The site of present-day St. Catharines was settled by 3000 United Empire Loyalists at the end of the 18th century. From 1790, the settlement (then known as "The Twelve") grew as an agricultural community. St. Catharines was once referred to Shipman's Corners after Paul Shipman, owner of a tavern that was an important stagecoach transfer point. In 1815, leading businessman William Hamilton Merritt abandoned his wharf at Queenston and set up another at Shipman's Corners. He became involved in the construction and operation of several lumber and gristmills along Twelve Mile Creek. Shipman's Corners soon became the principal milling site of the eastern Niagara Peninsula. At about the same time, Merritt began to develop the salt springs that were discovered along the river which subsequently gave the village a reputation as a health resort. By this time St. Catharines was the official name of the village; the origin of the name remains obscure, but is thought to be named after Catharine Askin Robertson Hamilton, wife of the Hon. Robert Hamilton, a prominent businessman.
Merritt devised a canal scheme from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario that would provide a more reliable water supply for the mills while at the same time function as a canal. He formed the Welland Canal Company...
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the impact of 2 recent legal events,
specifically the Fair Access to Regulated Professions Act (2006) and Siadat v. Ontario
College of Teachers (2007) decision, with regards to the opportunity of foreign trained
teachers to practice their profession in Ontario. The emphasis is on the case of Fatima
Siadat, who was a teacher in Iran but was unable to satisfy all the licensing requirements
of the Ontario College of Teachers and consequently was unable to practise her
profession in Ontario. When the Ontario College of Teachers Appeals Committee upheld
the previous decision of the Ontario College of Teachers Registrar to refuse to issue her a
teacher's certificate, Ms. Fatima Siadat decided to initiate a lawsuit. Ms. Fatima Siadat
challenged the decision ofthe Ontario College of Teachers Appeals Committee by raising
a question of applicability of human rights legislation (i.e., The Ontario Human Rights
Code, 1990) on the Ontario College of Teachers' decisions. The Ontario Superior Court
of Justice decided in January of2007 in favour of Ms. Fatima Siadat (Siadat v. Ontario
College of Teachers , 2007) and ordered that her licensing application be reconsidered by
the Ontario College of Teachers Appeals Committee. In this thesis the author argues that
the Fatima Siadat decision...
Announced in the Speech from the Throne on May 9, 2002, the Education Equality Task Force was created to review the province's education funding formula and to make recommendations, to be considered for the 2003-04 school year, on ways to improve equality, fairness, certainity, and stability in the funding of Ontario's students and schools.; This report was downloaded from Ontario Ministry of Education website (http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/reports/task02/complete.pdf) (accessed November 14, 2011).; Paper copy - CA2 ON DE845 2002I56 Stauffer Library - Documents
Objective: This study attempts to estimate the proportion of incident cases of bladder cancer in Ontario, Canada that is due to exposure to occupational carcinogens.
Methods: The population attributable risk approach is used to estimate the proportion of bladder cancer in Ontario that is due to occupation. Risk ratios were obtained from a review of epidemiologic literature using a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Summary risk estimates for each bladder carcinogen included were calculated using RevMan 4.2. The CAREX Canada database provided Ontario-specific estimates of the proportion of workers exposed to bladder carcinogens.
Results: In Ontario, the proportion of bladder cancer due to occupational exposure is approximately 5.6% (95% CI 0.2% to 14%). Based on the incident number of bladder cancer cases in 2001 in Ontario, it is estimated that approximately 52 new cases of bladder cancer were due to occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust, aromatic amines and 2-naphthylamine. An alternate interpretation is if these occupational exposures were eliminated, 52 cases of bladder cancer per year in Ontario alone could be avoided.
Conclusion and Recommendations: The current study advances our knowledge of the extent to which specific occupational bladder carcinogens contribute to the overall bladder cancer burden in Ontario. The current study highlights the utility of the CAREX Canada database in advancing current knowledge on the burden of occupational cancer in Ontario. The methods used to estimate the proportion of bladder cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Ontario may be replicated to estimate the proportion of cancer in Ontario that is due to occupational exposure.; Thesis (Master...
