Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual e Científica da Unicamp

A Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual e Científica da Unicamp tem por objetivo reunir e disseminar a produção intelectual, acadêmica e cultural da universidade e preservar sua memória institucional, além de contribuir para ampliar a visibilidade da instituição e dos seus pesquisadores em âmbito nacional e internacional.

Página 20 dos resultados de 1947 itens digitais encontrados em 0.002 segundos

‣ Comparative study of beta-carotene and microencapsulated beta-carotene: Evaluation of their genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects

Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Pires Bianchi, Maria Lourdes; Ribeiro, Juliana Carvalho; Hernandes, Livia Cristina; de Faria, Adelia Ferreira; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Greggi Antunes, Lusania Maria
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd; Oxford Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd; Oxford
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
beta-Carotene (BC) is one of the natural pigments that is most commonly added to food; however, the utilization of BC is limited due to its instability. Microencapsulation techniques are commonly used because they can protect the microencapsulated material from oxidization. Nevertheless, the properties of the encapsulated compounds must be studied. We compared the antigenotoxic potential of pure and microencapsulated beta-carotene (mBC) in Wistar rats. Two doses of BC or mBC (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) were administered by gavage over a period of 14 days. The final gavage was followed by an injection of doxorubicin (DXR). After 24 h the animals were euthanized. The micronucleus test results showed that when both mBC and DXR were given, only the higher dose was antigenotoxic. The results of the comet assay show that when given in association with DXR, mBC had protective effects in the liver. The differences between the results obtained with BC and mBC suggest that possibly the carotenoid biodisponibility was modified by the process of microencapsulation. In conclusion, mBC does not lose its protective properties, but higher doses must be used to observe antigenotoxic effects. This is the first time that the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of a microencapsulated compound was evaluated in vivo. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ In vivo analysis of antigenotoxic and antimutagenic properties of two Brazilian Cerrado fruits and the identification of phenolic phytochemicals

Malta, Luciana Gomes; Ghiraldini, Flavia Gerelli; Reis, Renato; Oliveira, Maysa do Vale; Silva, Luciano Bruno; Pastore, Glaucia Maria
Fonte: Elsevier; Amsterdam Publicador: Elsevier; Amsterdam
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Numerous studies have evaluated the safety and possible therapeutic properties of phytochemicals and other dietary compounds. The degree of oxidative DNA damage, mutagenic effects and protective effects of two selected fruits (Gabiroba and Murici) from the Brazilian Cerrado biome were investigated with two different extract concentrations (200 and 400 mg extract per kg body weight) by comet assay and micronucleus test in male albino Swiss mice. Results from both assays showed that the Murici extract (400 mg extract per kg body weight) provided the highest protection against hydrogen peroxide and cyclophosphamide and it also did not present any mutagenic and genotoxic effects, although both fruits presented non-mutagenic/non-genotoxic properties. Gabiroba and Murici extracts were also analyzed by HPLC-MS and their phenolic constituents were identified and quantified. This assay revealed the presence of catequina, ethyl gallate and propyl gallate (79.11, 3.11, 0.95 mg 100 g(-1) of dry weight, respectively) in Gabiroba samples and resveratrol and ferulic acid (0.31, 42.47 mg 100 g(-1) of dry weight, respectively) in Murici samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report that analyses mutagenic and protective effects and the degree of oxidative DNA damage and the determination of phenolic composition for these fruits from Cerrado. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

‣ Guajiru (Chrysobalanus Icaco L.) Fruit Showed Antioxidant Activity in Kidneys of Wistar Rats

Venancio, Vinicius de Paula; Ursula Hermogenes Gomes, Tarsila Daysy; Castania Darin, Joana Darc; Marques, Marcella Camargo; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Pires Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes; Greggi Antunes, Lusania Maria
Fonte: Elsevier; New York Publicador: Elsevier; New York
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português

‣ Autoantibodies and High-Risk HLA Susceptibility Markers in First-Degree Relatives of Brazilian Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Progression to Disease Based Study

