Página 2 dos resultados de 398547 itens digitais encontrados em 0.207 segundos
Resultados filtrados por Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention

‣ Attitudes Towards and Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer and Screening using the Faecal Occult Blood Test within the Italian-Australian Community

Severino, G.; Wilson, C.; Turnbull, D.; Duncan, A.; Gregory, T.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.824854%
Studies with minority ethnic communities worldwide reveal important differences in the content of beliefs about cancer and attitudes towards screening. Current initiatives in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening highlight the importance of identifying any illness-specific beliefs that might influence participation rates within the targeted age-range. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Italian-Australians aged between 50 and 78 years, living in Adelaide, South Australia. Qualitative data from the interviews were analysed using framework analysis. Participants articulated specific beliefs about the nature of cancer, risk factors, prevention possibilities, and variety of potential barriers and benefits to faecal occult blood testing (FOBT). Although participants’ beliefs overlapped with conventional medical models of cancer, the results also demonstrated the presence of specific cultural perceptions that might influence FOBT participation. Our results suggest that models used to inform communication about cancer need to be sensitive to culture specific concerns. Within the context of the older Italian-Australian community, there is a suggestion that self and response efficacy may be serious barriers to screening behavior and that bi-lingual...

‣ Cancer in aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia

Roder, D.; Currow, D.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79049%
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have a cancer incidence for all sites combined equivalent to or slightly lower than for other Australians. They have a higher incidence of cancers of the cervix, liver and gallbladder, oesophagus, unknown primary site, mouth and throat, lung and pancreas, but a lower incidence of cancers of the prostate, female breast, colon/rectum and skin (melanoma). Case survivals are lower for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients, partly due to an excess of cancer types with a high case fatality, relatively low numbers with a low case fatality, and due to more advanced cancer stages at diagnosis. After accounting for these factors, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians still fare worse, probably due to elevated comorbidity and less complete care resulting from geographic remoteness, limited access to transport and accommodation services, and sometimes a cultural disconnect with mainstream services.; David Roder and David Currow

‣ Exploring differences in survival from cancer among indigenous and non-indigenous Australians: Implications for health service delivery and research

Chong, A.; Roder, D.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.809766%
The aim of this study is to compare cancer survivals of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians and consider health-service and research implications Cancer registry data from South Australia were used to calculate disease-specific survivals for Indigenous (n=671) and sampled non-Indigenous (n=15,799) patients diagnosed during 1977-2007, using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression. Indigenous and non-Indigenous five-year survivals were respectively: 40% and 57% for all cancer sites combined; 61% and 80% for female breast; 34% and 56% for colon/rectum; and 63% and 73% for cervix; whereas one-year survivals for cancers of unknown primary site were 5% and 22% respectively. Conversely, although not statistically significant (p=0.262), lung cancer survival tended to be higher in Indigenous than non-Indigenous patients. For all sites combined, Indigenous patients had lower survivals up to 70-79 years. The relative risk of death in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous patients was 2.0 after adjusting for socio-demographic factors and diagnostic period, reducing to 1.4 when also adjusting for prognosis by primary site. Relative risks were 3.7 and 2.7 respectively for Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous patients from Far North remote communities. We conclude that relative risks for Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous patients for all cancers combined are elevated...

‣ Translating evidence into practice in low resource settings: cervical cancer screening tests are only part of the solution in rural India

Isaac, R.; Finkel, M.; Olver, I.; Annie, I.; Prashanth, H.; Subhashini, J.; Viswanathan, P.; Trevena, L.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79049%
BACKGROUND: The majority of women in rural India have poor or no access to cervical cancer screening services, although one.quarter of all cervical cancers in the world occur there. Several large trials have proven the efficacy of low-tech cervical cancer screening methods in the Indian context but none have documented the necessary components and processes of implementing this evidence in a low-resource setting. METHODS: This paper discusses a feasible model of implementation of cervical cancer screening programme in low-resource settings developed through a pilot research project carried out in rural Tamilnadu, India. The programme used visual inspection of cervix after acetic acid application (VIA) as a screening tool, nurses in the primary care centres as the primary screeners and peer educators within Self-Help Women groups to raise community awareness. RESULTS: The uptake of screening was initially low despite the access to a screening programme. However, the programme witnessed an incremental increase in the number of women accessing screening with increasing community awareness. CONCLUSIONS: The investigators recommend 4 key components to programme implementation in low-resource setting: 1) Evidence-based, cost-effective test and treatment available within the reach of the community; 2) Appropriate referral pathways; 3) Skilled health workers and necessary equipment; and 4) Optimisation of health literacy...