This report examines the characteristics that hinder or facilitate the success of a surplus school to residential conversion in Hamilton, Ontario. This topic is especially relevant as many of the city's schools are likely to be declared surplus in the coming years, a number of which represent unique heritage building stock. The value in examining the completed adaptive school reuse projects in the city is that it can provide valuable insight into how the process currently functions and how it can be improved upon.
Freshwater invasive species, especially invertebrates are an important environmental stressor associated with significant ecological and economic impacts particularly in the Great Lakes, one of the freshwater ecosystems with a significant number of invasive invertebrates compared to other taxa. Because of the importance that policy development and implantation play in managing invasive species for their effective prevention and spread, a policy analysis of the proposed Ontario’s Bill 37 (“An Act respecting Invasive Species”) was conducted based on an extensive literature review, the interview responses with provincial government officials, and the results from the constructed non-native species checklist. A total of 46 species were identified as having a high impact on the environment, according to the literature, among 409 species identified as recorded as non-native anywhere including native species to North America. Research attention seems to have been concentrated on high impact species despite they only represent 11.2% of the total species as well as on their main associated pathways, such as the ballast water and sediment of transoceanic and domestic ships in the Great Lakes. Particularly, research efforts are concentrated on only 16 invasive species...
The uncertainty surrounding the impact of future changes in climate and water resources
has created renewed interest on how lakes have responded to drought in the past. There
is a need to determine potential future available water by understanding past changes in
water levels; the underlying ecological characteristics of using diatoms as a proxy for
lake-level reconstructions is the basis of this thesis. By integrating knowledge from past
water-level fluctuation studies and theories, along with developing a better understanding
of diatom ecology in lake systems, more effective techniques are being developed to
improve water-depth reconstructions. Diatom assemblages were examined from eight
lakes in northwestern Ontario collected in surface sediments along a depth gradient at
~1-m water-depth intervals. Three major zones, based on the composition of diatom
assemblages in each lake were consistently identified in all lakes: i) a near-shore
assemblage of Achnanthes (sensu lato) species and other benthic taxa (Nitzschia,
Cymbella); ii) a mid-depth small Fragilaria (sensu lato)/ small Aulacoseira zone with
various Navicula taxa, and iii) a deep-water planktonic zone. The depths at which
transitions between these zones are located varied among lakes...
Within the past decade, two major events raised the national profile of the experiences of black youth and the realities of racism in the city of Kingston, Ontario. The first event occurred in the spring of 2001 and involved the dramatic “high-risk takedown” by Kingston Police of two innocent black male youths who were wrongly profiled as suspects in an assault case. The second event involved the subsequent release of a report commissioned by Kingston Police which confirmed that black male youth in Kingston were almost four times more likely to be stopped and questioned by Kingston police than any other racial group (Wortley and Marshall, 2005).
This research, while not addressed to the specifics of racial profiling and policing in Kingston, focuses on the marginalized voices of male and female black youth in Kingston. Eight youth volunteered to participate in this study. Participants took part in one-on-one interviews with the researcher and three participated in a follow-up focus group session. Themes explored in the one-on-one interview and focus group sessions included factors influencing the construction of black identities within a predominantly white city, the negotiation of friendships and relationships, and interactions with public authorities such as teachers and the police.
This study addresses the various ways in which black youth...
Widespread abandonment of agricultural land has occurred in northeastern North America over the past two centuries. Soil carbon often increases as sites naturally regenerate towards perennial grasslands or forests. Understanding the large-scale controls on the potential and rate of soil carbon sequestration is necessary in order to evaluate the significance of this sink to the global carbon cycle. Furthermore, we need to understand the key roles soil microorganisms play in regulating ecosystem processes through their control over soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Such studies are rare at the century long time scale of temperate forest succession. Additionally, research has taken place primarily on productive agricultural soils, while abandonment is more common on marginal agricultural soils. We characterized patterns of total and labile soil carbon and nitrogen and microbial dynamics in mature forest and adjacent agricultural field sites, and in replicated chronosequences of forest successional sites on marginal soils of southeastern Ontario, Canada.
Total soil carbon was significantly depleted in the top 10 cm of current agricultural fields as compared to forest sites and increased at a rate of 10 g C m-2 yr-1 across our 100-year chronosequences. There was no difference in carbon loss or accumulation over time in three soil types differing in texture and parent material...