Alves, L. I.; Davini, E.; Correia, M. R.; Fukui, R. T.; Santos, R. F.; Cunha, M. R.; Rocha, D. M.; Volpini, W. M. G.; Silva, M. E. R.
Fonte: Springer; New York Publicador: Springer; New York
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of autoantibodies to heterogeneous islet-cell cytoplasmic antigens (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase(65) (GAD(65)A), insulinoma-associated antigen-2 (IA-2A) and insulin (IAA)-and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II markers (HLA-DR and -DQ) in first degree relatives of heterogeneous Brazilian patients with type I diabetes(T1DM). A major focus of this study was to determine the influence of age, gender, proband characteristics and ancestry on the prevalence of autoantibodies and HLA-DR and -DQ alleles on disease progression and genetic predisposition to T1DM among the first-degree relatives. IAA, ICA, GAD(65)A, IA-2A and HLA- class II alleles were determined in 546 first-degree-relatives, 244 siblings, 55 offspring and 233 parents of 178 Brazilian patients with T1DM. Overall, 8.9% of the relatives were positive for one or more autoantibodies. IAA was the only antibody detected in parents. GAD(65) was the most prevalent antibody in offspring and siblings as compared to parents and it was the sole antibody detected in offspring. Five siblings were positive for the IA-2 antibody. A significant number (62.1%) of siblings had 1 or 2 high risk HLA haplotypes. During a 4-year follow-up study...

‣ In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C)

Calegario, Renata F.; Labate, Monica T. V.; Peroni, Luis A.; Stach-Machado, Dagmar Ruth; Andrade, Maxuel O.; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Labate, Carlos A.; Machado, Marcos A.; Kitajima, Elliot W.
Fonte: Soc Brasileira Fitopathologia; Brasilia Publicador: Soc Brasileira Fitopathologia; Brasilia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were made to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP) in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP...

‣ Physical properties of edible films based on bovine myofibril proteins

Almeida de Souza, Silvia Maria; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo Jose; Menegalli, Florencia Cecilia
Fonte: Univ Estadual Londrina; Londrina Publicador: Univ Estadual Londrina; Londrina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Myofibril proteins have excellent filmogenic properties. The objective of this article was to study the effect of the thermal treatment, of the pH and of the plasticizer concentration (Cp) of the filmogenic solution (FS), using over some physical properties of edible films, using a surface and response methodology (SRM). Films were made of lyophilized myofibril proteins (LMP) extracted from bovine muscle, employing the technique of solubility obtained from diluted saline solutions. The films were elaborated from FS containing 1 g of LMP/100g of FS and from Cp of 50 g to 79 g of glycerin/100 g of LMP. The LMP was dispersed in water under moderate agitation, and the pH was kept at 2.5-3.5 with the use of acetic acid. The FS were submitted to thermal treatment at different temperatures for 45 minutes. Films were dried in ventilated oven at 37 degrees C/18hr, conditioned at 75% of relative humidity at 25 degrees C/48 hr before analysis of: mechanical properties by puncture test; apparent opacity by spectrophotometer; solubility by immersion in water; and water vapor permeability by the gravimetric method. In general, films showed good appearance, translucent, easily handled and touchable, except for the films formed with pH 2.5 and at a low temperature (35 degrees C)...

‣ Isolation and characterization of the flour and starch of plantain bananas (Musa paradisiaca)

Pelissari, Franciele Maria; Andrade-Mahecha, Margarita Maria; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo Jose; Menegalli, Florencia Cecilia
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell; Weinheim Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell; Weinheim
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Plantain bananas of the variety Terra (Musa paradisiaca) may have industrial value due to their high starch content. In this research, the flour and starch of such unripe fruit were isolated and their chemical, physicochemical, and structural characteristics were determined. Banana flour and starch had a dry basis yield of 50.6 and 28.5%, and an average granule size of 31.7 and 47.3?mu m, respectively. Both raw materials revealed a C-type pattern and high gelatinization temperatures. The peak viscosity was greater for flour (378.0 RVU) than for starch (252.6 RVU), although the final viscosity was lower. At temperatures above 65 degrees C, the swelling power of banana flour was lower than that of starch, while the solubility of flour was greater than that of starch at all temperatures. Furthermore, the presence of other components in banana flour influenced its physicochemical properties. In general, the flour and starch processed from unripe bananas have numerous possible uses as ingredients in food systems and for other industrial purposes.; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Physical-chemical, thermal, and functional properties of achira (Canna indica L.) flour and starch from different geographical origin

Andrade-Mahecha, Margarita M.; Tapia-Blacido, Delia R.; Menegalli, Florencia C.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell; Weinheim Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell; Weinheim
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Achira (Canna indica L.) is a plant native to the Andes in South America, a starchy source, and its cultivation has expanded to different tropical countries, like Brazil. In order to evaluate the potential of this species, starch and flours with different particle size were obtained from Brazilian achira rhizomes. Proximal analyses, size distribution, SEM, swelling power, solubility, DSC, XRD analysis, and FTIR were performed for characterization of these materials. Flours showed high dietary fiber content (16.532.2% db) and high concentration of starch in the case of the smaller particle size fraction. Significant differences in protein and starch content, swelling power, solubility, and thermal properties were observed between the Brazilian and the Colombian starch. All the studied materials displayed the B-type XRD pattern with relative crystallinity of 20.1% for the flour and between 27.0 and 28.0% for the starches. Results showed that the starch and flour produced from achira rhizomes have great technological potential for use as functional ingredient in the food industry.; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Development and optimization of biodegradable films based on achira flour

