Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade Católica de Temuco

A Universidade Católica de Temuco é uma institução privada confessional do Chile, fundada pelo bispo Alejandro Menchaca Lira em 1959.

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‣ Population dynamics and reproduction of a Musculium argentinum (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae) population in Southern Chile, South America

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The aim of the present study was to provide data about the population dynamics and reproductive traits of a Musculium argentinum (d'Orbigny, 1835) population inhabiting a channel next to the city of Lautaro in southern Chile. Results showed that M. argentinum size population structure varied during the study period, with brooding adults present throughout the year, with the highest frequencies in December 2002, and March, August and September 2003, producing offspring throughout the year. The smallest specimen brooding was 2.6 mm collected in May 2003 and the size of population first brooding corresponded to the 3.0-3.9 mm class size, collected in March 2003. M. argentinum at the study site is an ovoviviparous, iteroparous, sequential brooder, producing offspring throughout the year. These characteristics are attributed to the stable habitat.

‣ Let's go to tell lies... or the limits on the attorneys' statements

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This paper explores the limits that the duty to tell the truth has in respect of the arguments presented by attorneys before the courts of justice. After making some comments on language games that attorneys must play, it is suggested that their obligation to tell the truth is quite weaker than the obligation existing in other contexts in which claims are eminently theoretical. In this regard, although it is true that the obligation to tell the truth is somewhat forceful in regard to the production of primary facts, it is virtually non-existent in the construction of stories for the purpose of connecting them to the application of the rules of law.; En el presente trabajo se exploran los alcances que la obligación de decir la verdad tendría respecto a los discursos presentados por los abogados ante los tribunales de justicia. Luego de realizar precisiones acerca de los juegos de lenguaje en los que corresponde participar a los abogados, se sugiere que su obligación de decir la verdad es bastante más débil que la imperante en otros contextos en los que se cuenta con pretensiones eminentemente teóricas. En este sentido, si bien es cierto que la obligación de decir la verdad opera con cierta fuerza respecto de la producción de hechos primarios...

‣ Determination of the level of anthropic modifications on wetlands as a criterion for environmental planning in the basin of lake BUDI, IX Region of Araucanía

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The level of human impact on the wetlands of the Lago Budi Basin was established, as a function of the degree of alteration to the basin and the degree of alteration to the wetlands. The former was evaluated on the basis of a spatial analysis of the fragility and stability of the hydrographical basin. The latter through a modified impact model, with a panel of experts who evaluated the fulfilment of the wetlands' function and their state. Four principal types of wetlands were recognized: estuarine, meadow, waterside and marshy. It was found that 98% of the total surface presents a high degree of alteration, as determined by its instability and fragility. Farm use was weighted as the principal agent of alteration of the wetlands' functions, with 61% of this showing alteration in the maximum degree. This evaluation makes it possible to differentiate areas and generate base criteria for the conservation of wetlands in the basin.; Se determinó el nivel de antropización de los humedales de la cuenca del Budi, en función del grado de alteración de cuencas y el grado de alteración de humedales. El primero, evaluado a partir del análisis espacial de la fragilidad y estabilidad de la hoya hidrográfica. El segundo, a través de un modelo de impacto modificado...

‣ Discriminación racial y el principio de igualdad.

Fonte: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco Publicador: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Incluye un Anexo con el Fallo de la Causa; Por primera vez en nuestro país, un Tribunal sanciona una conducta discriminatoria basada en criterios racionales. En el texto que sigue, se intenta describir el razonamiento que, siguiendo los principios liberales y de la Doctrina de los Derechos Humanos, fundamentan el fallo judicial. Además se plantea el desafío y posibilidad que constituye el principio de la igualdad -pensado desde la filosofía moral de Kant- como aporte a la resolución del conficto interétnico.; For the first time in Chile, a Court of law sanctioned against discriminatory behavior based on race. In this next it is intented to describe the reasoning of the judicial veredict, wich assumes the liberal principles and the human rights doctrine. Besides it is explained the inadequateness of the equality principIe from Kant's moral philosophy, facing the interethnic antagonism, although nowadays, the question of the indigenous rights, it is not consider on the no individual discrimination, but in the recognition of the political rights of the indigenous peoples.

‣ Intervención psicosocial, redes sociales y estilos de vida. Conceptos de referencia y abordaje en la salud mental del país.