Hamilton, Ontario has provided a testing ground for social historians exploring questions about labour, working-class conflict, and shop-floor politics. These studies, though extensive, have largely overlooked the political culture of the city, especially outside these boundaries. Despite the hopes of its left-wing political parties, mid-twentieth century Hamilton fostered a flourishing political culture centred on the rhetoric of traditional liberalism. This political rhetoric was nurtured by the dominant Conservative Party politicians, the traditional trades and crafts-based union movement, a growing middle class, and fervent boosters. This political tradition was strongly informed by the shared British heritage touted by these same groups. These ideals were flexible and mutable, which allowed them to be adopted with versatility as the political climate demanded. This dissertation examines how this political culture survived through decades of economic, social, and labour unrest between 1929 and 1953. Through focusing on municipal government and local politics, this dissertation is able to explore how these political ideals were incorporated in practice, and repeated and reformed in the city’s many elections. This exploration incorporates questions about how these political ideals responded to the inclusion of women...
This dissertation arose from a need to derive an inclusive model for describing the historical meanings of progressive education. It considers reform rhetoric published in two widely distributed and accessible journals in Ontario, The School and The Canadian School Journal, between 1919 and 1942. These sources brought together a wide variety of educationists in the province, including teachers, school board representatives, members of the Department of Education, inspectors, and the staff of teacher training institutions, and were forums for the exploration of new and progressive educational ideas. Various conceptions and interpretations of what progressive education would entail were published side by side, in parallel.
This dissertation describes the rhetoric of progressive education, which concerned three domains—active learning, individualized instruction, and the linking of schools to contemporary society—and considers the distinctions within this language. Further, this dissertation argues that progressivist ideas were interpreted and represented in different ways according to conceptual orientation and context. Three distinct interpretations of progressive education are described in this thesis. The first progressivist orientation was primarily concerned with child study and developmental psychology; the second concerned social efficiency and industrial order; the third concerned social meliorism and cooperation. Hence...
Complexity theory investigates complex systems and how parts of a system give rise to collective behaviours. My thesis focuses upon the nature of the complex systems emerging within the classrooms of three award-winning high school physics teachers in Ontario.
Using vignettes for each teacher and their classroom system, I have highlighted themes related to the emergence of collective behaviours. My interpretations found the first classroom collective agreeing to work towards academic excellence with the intention of achieving success in university. The second classroom collective was invested in relationship-building and used the resulting emphasis on teamwork and group-oriented learning to further physics understanding. The final classroom system was in the process of learning to grapple with discovering physics through following and contending with the results of their instincts. From a complex systems perspective, differences amongst teachers and students and different sets of interactions result in unique systems. Therefore, a single prescription for the emergence of certain collective behaviours is unlikely.
The journal/commentary format traces my changing understandings of complexity thinking in education and how those understandings made an impact on the way I approached and reflected upon the observations of the study. As such...
La realidad actual de la zona centro-norte del país es que ha experimentado una disminución creciente de la disponibilidad de agua debido a la fuerte demanda de este recurso. Estimaciones acerca de los efectos del cambio climático en el ciclo hidrológico de la actividad minero-industrial y el crecimiento poblacional obliga a discurrir estrategias de conservación mitigación y recuperación de los recursos hídricos a fin de asegurar contar con agua en cantidad y calidad adecuadas para todas las formas de consumo (humano industrial agrícola etc.). Para la minería que seguirá siendo una de las actividades productivas de mayor importancia en Chile la disponibilidad y gestión adecuada del agua es clave para su sustentabilidad de largo plazo. Por ello el desafío es de gran envergadura y reviste la calidad de estratégico ya que precisamente esta actividad se concentra en la zona centro-norte del país donde los periodos de escasez y sequía son recurrentes (González 2009). La oportunidad de abordar esta realidad a nivel internacional a través de un programa I+D de asociación entre la Universidad de Santiago de Chile y Laurentian University de Canadá permitirá cubrir esta necesidad consolidando las buenas prácticas de ambas instituciones. Al respecto esta universidad extranjera tiene una amplia experiencia en la investigación de la calidad de recursos hídricos debido a que está emplazada en una zona fuertemente afectada por intensa actividad minera e industrial. Actualmente tiene contratos con Vale Inco Xstrata Nickel y otras industrias. Además se ha elegido Canadá debido a su larga extensión costera y manejo de cuencas por lo que han tenido una importante trayectoria científica en la materia. Finalmente desde el punto de vista vinculación universidad-empresa el proyecto considera desarrollar actividades de extensión que permitan prospectar y posteriormente formular iniciativas con empresas chilenas que tienen necesidades en el ámbito antes descrito. El objetivo general del proyecto es desarrollar un acuerdo de colaboración que permita llevar a cabo un programa de I+D a largo plazo entre Laurentian University de Canadá y la Universidad de Santiago de Chile con impacto positivo en el sector minero en la calidad y disponibilidad de agua y en el medio ambiente nacional lo que permitirá obtener los siguientes objetivos específicos: realizar investigación...
