Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade de Tubinga

A Universidade Everardo Carlos de Tubinga é uma instituição de ensino superior pública localizada na cidade de Tubinga, na Alemanha. É uma das mais antigas da Alemanha. Foi fundada em 11 de Março de 1477.

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‣ Argument alternations of the Dutch psych verbs

Pijpops, Dirk; Speelman, Dirk
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
This paper presents a corpus study of the alternation between the reflexive and transitive argument constructions of the Dutch psych verbs ergeren (‘to annoy’), interesseren (‘to interest’), storen (‘to disturb’) and verbazen (‘to amaze’), as in Jij ergert je aan mij vs. Ik erger jou (both ‘I annoy you’). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the choice of the language user was driven by – in order of decreasing importance – the choice of verb, the morphological form of the stimulus, the animacy of the stimulus, the morphological form of the experiencer, and a number of nuisance variables. However, verbs whose lexical meaning entailed a more agentive experiencer did not more often realize this experiencer in subject position than other verbs, nor could the preference of the verbs be predicted by looking at their etymology.

‣ Determinants of English accents

Wieling, Martijn; Bloem, Jelke; Baayen, R. Harald; Nerbonne, John
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
In this study we investigate which factors affect the degree of non-native accent of L2 speakers of English who learned English in school and mostly lived for some time in an anglophone setting. We use data from the Speech Accent Archive containing over 700 speakers speaking almost 160 different native languages. We show that besides several important predictors, including the age of English onset and length of anglophone residence, the linguistic distance between the speaker’s native language and English is a significant predictor of the degree of non-native accent in pronunciation. This study extends an earlier study which only focused on Indo-European L2 learners of Dutch and used a general speaking proficiency measure.

‣ On Experience-Driven Semantic Judgments: A Case Study on the Oneiric Reference Constraint

Dery, Jeruen E.; Pearson, Hazel
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
Using the interpretation of pronouns in dream and belief reports as a test case, we show that semantic judgments can vary as a function of experience. We present findings from three studies where semantic judgments for pronoun interpretations were affected by a) repeated exposure, or b) the experimental task which elicited the judgments. Our findings stress the importance of converging evidence from multiple tasks and paradigms when testing and formulating theoretical hypotheses.

‣ Quantitative methods for identifying systematic polysemy classes

Vieu, Laure; Jezek, Elisabetta; Van de Cruys, Tim
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
In this paper we report the results of four experiments conducted to extract lists of nouns that exhibit inherent polysemy from corpus data following semiautomatic and automatic procedures. We compare the methods used and the results obtained. We argue that quantitative methods can be used to distinguish different classes of polysemous nouns in the language on the basis of the variability of copredication contexts.

‣ Learning what the crowd can do: A case study on focus annotation

De Kuthy, Kordula; Ziai, Ramon; Meurers, Detmar
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
This paper addresses the question of how to explore and advance the conceptualization and applicability of information structural notions to support the analysis of authentic data. With this we aim at further establishing where advances in linguistic modeling also result in quantifiable gains in real-life tasks. Can, for example, computational linguistic applications be improved by integrating information structural notions? One of the necessary prerequisites for answering this question are large enough sets of data which are annotated with the relevant information structural concepts. The main problem here is that notions like focus are often discussed in theoretic literature by means of example sentences but rarely analyzed in substantial amounts of authentic data.

‣ A Bayesian multinomial model of near-synonymy

Levshina, Natalia
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
This paper is a quantitative multifactorial study of near-synonymous constructions let + V, allow + to V and permit + to V based on the British National Corpus. We fit a Bayesian multinomial mixed model with twenty formal, semantic, social, collostructional and other variables as fixed effects and the infinitives that fill in the second verb slot as random effects. The model reveals a remarkable alignment of variables that indicate the formal distance between the predicates, conceptual distance between the events they represent and between the speaker and the main arguments, the social and communicative distance between the interlocutors, as well as the looseness of the relationship between the constructions and second verb slot fillers. These results raise fundamental theoretical questions about the relationships between linguistic form, function and use.

‣ Unifying everything: Integrating quantitative effects into formal models of grammar

Guzmán Naranjo, Matías
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
Quantitative effects can be divided into two general groups: syntagmatic effects like collocations and grammaticalization, and paradigmatic effects like family size, entropy, alternations and collostructions. By now we have more than ample evidence that quantitative effects play a role in language processing, acquisition and language change. It is also clear that core grammar is, at least for the most part, independent from quantitative effects, eg. the frequency of a construction says nothing about its grammatical properties. What is still sorely lacking is an interface between grammar and usage that allows the usage module to access grammar in a systematic way.