Fonte: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco Publicador: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Este artículo tiene como objetivo describir y caracterizar la relación actual y futura de la Psicología social aplicada con el campo de las políticas y programas sociales. Destacando como dimensión central de esta relación el área de la salud mental,se analizan los factores macrosociales y microsociales en el contexto sociohistórico de cambios que ocurren en el país y su impacto en procesos de subjetividad y calidad de vida. Desde el enfoque de la intervención psicosocial en redes, se da cuenta de esta propuesta, su racionalidad, fundamentos y orientaciones. A partir de los aspectos derivados del contexto cultural y sociopolítico y del carácter de los actores de procesos sociales en ambientes desfavorecidos y deprivados de poder se propone destacar un cambio en las orientaciones para mejorar la validez ética, las significaciones y el aporte real de este enfoque.; The purpose of this article is to describe and characterize the present and future relationship between Social appIied psychology and both political and social programs fields. Assigning to the mental health area as a central part of this relationship, macro and microsocial factors are analized in the socio-historic context of the changes occurred in the country and its impact in both subjetivity and life quality process. Since the focus of psychosocial nets intervention...

‣ Procesos de cambio y mejoramiento pedagógico : la colonialidad de la docencia y los avatares de la evaluación del docente, una experiencia de trabajo en la Universidad de Chile.

Fonte: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco Publicador: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Se presentará una conceptualización de la colonialidad de la docencia como una matriz de comprensión de la educación, desde la experiencia de trabajo implementando la evaluación del docente en la Universidad de Chile. El lado oscuro de la educación es visto como la subalternidad de la docencia, desde el punto de vista de la relación que tiene con el modelo de sujeto cognoscente de la Modernidad, el cual ha sido pesquisado en el transcurso del proyecto como ejes del discurso de los docentes que participan e n la evaluación. El texto se centra en grandes problemas implícitos en la manera en que diferentes unidades académicas enfrentan la adopción de un nuevo modelo de evaluación docente como problema de cultura docente.; Based upon a working experience in Univerdty of Chile teacher evaluation, a conception on the coloniality of teaching is presented as a matrix for understanding change in education. Subalternity of teaching is considered the hidden side of education, from the point of view of its relation with the knower subject model of Modernity, which has been perceived during the project as discursive streams of the working teacher groups involved in evaluation. The text is concerned with broad problems entailed in how different academic units in the University of Chile are facing the adoption of a new evaluative model of teaching evaluation as a teacher's culture issue.

‣ La “etnicidad marginal” de las comunas de la península de Santa Elena, Ecuador.

Fonte: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco Publicador: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Las comunas de la Península de Santa Elena representan la continuidad histórica de las antiguas jefaturas Manteño - Huancavilcas. Estas comunas han logrado mantener el control de su territorio y una relativa autonomía socio-económica a lo largo de todo el período colonial y republicano, poniendo en práctica diversas estrategias de articulación con la sociedad dominante. Sin embargo, la supervivencia de estas comunidades se debate, hoy en día, entre las agresiones extremas a su territorio, y su "etnicidad marginal" que las excluye del marco constitucional ecuatoriano destinado a la protección de los territorios étnicos. A continuación se analiza el proceso de resignificación de la diversidad al que están abocadas las comunas de la PSE.; The communes of the Santa Elena Peninsula represent the historical continuity of the ancient Manteño - Huancavilca leadership. These communes have maintained control of their traditional territory and a relative socio-economic autonomy throughout both the colonial and republican periode while effectively pursuing manifold strategies for communal articulation with the wider Ecuadorian society. Nevertheless, today the survival of these communes is in question, imperiled by external territorial aggression and the communes' "marginal ethnicity"...

‣ Distribution of benthic flora in the lower course of the Valdivia, Chile.

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The Valdivia River (Lake Region, Chile) originates in Riñihue Lake and flows into the sea at Corral Bay (39'52's latitude), changing names severa1 times along its course. The aquatic benthic flora (algae and aquatic plants) of the Valdivia River was characterized, based on 22 sites sampled and 124 plant species collected. Four benthic vegetation zones were established using presence-absence data: a freshwater zone and a marine zone were found at the extremes of the transect; an estuarine zone and a discontinuity zone were detected in the middle vi this transect. The freshwater zone was characterized by a relatively diverse assemblage of vascular plants, the marine zone was dominated by algae and was rich in species. By contrast, the estuarine zone was inhabited by only a few species but in great abundance, while the discontinuity zone was poor in species and low in cover vegetation.; El río Valdivia (X Región, Chile) nace en el lago Riñihue y desemboca al mar en la Bahía de Corral (3g052' L S), cambiando varias veces de nombre a lo largo de su curso. Se estudió la flora acuática bentónica (algas y plantas acuáticas) de este río, en 22 lugares de muestreo, colectándose 124 especies. Utilizando datos de presencia/ ausencia se establecieron 4 zonas de vegetación bentónica: una zona Iímnica y otra marina...