Andrade-Mahecha, Margarita Maria; Tapia-Blacido, Delia Rita; Menegalli, Florencia Cecilia
Fonte: Elsevier; Oxford Publicador: Elsevier; Oxford
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
The influence of glycerol concentration (C-g), process temperature (T-p), drying temperature (T-s), and relative humidity (RH) on the properties of achira flour films was initially assessed. The optimized process conditions were C-g of 17g glycerol/100g flour, T-p of 90 degrees C, T-s of 44.8 degrees C, and RH of 36.4%. The films produced under these conditions displayed high mechanical strength (7.0 MPa), low solubility (38.3%). and satisfactory elongation values (14.6%). This study showed that achira flour is a promising source for the development of biodegradable films with good mechanical properties, low water vapor permeability, and solubility compared to films based on other tubers. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Effect of the Type of Emulsifying Salt on Microstructure and Rheological Properties of "Requeijao Cremoso" Processed Cheese Spreads

da Cunha, Clarissa R.; Alcantara, Maria Regina; Viotto, Walkiria H.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell; Hoboken Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell; Hoboken
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
The role of different types of emulsifying saltssodium citrate (TSC), sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP)on microstructure and rheology of requeijao cremoso processed cheese was determined. The cheeses manufactured with TSC, TSPP, and STPP behaved like concentrated solutions, while the cheese manufactured with SHMP exhibited weak gel behavior and the lowest values for the phase angle (G/G). This means that SHMP cheese had the protein network with the largest amount of molecular interactions, which can be explained by its highest degree of fat emulsification. Rotational viscometry indicated that all the spreadable cheeses behaved like pseudoplastic fluids. The cheeses made with SHMP and TSPP presented low values for the flow behavior index, meaning that viscosity was more dependent on shear rate. Regarding the consistency index, TSPP cheese showed the highest value, which could be attributed to the combined effect of its high pH and homogeneous fat particle size distribution.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Use of larval, parasitic female and egg antigens from Strongyloides venezuelensis to detect parasite-specific IgG and immune complexes in immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis

Goncalves, A. L. R.; Nunes, D. S.; Goncalves-Pires, M. R. F.; Ueta, M. T.; Costa-Cruz, J. M.
Fonte: Cambridge Univ Press; New York Publicador: Cambridge Univ Press; New York
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
The aim of this study was to use larval, parasitic female and egg antigens from Strongyloides venezuelensis to detect parasite-specific IgG and immune complexes in human serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In total, 95 serum samples were analysed, consisting of 30 patients harbouring S. stercoralis larvae, 30 healthy subjects and 35 patients with other parasites. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficiency were calculated. A significant statistical difference was found in the detection of immune complexes and antibodies in patients harbouring S. stercoralis larvae from larval and eggs antigens, with higher positivity using larval antigen. The larval antigen showed the highest values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficiency in ELISA from detection of immune complexes. For the first time we used IgG anti-larvae, IgG anti-parasitic females or IgG anti-eggs for immune complex detection. We concluded that the association of antibody and immune complex detection could be used in the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Parasitism by Ixodiphagus Wasps (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Amblyomma Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Three Regions of Brazil

Lopes, Alberto J. O.; Nascimento-Junior, Jose R. S.; Silva, Claudio G.; Prado, Angelo P.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Costa-Junior, Livio M.
Fonte: Entomological Soc Amer; Lanham Publicador: Entomological Soc Amer; Lanham
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Hymenopteran parasitoids have been shown to be of potential value in tick biocontrol. Tick parasitoids has been reported only once in Brazil, over 95 yr ago when Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard) was reported parasitizing Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) nymphs in Rio de Janeiro. Herein, we report the occurrence of Ixodiphagus spp. in ticks from three different regions of Brazil. In the state of Maranhao, in northeastern Brazil, parasitoids were detected in R. sanguineus nymphs on three occasions, during August 2009 and September 2010 (dry season), and January 2011 (rainy season). All parasitoids found in northeastern Brazil were identified as I. hookeri. In the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (westDcentral Brazil), one Amblyomma sp. engorged nymph was shown to be parasitized by I. hookeri. In the state of Rondonia (northern Brazil), one Amblyomma sp. engorged nymph was parasitized by Ixodiphagus texanus (Howard). Because Ixodiphagus spp. are present in ecologically distinct and geographically distant areas of Brazil, they are of potential use for biocontrol in the country.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Nematocidal activity of the extract of Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil (Solanaceae) fruits on Strongytoides Venezuelensis in vitro

