovered the Point of Corumbau in Bahia, Brazil, and, like the Portuguese adventurers who had discovered Brazil 500 years earlier in the same location, found it to be an area that is wild, beautiful and undeveloped. It is also sitting right at the edge of perhaps the most promising resort and second home real estate market in the world: the Northeast coast of Brazil. The case challenges students to conduct market and project feasibility analysis in an emerging market environment, with data and contextual information supplied in the case. It considers the effectiveness of such analysis, and raises questions about the usefulness of time-series data in markets that are changing in fundamental ways, the importance of macro- and international economics in weighing real estate investments, the methods available for evaluating emerging market risk, the challenges of managing development and construction in a foreign environment, and the role, if any, for a developer's personal vision in the value creation system. Part II of the case allows students to re-consider these questions in the light of subsequent events. At the same time, the case examines two of the most exciting real estate markets in the world today: Southeastern Brazil's urban housing market...

‣ Evaluating next-generation environmental policy tools : adaptive management in the Bureau of Land Management

Brandenburg, Peter (Peter J.)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 102 p.; 5762322 bytes; 5768069 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has begun to embrace the concept adaptive management as an alternative to traditional natural resource planning and management models. Adaptive management may provide BLM managers with a means to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, the flexibility to adjust actions that have not proved effective, opportunities for rapid learning relevant to improved management, and improved public support for resource management decisions. To realize these benefits, BLM must include two critical elements in its adaptive management strategies: 1) adaptive design of management objectives, actions, monitoring and evaluation protocols and 2) effective collaboration among BLM and interested stakeholders. I evaluate three case studies of BLM adaptive management and find that none of the cases have fully included the critical elements. While there are some encouraging signs, the cases collectively reveal several key shortcomings. The strategies have not capitalized on the potential to improve management through learning. Two cases illustrate the risk that adaptive management may be misapplied to remove requirements for predictive impact analysis and mitigation, putting resources at risk. The cases have not featured a joint fact finding collaborative structure to provide stakeholders with early and integrated roles in the adaptive management process. I also identify a number of institutional barriers that have prevented BLM from consistently including the critical elements.; (Cont.) If BLM cannot remove these barriers by providing agency-wide policy and guidance for adaptive management...

‣ Place making in new retail developments : the role of local, independently owned businesses

Laniado, Linda (Linda Caroline)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 105 p.; 1715466 bytes; 1724464 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis sets out to examine whether incorporating local independent or small regional chain retailers and restaurants along with national chain stores in new large scale open-air retail developments can help add to a "sense of place" in these projects and thus make them more successful. New retail developments of the past two decades, often called Lifestyle Centers, Urban Entertainment Centers, Town Centers or New Main Streets, attempt through design to create a "place." However, unlike traditional Main Streets or other locales that come to mind when thinking of distinctive "places" to shop, the tenants in these centers seem to be largely the same as those in regional malls- ubiquitous national chain stores. Due to this lack of local, unique content, these projects in many cases seem to be more a repackaging of the regional mall formula than truly successful attempts at place making. However, despite several challenges to tenanting independent businesses, some owners of new, what I refer to as, Place Making Centers have nonetheless taken a more proactive role in varying their tenant mix so as to better differentiate and reflect the local character of these projects; consciously dedicating a substantial percentage of their retail space for smaller local or regional retailers.; (cont.) This suggests that for some developers and projects these obstacles can be overcome...

‣ All that glitters is not gold : unexpected lessons from a slum upgrading program in Brazil; Unexpected lessons from a slum upgrading program in Brazil

Zuin, Valentina
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 101 leaves; 6429335 bytes; 6434696 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This paper looks at the Ribeira Azul Slum Upgrading Program in Salvador de Bahia Brazil, implemented by the development agency of the state of Bahia, CONDER, and the Italian NGO Associazione Volontari per il Servizio Internationale (AVSI), which is recognized by the World Bank and Cities Alliance as an exemplary project. The paper aims at understanding the areas in which it was successful, and illustrate how - despite important shortcomings - the project has become to be considered exemplary. The paper first shows that the project is not as participatory as international donors believe. Moreover, it illustrates that project's sustainability is at risk because inter-governmental political competition between the state and municipal government and party politics prevented the inclusion of the Municipality- institution responsible for maintenance - in project planning and implementation. If the project did not succeed at eliciting community participation - at least in so far as influence on project design and decision making - and is likely not to be sustained, what is this project successful at? And how do we explain that it became well known as exemplary? I argue that the Ribeira Azul project has been successful in the following three respects: (1) Delivering infrastructure improvements and housing; (2) Securing financial resources; and (3) Marketing its accomplishments. The paper explains how...

‣ Trading pollution for water quality : assessing the effects of market-based instruments in three basins

Wallace, Katherine Hay
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 p.
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Since its passage in 1972, the majority of pollution reduction under the federal Clean Water Act has resulted from technology-based limits imposed on point source dischargers. However, most U.S. water bodies are unmonitored and of those that are, between 40 and 50 percent remain impaired. Given this limited progress, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, multiple state agencies, and non-governmental organizations have proposed water quality trading as a cost-effective means to achieve pollution reductions from point and nonpoint sources. To determine whether these programs actually achieve cost-effective pollution reduction in practice that they promise in theory, I evaluate direct and indirect outcomes associated with three water quality trading cases: the Grassland Area Farmers Tradable Loads Program in California's San Joaquin Valley; the Tar-Pamlico River Basin Nutrient Offset Program in North Carolina; and the Long Island Sound Nitrogen Credit Exchange in Connecticut. Although reallocating reduction efforts through trades to achieve cost-effective solutions is supposedly the major benefit of market-based instruments, only dischargers in the Long Island Sound Nitrogen Credit Exchange actively traded.; (cont.) The Grassland Area Farmers abandoned trading in favor of a more affordable and heavily subsidized management strategy...

‣ Community in the garden in the community : the development of an open space resource in Boston's South End; Development of an open space resource in Boston's South End

Meehan, Angela Elizabeth
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 143 p.
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Now a permanently protected type of open space, the community gardens in Boston's South End began in the early 1970's as an effort to utilize vacant land in what was a predominantly low-income neighborhood. Since then, the South End has experienced steady gentrification and is now one of the most expensive neighborhoods in Boston. Despite these changes, the South End, due in part to its substantial supply of subsidized housing, has retained residents with a mix of income levels and is a neighborhood that is still known for its diversity. Much of the previous literature on the role and value of community gardens has focused primarily on low-income communities, and there has been little research on community gardens in gentrifying or similarly changing neighborhoods. The South End, therefore, is an ideal arena in which to investigate the past development and present-day role of community gardens in a changing neighborhood. This thesis examines the role of the South End's community gardens both as places in and of themselves and as part of the larger urban landscape and community.; (cont.) By taking the perspective of the community in the garden and the garden in the community, the study explores both the dynamics of the smaller communities within the gardens and their role as a unique type of open space in the larger neighborhood and community that surrounds them. Through in-depth interviews as well as archival and observational methods...