‣ The politics of legitimacy and force in international relations: Vitoria and Rawls on the 'Law of Peoples' and the recourse to war

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This article confronts two philosophical positions that define the nature of international order in matters concerning state legitimacy and the justifications for the recourse to war. The first position, set forth by Francisco de Vitoria in the sixteenth century, frames legitimacy and the use of force within the traditional, Christian natural law conception of justice. Legitimate are those states that uphold universal principles of justice, not the political principles of a particular regime form, while the recourse to war is likewise justified by the constitutive tenets of the ius ad bellum and the ius in bello. By contrast, Rawls’ Law of Peoples, which compares itself to the Christian natural law tradition, articulates nonetheless a particular liberal conception of justice that defines legitimacy in wholly political terms. In addition, in its appeal to the so-called ‘supreme emergency exemption’ the Rawlsian Law of Peoples dispenses with a crucial aspect of the traditional ius in bello that prohibits the targeting of civilian populations, as an exceptional means for defending and promoting a liberal international order. It is argued that such an ideologically based view of order posits a non-inclusive conception of justice in a culturally and politically diverse world and...

‣ Participación política indígena en Chile: El caso Mapuche

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Capítulo de Libro
Português
Los mapuches son un pueblo que habitaba Chile muchos años antes de la llegada de los españoles, con los que se enfrentaron una vez que éstos últimos intentaron conquistar todo el territorio nacional, cuestión que fue imposible para el imperio hispano, debido a la resistencia que opusieron estos indígenas. Los españoles debieron transar y convivir con los mapuches, reconociendo que éstos habitaran el territorio éntrelos ríos Bío Bío y Toltén. Recién, luego de la independencia chilena, el nuevo Estado-Nación logró, hacia fines del siglo XIX, conquistar la región que estaba en posesión de los mapuches. Desde aquel momento, comienza un proceso donde la cultura dominante logra imponer sus términos'a los conquistados. Sólo hacia finales de los siglos XX y principios del XXI, el pueblo mapuche comienza un proceso reivindicativo que lo llevará a tener algunos avances en sus derechos culturales, sociales y económicos; sin embargo, pese a avanzar en estas áreas, en materia política, los mapuches siguen estando sub representados institucionalmente, a pesar de un número creciente de ciudadanos que se auto identifican étnicamente como mapuches.

‣ La fraternidad como concepto de la acción política: El caso chileno

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Capítulo de Libro
Português
Los siglos XIX y XX, estuvieron marcados por la influencia de la diada izquierda- derecha, las que se disputaron el espacio de las ideas, pero también este litigio en diversas oportunidades pasó al campo de batalla. Ambas dimensiones ideológicas son herederas del llamado 'tríptico' de la Revolución Francesa de 1789 "libertad, igualdad y fraternidad". Sin embargo, la fraternidad, como concepto de la acción política, se fue diluyendo y perdiendo en el transitar de la historia política, la que fue avanzando lentamente en la evolución de los derechos civiles y las libertades públicas

‣ A mono-cultural curricular model, implication for the mapuches student's sociocultural construction of the identity at the IX's region of the Araucania, Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This paper presents the results of the doctoral thesis 'Implications of a monocultural curricular model in the construction of the socio-cultural identity of mapuche pupils in the IXth region of Araucania.' (Quintriqueo 2007). The research argues that the kimches -wise people- and parents know the educational foundations, contents and aims for the training of people in mapuche knowledge. However, historically, the schooling of mapuche children has been based on western monocultural educational content by not making explicit both logics, the western and the mapuche, in education in schools, a socio-cognitive conflict in the construction of individual and socio-cultural identity is generated. The methodology employed is that of educational research, based on content analysis and theory foundations. The results permit the conceptualization of the implications of the school curriculum in the mapuche context, in the distance between the rationality of educational knowledge and the discourse of teachers as regards the use and knowledge of mapuche cultural patrimony in pedagogical practice. In addition, it allows the definition of an explicatory model to understand the processes of schooling and school curriculum in the mapuche context as a contribution to a model of dialogic and intercultural schooling. © 2010 Universidad Austral de Chile.