Miranda, M. A.; Tiossi, R. F. J.; Costa, J. C.; Allegrete, S. M.; Bastos, L. A. D.; McChesney, J. D.; Bastos, J. K.
Fonte: Georg Thieme Verlag Kg; Stuttgart Publicador: Georg Thieme Verlag Kg; Stuttgart
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português

‣ Dexamethasone reduces bronchial wall remodeling during pulmonary migration of Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae in rats

Tefe-Silva, Cristiane; Beneli, Cristina T.; Celes, Mara R.; Machado, Eleuza R.; Ueta, Marlene T.; Sorgi, Carlos A.; Floriano, Elaine M.; Faccioli, Lucia H.; Ramos, Simone G.
Fonte: Elsevier; Clare Publicador: Elsevier; Clare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Strongyloidiasis is an intestinal parasitosis with an obligatory pulmonary cycle. A Th2-type immune response is induced and amplifies the cellular response through the secretion of inflammatory mediators. Although this response has been described as being similar to asthma, airway remodeling during pulmonary migration of larvae has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence of airway remodeling during Strongyloides venezuelensis (S. v.) infection and to determine the ability of dexamethasone treatment to interfere with the mechanisms involved in this process. Rats were inoculated with 9,000 S. v. larvae, treated with dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) and killed at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days. Morphological and morphometric analyzes with routine stains and immunohistochemistry were conducted, and some inflammatory mediators were evaluated using ELISA. Goblet cell hyperplasia and increased bronchiolar thickness, characterized by edema, neovascularization, inflammatory infiltrate, collagen deposition and enlargement of the smooth muscle cell layer were observed. VEGF, IL1-beta and IL-4 levels were elevated throughout the course of the infection. The morphological findings and the immunomodulatory response to the infection were drastically reduced in dexamethasone-treated rats. The pulmonary migration of S. venezuelensis larvae produced a transitory...

‣ Analytical tools to assess the voltage stability of induction-based distributed generators

Grilo, A. P.; Meira, P. C. M.; Vieira, J. C. M.; Freitas, W.; Bansal, R. C.
Fonte: Elsevier; Oxford Publicador: Elsevier; Oxford
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
The installation of induction distributed generators should be preceded by a careful study in order to determine if the point of common coupling is suitable for transmission of the generated power, keeping acceptable power quality and system stability. In this sense, this paper presents a simple analytical formulation that allows a fast and comprehensive evaluation of the maximum power delivered by the induction generator, without losing voltage stability. Moreover, this formulation can be used to identify voltage stability issues that limit the generator output power. All the formulation is developed by using the equivalent circuit of squirrel-cage induction machine. Simulation results are used to validate the method, which enables the approach to be used as a guide to reduce the simulation efforts necessary to assess the maximum output power and voltage stability of induction generators. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Utility Harmonic Impedance Measurement Based on Data Selection

Hui, Jin; Freitas, Walmir; Vieira, Jose C. M.; Yang, Honggeng; Liu, Yamei
Fonte: IEEE-Inst Electrical Electronics Engineers Inc; Piscataway Publicador: IEEE-Inst Electrical Electronics Engineers Inc; Piscataway
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Determination of the utility harmonic impedance based on measurements is a significant task for utility power-quality improvement and management. Compared to those well-established, accurate invasive methods, the noninvasive methods are more desirable since they work with natural variations of the loads connected to the point of common coupling (PCC), so that no intentional disturbance is needed. However, the accuracy of these methods has to be improved. In this context, this paper first points out that the critical problem of the noninvasive methods is how to select the measurements that can be used with confidence for utility harmonic impedance calculation. Then, this paper presents a new measurement technique which is based on the complex data-based least-square regression, combined with two techniques of data selection. Simulation and field test results show that the proposed noninvasive method is practical and robust so that it can be used with confidence to determine the utility harmonic impedances.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Nondetection Index of Anti-Islanding Passive Protection of Synchronous Distributed Generators