‣ Understanding PP placement in written Dutch - A corpus-based multifactorial investigation of the principal syntactic, semantic and discursive determinants

Willems, Annelore; De Sutter, Gert
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
The present paper aims at refining current knowledge about the driving forces in Dutch constituent ordering of non-predicate prepositional phrases (PPs) as well as re-evaluating the common assumption in traditional Dutch reference grammars that the middle field position is the standard slot. Building on journalistic data in the Dutch Parallel Corpus, it is first shown that non-predicate PPs are significantly more often placed in postfield position (the structural position after the final verb cluster) than in middle field position (the position before the final verb cluster), which indicates that the postfield position rather than the middle field position should be considered the standard slot for PPs in written Dutch. Second, a binary logistic regression model was fitted with PP placement as a function of several syntactic, semantic and discursive predictor variables. This model is able to describe, explain and predict more than 80% of the variation in the data set, leading to a much better understanding of the mechanisms underlying PP placement in written journalistic Dutch. On the basis of our findings, we furthermore propose a refined and more fine-grained version of the theoretical framework in which PP placement in Dutch is traditionally described and understood.

‣ Argument Omission between Valency and Construction

Külpmann, Robert; Symanczyk Joppe, Vilma
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
Our paper deals with the omission of direct arguments in non-elliptical contexts. We argue that valency requirements do not suffice to explain argument omission and that sentence type also plays a crucial role. Our argumentation is based on a set of acceptability rating studies. We conclude with a proposal how our results could be modeled in the grammar.

‣ From Phoneme to Morpheme: A Computational Model

Griffiths, Sascha; Purver, Matthew; Wiggins, Geraint
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
Zellig Harris proposed a method for grouping phonemes in an utterance into morphemes by simply using counts of each of the phonemes in a corpus relative to their position in sequences contained in the data set. Thus, using an n-gram model, one can model this process and see whether a computational model can actually group representations of phonemes into segments which correspond to morphemes. Here, we use a general n-gram modelling tool created for melodic grouping in music corpora and apply it to a natural language data set.We show that this method which approximates Harris’s can indeed find morphemes in a given language corpus by calculating the distributions of phonemes across a corpus.

‣ Simulating the development of bound person marking

Lestrade, Sander
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
Two different grammaticalization pathways have been proposed in the literature for the development of verbal bound person marking. It is shown that both can be simulated successfully. This suggests that bound person marking may emerge spontaneously in language and need not be genetically encoded.

‣ The influence of semantic features on lexical geographical variation

Franco, Karlien; Geeraerts, Dirk; Speelman, Dirk
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
In this paper, we investigate the influence of semantic concept features on lexical geographical variation. More specifically, we take an onomasiological approach to inquire into the effect of concept vagueness, salience, affect and semantic field. We use quantitative operationalizations of these features as predictors in a linear regression analysis. Our response variable is a composite variable that takes into account the number of variants per concept and the degree to which the concepts are scattered across geographical space in a heterogeneous way. Our model reveals that vaguer, less salient and non-neutral concepts show significantly more variation and that the lexical variants for these concepts are scattered across geographical space in a less homogeneous way. We also find differences between semantic fields.

‣ Can social psychological attitude measures be used to study language attitudes? - A case study exploring the Personalized Implicit Association Test

Rosseel, Laura; Speelman, Dirk; Geeraerts, Dirk
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: InProceedings (Aufsatz / Paper einer Konferenz etc.); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
In the field of social psychology, a wide range of implicit attitude measures have recently been developed. These measures have hardly been used in linguistic attitude research so far. This paper presents a case study exploring the potential of one of these social psychological measures, the Personalized Implicit Association Test, in order to find out whether it can be useful for the study of language attitudes. In the case study, the Personalized Implicit Association Test is applied to measure attitudes towards regional varieties of Dutch in Belgium and Standard Belgian Dutch.

‣ Natural killer cell transcriptome in patients treated with multi-drug-therapy and host genetic factors influencing leprosy outcome

Marcinek, Patrick
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
Português
Leprosy is a bacterial disease of the skin and the nerves, caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Ever since the introduction of a multi-drug therapy in the 1970’s, worldwide incidence has been decreasing and the disease has been eradicated in many countries. However, in recent years occurrence of new cases remains stable at around 200,000 per year. Most new cases are reported in developing countries, and India accounts for more than half of new cases registered every year. In my thesis, I investigated how innate immunity plays an important role in regulating the disease outcome during multi-drug-therapy. This is addressed by examining the transcriptome profile of specific cells of the innate immunity, namely the Natural Killer (NK) cells. Secondly, I investigated innate immunity-associated genes of the human host that are believed to play a significant role in regulating the disease outcome. The thesis is structured into four different chapters. In chapter I of my thesis, published as an original study, I evaluated four specific functional variants in three different genes that are part of the NOD-2 signaling pathway: NOD2 (rs9302752A/G), LRRK2 (rs1873613A/G), and RIPK2 (rs40457A/G and rs42490G/A). I utilized 211 clinically classified Indian leprosy patients with 230 ethnically matched controls. The genetic variants were chosen for their role in innate immunity and because they had been found to be associated to leprosy in an earlier study carried out in a Han Chinese population. The LRRK2 locus proved to be associated with leprosy outcome. The LRRK2 rs1873613A minor allele and respective rs1873613AA genotype were significantly associated with an increased risk whereas the LRRK2 rs1873613G major allele and rs1873613GG genotypes conferred protection. Also...