‣ The architecture of fiction and the child reader Conjectures about the articulation process in the literary understanding

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This article examines the intervening process by which the children reader establishes a dialogue with the literature fiction's worlds, highlighting the psychological and textual mechanisms that operate on the literary infantile competition's base. The authors articulate the concepts of "enunciative pact" and "decoupling mechanism", coming from the literary theory and psychology, respectively, in order to conjecture an explanation about the process that allows the children to assume the enunciates of fiction even when these be denotatively empty and does not correspond to a referent from the reality. At the same time, the propose is that the reading of literature in infancy would be able to opérate like a tool of "emotional literacy", through the recognition of emotions and experiences from fiction, and the correspondent projection in the infantile vital experience. © 2010 Universidad Austral de Chile.

‣ Nuclear dna content in two chilean species of pisidium (Veneroida: Sphaeriidae)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The pill clams Pisidium chilense (d'Orbigny, 1846) and Pisidium huillichum (Ituarte, 1999) showed a 2C DNA content of 4.04 ± 0.4 pg and 2.35 ± 0.24 pg, respectively. The somatic DNA content of these 2 Chilean Pisidium Pfeiffer 1821 species is within the range described previously for diploid Heterodonta, despite the fact that both showed a high chromosome number (> 100-120 chromosomes) equivalent to the polyploid level described for other species of the genus. The nuclear DNA content is shown here for the first time for species of the family Sphaeriidae. The Pisidium, like other species, are not economically important as edible species, but they play a significant role in the dynamics of nutrient and energy cycles in freshwater bodies similar to that described for other Sphaeriidae species.

‣ Growth of Drimys winteri secondary forest stands following 16 years after thinning in the Andean and costal ranges of Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Secondary Drimys winteri forests are among the most common and productive forests in south-central Chile. However, their management has been scarce or many times inadequate due to lack of silvicultural knowledge. In 1986 and 1990 three field experiments were installed; one in the Coastal range of the province of Ranco (40° 09' S) and two in the Andean range of the province of Llanquihue (41° 30' S), to evaluate the effects of different intensities of thinning on the growth and mortality of 28-year-old Drimys winteri secondary forests. After 16 and 10 years of evaluation, great differences were observed among treatments within and between the three experiments. In Hueicoya (Coastal Range) plots thinned at a distance of 3 m had the highest productivity. In Lenca A (Andean Range) the high mortality rates due to windfalls in the plots with trees spaced at 3 and 4 m caused the control plots to have the highest productivity rates. In Lenca B (Andean Range) plots thinned at 2.5 m distance between trees had no significant differences with control plots. At an equal thinning intensity the responses were very different among experiments. We discuss that site quality, residual composition, exposure to winds and rooting characteristics may have influenced these results. In general...

‣ The perceptions of the school climate by head-masters, teachers and students through the use of «natural semantic networks». Their importance in the management of the educational centers

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Given the high indicators of various reported investigations with regard to stress and teacher illness, and acknowledging the official indicators that position the teaching profession as a profession of risk to the mental health, the present investigation assumes the objectives to investigate into the perceptions of the current state of the educational climate, and into the elements constituting obstacles of the same in changes times. Methodologically the investigation, at the phase which is described in this article, possesses a qualitative-quantitative design, with the use of 'natural semantic networks' in 189 subjects of establishments of several educational institutions from Temuco (Chile). Among the results we found that teachers and directors preponderantly relate the educational climate with interpersonal relations in the center, while students relate it exclusively to the learning contexts. Subsequently we found revealing findings between those obstacles of the educational climate, where an institutional level of the actors showed an evidence of greater semantic weight of the communication problems and the leadership style. Also, they recognized elements such as envy, intolerance, selfishness, rumors, irresponsibility, as obstacles of the person itself...