Salles, Diogo; Freitas, Walmir; Vieira, Jose C. M.; Xu, Wilsun
Fonte: IEEE-Inst Electrical Electronics Engineers Inc; Piscataway Publicador: IEEE-Inst Electrical Electronics Engineers Inc; Piscataway
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Synchronous distributed generators are prone to operate islanded after contingencies, which is usually not allowed due to safety and power-quality issues. Thus, there are several anti-islanding techniques; however, most of them present technical limitations so that they are likely to fail in certain situations. Therefore, it is important to quantify and determine whether the scheme under study is adequate or not. In this context, this paper proposes an index to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-islanding frequency-based relays commonly used to protect synchronous distributed generators. The method is based on the calculation of a numerical index that indicates the time period that the system is unprotected against islanding considering the global period of analysis. Although this index can precisely be calculated based on several electromagnetic transient simulations, a practical method is also proposed to calculate it directly from simple analytical formulas or lookup tables. The results have shown that the proposed approach can assist distribution engineers to assess and set anti-islanding protection schemes.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ A NEW AND THREATENED INSULAR SPECIES OF LANCEHEAD FROM SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

Barbo, Fausto E.; Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Sazima, Ivan; Martins, Marcio; Sawaya, Ricardo J.
Fonte: Herpetologists League; Emporia Publicador: Herpetologists League; Emporia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
We describe a new species of Bothrops from Vitoria Island, off the coast of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from the mainland coastal populations of B. jararaca mostly in its smaller and stouter body, number and form of scales, and hemipenial morphology. From B. insularis and B. alcatraz, both related species endemic to islands in southeastern Brazil, B. otavioi sp. nov. differs mainly in its body form and number of scales. The new species has the twist common mitochondrial haplotype for mainland populations of B. jararaca, which is also found in B. alcatraz. A mitochondrial genealogy (gene tree) shows the new species nested within the northern clade of B. jararaca. This genealogical pattern can be explained by a recent speciation event for B. otavioi sp. nov. The isolation of insular species of Bothrops from continental ancestor populations are probably related to the same vicariant process, the oscillations of sea level during the Pleistocene. The new species feeds on small hylid frogs, and attains sexual maturity at 388 mm snout-vent length (SVL; males) and 692 mm SVL (females). Bothrops facial sp. nov. is endemic to Vitoria Island, and should be listed as critically endangered because it is known from only a single area (an island)...

‣ The golden lancehead Bothrops insularis (Serpentes: Viperidae) relies on two seasonally plentiful bird species visiting its island habitat

Marques, Otavio A. V.; Martins, Marcio; Develey, Pedro F.; Macarrao, Arthur; Sazima, Ivan
Fonte: Taylor & Francis; Abingdon Publicador: Taylor & Francis; Abingdon
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Adult individuals of the island pitviper Bothrops insularis have a diet based on birds. We analysed bird species recorded in the gut of this snake and found that it relies on two out of 41 bird species recorded on the island. When present, these two prey species were among the most abundant passerine birds on the island. A few other migrant birds were very occasionally recorded as prey. A resident bird species (Troglodytes musculus) is the most abundant passerine on the island, but seems able to avoid predation by the viper. Bothrops insularis is most commonly found on the ground. However, during the abundance peak of the tyrannid passerine Elaenia chilensis on the island, more snakes were found on vegetation than on the ground. We suggest that one cause may be that these birds forage mostly on vegetation, and thus cause the snakes to search for prey on this arboreal substratum.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Spatio-Temporal Differentiation and Sociality in Spiders

Purcell, Jessica; Vasconcellos-Neto, Joao; Gonzaga, Marcelo O.; Fletcher, Jeffrey A.; Aviles, Leticia
Fonte: Public Library Science; San Francisco Publicador: Public Library Science; San Francisco
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Species that differ in their social system, and thus in traits such as group size and dispersal timing, may differ in their use of resources along spatial, temporal, or dietary dimensions. The role of sociality in creating differences in habitat use is best explored by studying closely related species or socially polymorphic species that differ in their social system, but share a common environment. Here we investigate whether five sympatric Anelosimus spider species that range from nearly solitary to highly social differ in their use of space and in their phenology as a function of their social system. By studying these species in Serra do Japi, Brazil, we find that the more social species, which form larger, longer-lived colonies, tend to live inside the forest, where sturdier, longer lasting vegetation is likely to offer better support for their nests. The less social species, which form single-family groups, in contrast, tend to occur on the forest edge where the vegetation is less robust. Within these two microhabitats, species with longer-lived colonies tend to occupy the potentially more stable positions closer to the core of the plants, while those with smaller and shorter-lived colonies build their nests towards the branch tips. The species further separate in their use of common habitat due to differences in the timing of their reproductive season. These patterns of habitat use suggest that the degree of sociality can enable otherwise similar species to differ from one another in ways that may facilitate their co-occurrence in a shared environment...