‣ Hidden in plain sight. A statistical analysis of violence against children

Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
Português
This report was created to help document the true nature and extent of violence against children across the world. Foreword Violence against children occurs every day, everywhere: the slaps of an upset parent to control an ‘unruly’ child, the sexual victimization of a teenager by a peer or a neighbour, the bullying of one child by another in the schoolyard, the emotional degradation of a child bride by her spouse. Too many children worldwide are affected by such violence, yet it is rarely acknowledged, in part because it is so commonplace. The repercussions are not inconsequential, with ripple effects throughout society as well as future generations. Everyday violence may be pervasive, but it is not inevitable. The first step in curbing all forms of violence against children is bringing the issue to light – in all its complexity. Despite the difficulties in measuring violence against children, and considerable gaps, an unprecedented volume of data on the subject has become available over the last two decades that is providing the evidence countries need to develop effective policies, legislation and programmes to address violence. Solid data and research are essential in bringing the issue out of the shadows. They are also important in revealing hidden attitudes and social norms that may perpetuate violence against children and factors that may place certain children at higher risk. The Convention on the Rights of the Child guarantees that children everywhere should live free from all forms of violence. For this to happen...

‣ Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2014 National Report

Sickmund, Melissa; Puzzanchera, Charles
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Report (Bericht); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
Português
Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2014 National Report is the fourth edition of a comprehensive report on juvenile crime, victimization, and the juvenile justice system. The report consists of the most requested information on juveniles and the juvenile justice system in the U.S. Developed by the National Center for Juvenile Justice (NCJJ) for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), the report draws on reliable data and relevant research to provide a comprehensive and insightful view of young offenders and victims, and what happens to those who enter the juvenile justice system in the United States.

‣ Adult Family Relationships and Desistance from Crime

Forrest, Walter
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
Português
Despite considerable evidence that certain life-course transitions can play a significant role in helping some offenders abandon crime, several fundamental issues remain unresolved. In this dissertation, I examine the links between crime and two lifecourse transitions related to the development of families in adulthood: cohabitation and marriage. Using data from the National Youth Survey (NYS), I investigate the extent to which both types of relationships can contribute to desistance. I then evaluate the major theoretical mechanisms through which marriage is most likely to promote behavioral change. Finally, I examine the degree to which these relationships foster desistance for both men and women. Results indicate that marriage has the capacity to promote desistance, whereas cohabitation does not, and that the effects of marriage on crime are conditional on both the social orientation of the spouse and the quality of the marital relationship. These and other results are mostly consistent with social control and social learning theories of crime and desistance. In addition, the results of the analyses indicate that the effects of marriage on crime are similar among men and women.

‣ The Role of Subjective and Social Factors in the Desistance Process: A Within-Individual Examination

Crank, Beverly
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
Português
Many scholars examining desistance from crime have emphasized the importance of social factors in triggering the desistance process. Most notably, the work of Sampson and Laub (1993) focuses on the role of social bonds (e.g., marriage and employment), which serve as turning points in offenders’ lives, while other scholars have emphasized other important social factors, such as antisocial peer influence (Stouthamer-Loeber, Wei, Loeber, Masten, 2004; Warr, 1998, 2002). However, missing from such works is the role of subjective factors (e.g., thinking patterns, expectations, self-identity) in the desistance process, despite evidence that changes in identity and other cognitive transformations promote desistance from criminal offending (Giordano, Cernkovich, & Rudolph, 2002; Maruna, 2001). Examining the combined role of subjective and social factors is important, because it may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the desistance process. Desistance researchers typically focus on one set of factors, while downplaying the other set of factors. Rarely have researchers examined the effects of social and subjective factors simultaneously (for exceptions, see Healy, 2010; Laub & Sampson, 2003; Morizot & Le Blanc, 2007). And even fewer attempts have been made to examine the interplay between social and subjective factors (for exceptions...

‣ Global study on homicide 2013. Trends, contexts, data

Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
Português
The study is structured into six chapters, as well as two annexes that present the methodology and data, and a comprehensive list of references for each chapter. Chapter 1 provides a snapshot of intentional homicide from the global to the sub-national level, as well as from the perspective of age and sex, and homicide trends from 1955 to the present day. Chapter 2 posits a classification of homicide that splits homicide into three distinct typologies in order to shed light on different forms of violent crime: homicide related to other criminal activities; homicide related to interpersonal conflict; and homicide related to socio-political agendas. Chapter 3 analyses homicide mechanisms and enablers by looking at various weapons and the role of psychoactive substances. It also presents an overview of the systemic violence associated with illicit drug markets. Chapter 4 looks at homicide and violence in countries with recent experience of conflict so as to provide insight into the challenges associated with the legacy of violence and to understand the role of the different homicide typologies in such settings. Chapter 5 focuses on the response of the criminal justice system to homicide in terms of cases solved by the police...

‣ Drogen- und Suchtbericht. Stand: Mai 2015

Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
Português
Der Drogen- und Suchtbericht der Drogenbeauftragten der Bundesregierung liefert aktuelle Daten zu Drogen und Sucht und listet die derzeitigen Schwerpunkte der Drogen- und Suchtpolitik in Deutschland auf.