‣ Edaphic mesofauna community structure in organic and conventional management of cranberry (Vaccinium sp.) plantations: An agroecological approach

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The aim of the present study was to determine and compare taxa richness, abundance and diversity of the edaphic mesofauna community between plantations of cranberries (Vaccinium sp.) subjected to organic and conventional management in farms in central-south Chile (37°28'S), as also to evaluate changes produced in their diversity and abundance diversity and abundance, as result of the change from conventional to organic management. In July 2006 two farms were chosen, one with one year under organic management (OM1) and a second one under six years of certified organic management (OM6). Each farm was divided in four quadrants, each one with a surface of 2,500 m2. In each quadrant was extracted one sample with six replicas of 188.5 cm3 each. Samples were processed in the laboratory using the Berlesse-Tullgren system for the extraction of mesofauna and the subsequent counting and identification of specimens. To compare the organic managed plantation, it was selected a farm under conventional management (CM) with similar climatic and edaphic conditions. On each parcel, taxa richness, abundance, alpha (α) diversity, dominance and beta (β) diversity were determined. Significant differences between diversity values were determined with Student's t test (α = 0.05). It is concluded that taxa richness is similar in all plantations...

‣ Present record of species of Musculium Link, 1807 (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae) in Chile with notes on its morphology and biometry of its populations

Fonte: Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas. Publicador: Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas.
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This study reports the present distribution range of Musculium argentinum (D'Orbigny, 1835) and Musculium patagonicum Pilsbry, 1911 in Chile, from sampling data carried out from 2002 to 2006. Morphological and biometric characteristies of the studied populations show that M. argentinum is discontinually distributed between 38°S-41°S and 71°W-72°W, inhabiting fluvial and lacustrine waters. M. patagonicum was reported in a lentic environment. (51°42'S; 72°25'W). Both species are morphologically very similar. M. argentinum differs from M. patagonicum because de first has their valves more markedly cuadrangular or trapezoidal with the posterior end slightly truncated, upper dorsal extremes markedly cuadrangular, hinge plate less solid, nearly straight or weakly curved. Constant hinge length-shell length ratio. The shell outline of M. patagonicum is not as markedly trapezoidal as in M. argentinum. In the first, the posterior margin is less abrutptly truncated, and the shell outline not sharp-cornered as is typical for M. argentinum. The hinge plate in M. patagonicum is always weakly curved never straight or broken as in M. argentinum. The collected material is deposited at the Zoological Collection of the Catholic University of Temuco and in the Malacological Section of the Nacional Museum of Natural History...

‣ A kinetic study of the thermal degradation of chitosan-metal complexes

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The thermal degradation of metal complexes formed by chitosan with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Hg(II), at different metal concentrations, was studied by thermogravi- metric analysis in a nitrogen atmosphere over the temperature range 25-800°C. The results indicate that thermal degradation of chitosan and chitosan-metal ion complexes could be of one or two-stage reaction. In the thermal degradation of chitosan with metal complexes, the temperature of initial weight loss and the temperature of maximum weight loss rate decrease. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to probe the interaction of chitosan with metal ions. The bands of -N-H, -C=O, -C-O-C- groups of chitosan are shifted or change their intensity in the presence of metal. These changes in the characteristic bands are taken as evidence of the influence of metal ions on the thermal stability of chitosan. Broido's method was employed to evaluate the activation energies as a function of the degree of degradation. The presence of metal ions provoked a decrease in the thermal stability of chitosan, which became more marked when the concentration of metal was increased. The dynamic study showed that the apparent activation energy values of the main stage of the thermal degradation of chitosan-metal complexes decrease as the strength of the polymer-metal interaction increases. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals...

‣ Microsporum canis on dermatologically healthy cats in Temuco city, Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Background: Microsporum canis is the most common cause of feline dermatophytosis and the most pathogenic fungus isolated from the skin and hair of healthy cats. Cats are considered to be the natural reservoir and infection sourse of this disease in human and domestic animals. Aims: Knowing the M. canis frequency in the dermatological healthy cat population of Temuco city, Chile. Methods: Fifty cat samples were collected irrespective sex or race. Cats' ages were between 2 months and 12 years old, and the animals were treated at the Veterinary Clinical Hospital of the Universidad Católica de Temuco, or in three private clinics from this city. Tissue and hair samples were collected using two sampling techniques: hair extracting tweezers and the Mariat & Tapia method. For the clinical diagnosis, the Wood's lamp was used. Hairs were microscopically observed followed by a culture using Sabouraud agar and Lactrimel agar. M.canis was isolated in 30 cats (60%). Results: There were no statistically significative differences when parameters such as age, sex and race were taking into account. Differences between the use of Sabouraud agar and Lactrimel agar were not registered. It was determined that the Mariat & Tapia method was able to detect more dermatophytes than the collecting tweezers method. These differences were statistically significative. Conclusions: The percentage of M. canis isolation obtained in this work remarks the role of healthy cats in the transmission of these dermatophytes to humans and other animals. © 2008 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología.