Energy policy in the US is characterized by two motivations: to stem the flow of currency to the oil producing nations, and to prevent energy prices rising as much as it is now being feared they will. Conservation has been seized upon as a principal initiative, and the two most important components of present policy are the investment tax credit and energy taxes. The investment tax credit is aimed toward improving the way energy is used without raising the price. It lowers
the price of capital relative to energy for applications where there is a tradeoff. But this measure is working against the current of wider taxation measures which stimulate
energy growth through lowering the price of capital and raising the price of labor, thus encouraging investment in energy intensive equipment to substitute for labor. The
conservation investment tax credit does not reverse this trend. Nor does it have a significant effect in raising the
rate of return on an investment in conservation, which is dominated by the energy savings and the expected inflation
in energy prices. In summary, it appears that the tax credit will have difficulty achieving the goals set for it.
An encouragement of activities that conserve or substitute for energy by promoting employment rather than extra capital
investment is necessary. In a society...
This paper, one of a series resulting from institutional analysis
of photovoltaic (PV) acceptance, provides preliminary exploration of
the energy industry in relation to energy provision in the residential
sector. It is based on theoretical formulations and utilizes methods
of institutional analysis developed in an earlier paper in this series.
Seven institutional functions -- production, financing, regulation,
political, research, service and socialization -- are reviewed as to
the manner in which they are performed in the energy industry. The
structure of the energy industry is described, as is the regulatory
web within which its financial decisions are made and its operations
conducted. The persistent and increasing activity of all levels of
government in determining the practices of the energy industry is dis-
cussed. The research section identifies recent efforts to develop
alternative energy sources. The services section especially emphasizes
the delivery of energy to residences, while the discussion of the social-
ization function highlights the ways in which attitudes on energy
availability and use are developed.; Prepared under Dept. of Energy Contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295, Task order no.37.
This report is a result of a request to investigate the possibility of employing solar energy at a residential secondary school to reduce energy costs. Our approach was to explore this possibility in the context of a more general survey of opportunities to conserve energy (in particular, fuel)at the school. Our purpose was more to illustrate how to go about an appraisal of conservation opportunities
plus implementation and evaluation of the most productive conservation measures, than a rigorous examination of the facility with detailed instructions on how to take care of specific problems.
A large number of actions that would result in net energy cost savings considerably greater than could be realized from solar systems were discovered. For a solar application, a domestic hot water
system,supplementing that heated bytankless coils in oil burning furnaces,has the greatest potential for significant return on investment.
The school's total utility system (total energy, co-generation) meets all electrical and steam needs with the exception of the electric power required for one building. A heat recovery system on the diesel engines for the electric generators furnishes a sizeable portion of the steam.
Areas discussed in detail are: (1) optimization of the efficiency of oil fueled residential heating furnaces; (2) optimized operation of a total energy system; (3) lighting...