‣ Survival from synchronous bilateral breast cancer: The experience of surgeons participating in the breast audit of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand

Roder, D.; De Silva, P.; Zorbas, H.; Kollias, J.; Malycha, P.; Pyke, C.; Campbell, I.; Webster, F.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.824854%
Background: Previous studies generally indicate that synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBBC) have an equivalent or moderately poorer survival compared with unilateral cases. The prognostic characteristics of SBBC would be relevant when planning adjuvant therapies and follow-up medical surveillance. The frequency of SBBC among early breast cancers in clinical settings in Australia and New Zealand was investigated, plus their prognostic significance, using the Breast Cancer Audit Database of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand, which covered an estimated 60% of early invasive lesions in those countries. Design: Rate ratios (95% confidence limits) of SBBC were investigated among 35,370 female breast cancer cases by age of woman, histology type, grade, tumour diameter, nodal status, lymphatic/vascular invasion and oestrogen receptor status. Univariate and multivariable disease-specific survival analyses were undertaken. Results: 2.3% of cases were found to be SBBC (i.e., diagnoses occurring within 3 months). The figure increased from 1.4% in women less than 40 years to 4.1% in those aged 80 years or more. Disease-specific survivals did not vary by SBBC status (p=0.206). After adjusting for age, histology type...

‣ Risk factors for poorer breast cancer outcomes in residents of remote areas of Australia

Roder, D.; Zorbas, H.; Kollias, J.; Pyke, C.; Walters, D.; Campbell, I.; Taylor, C.; Webster, F.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.809766%
To investigate patient, cancer and treatment characteristics in females with breast cancer from more remote areas of Australia, to better understand reasons for their poorer outcomes, bi-variable and multivariable analyses were undertaken using the National Breast Cancer Audit database of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand. Results indicated that patients from more remote areas were more likely to be of lower socio-economic status and be treated in earlier diagnostic epochs and at inner regional and remote rather than major city centres. They were also more likely to be treated by low case load surgeons, although this finding was only of marginal statistical significance in multivariable analysis (p=0.074). Patients from more remote areas were less likely than those from major cities to be treated by breast conserving surgery, as opposed to mastectomy, and less likely to have adjuvant radiotherapy when having breast conserving surgery. They had a higher rate of adjuvant chemotherapy. Further monitoring will be important to determine whether breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy utilization increase in rural patients following the introduction of regional cancer centres recently funded to improve service access in these areas.; David Roder...

‣ Epidemiology of Oral Cancer in Asia in the Past Decade- An Update (2000-2012)

Krishna Rao, S.; Mejia, G.; Roberts-Thomson, K.; Logan, R.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.809766%
The prevalence of oral cancers (OC) is high in Asian countries, especially in South and Southeast Asia. Asian distinct cultural practices such as betel-quid chewing, and varying patterns of tobacco and alcohol use are important risk factors that predispose to cancer of the oral cavity. The aim of this review is to provide an update on epidemiology of OC between 2000 and 2012. A literature search for this review was conducted on Medline for articles on OC from Asian countries. Some of the articles were also hand searched using Google. High incidence rates were reported from developing nations like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Taiwan and Sri Lanka. While an increasing trend has been observed in Pakistan, Taiwan and Thailand, a decreasing trend is seen in Philippines and Sri Lanka. The mean age of occurrence of cancer in different parts of oral cavity is usually between 51-55 years in most countries. The tongue is the leading site among oral cancers in India. The next most common sites in Asian countries include the buccal mucosa and gingiva. The 5 year survival rate has been low for OC, despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol are the main reasons for the increasing incidence rates. Low socioeconomic status and diet low in nutritional value lacking vegetables and fruits contribute towards the risk. In addition...

‣ Adherence to recommended treatments for early invasive breast cancer: decisions of women attending surgeons in the Breast Cancer Audit of Australia and New Zealand

Roder, D.; De Silva, P.; Zorbas, H.; Webster, F.; Kollias, J.; Pyke, C.; Campbell, I.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.824854%
AIM: The study aim was to determine the frequency with which women decline clinicians' treatment recommendations and variations in this frequency by age, cancer and service descriptors. DESIGN: The study included 36,775 women diagnosed with early invasive breast cancer in 1998-2005 and attending Australian and New Zealand breast surgeons. Rate ratios for declining treatment were examined by descriptor, using bilateral and multiple logistic regression analyses. Proportional hazards regression was used in exploratory analyses of associations with breast cancer death. RESULTS: 3.4% of women declined a recommended treatment of some type, ranging from 2.6% for women under 40 years to 5.8% for those aged 80 years or more, and with parallel increases by age presenting for declining radiotherapy (p<0.001) and axillary surgery (p=0.006). Multiple regression confirmed that common predictors of declining various treatments included low surgeon case load, treatment outside major city centres, and older age. Histological features suggesing a favourable prognosis were often predictive of declining various treatments, although reverse findings also applied with women with positive nodal status being more likely to decline a mastectomy and those with larger tumours more likely to decline chemotherapy. While survival anlsysi lacked statistical power due to small numbers...