This study explores some of the biological factors influencing leaf-based spectral reflectance,
and endeavours to answer the questions: (1) Can Ontario plant species be satisfactorily
distinguished by their leaf spectra? (2) Can spectral properties be used to identify physiological
strain in plants before visual symptoms appear? and (3) How strongly do factors other than
species and stress affect spectral properties? Forty-four species were examined for species
effects. Some general patterns were revealed, including: low reflectance in the near infrared
region for conifers compared to broadleaved species; higher reflectance in the blue wavebands
for species with blue hues in their foliage; and more rapid decay of the green spectral peak in
deciduous tree and shrub species. However, the influence of species was easily superceded by
other factors, such as leaf age, leaf side, and stress status. The effects of stresses such as
senescence and herbicide on leaf reflectance were evident prior to the appearance of visual
symptoms such as chlorosis, browning, and reduced growth. The application of spectral indices
was a useful means to quantify previsual changes in spectral reflectance. The red edge inflection
point was well correlated with chlorophyll content...
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Taylor & Francis via http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2015.1065819; We present an exploratory analysis of historical narratives and data covering 200 years of beer brewing in the Canadian province of Ontario. These data are used to illuminate the process of collective identity emergence in established organisational fields. We argue that established fields are typically littered with identity remnants from ancestral organisations and related institutional configurations that can facilitate the successful emergence of new collective identities. In our analysis we first show how multiple identity elements fell by the wayside as the beer brewing field matured and settled on a corporate path. We go on to detail how some of these identity elements were subsequently recovered during the recent decades which marked the successful emergence and proliferation of craft beer brewing. Our study has implications for research on collective identity and organisational legacy, and we stress the importance of taking a historical lens for understanding present day phenomena.
This study measured residential attitudes and
perceptions in Ontario County, New York. The purpose for
the study is to better understand residential concerns so
that they may be incorporated into the planning process for
future tourism development endeavors. These residential
attitudes need to be identified with respect to preferences
for more or less tourism. Planners can avoid residential
road blocks to development if they know what concerns
residents have towards tourism development.
A brief history of modern travel was provided for the
reader as a framework for understanding what developments
led to potentials and problems in tourism today. The shift
in present studies is moving from the tourist to the
resident. Tourist impacts are both beneficent and malign.
Tourism planners today have many interests to consider
Aside from environmental and economic considerations,
developers today must also be cognizant of social impacts
resulting from tourism development. Residents specifically
experience these social impacts. As a result, the need for
a study to measure residents attitudes is a prudent step in
the initial stages of development and planning.
A description of the questionnaire and research design
is mentioned in the study. The research has been done in
such a way that it would be easy to replicate the study in
other areas. General and specific results were looked at
for the purpose of identifying any existing regional
This workshop, held February 3-5, 1592 at the University at Buffalo in Buffalo NY, was sponsored by the US. EPA Large Lakes Research
Laboratory and was convened by the Great Lakes Program of SUNY Buffalo and the New York Great Lakes Research Consortium of SUNY-ESF. The goal of the workshop was to discuss and develop a
set of recommendations for reducing uncertainty in mass balance models of toxics with specific emphasis on application to Lake Ontario.; U.S. Enviromental Protection Agency, ERL-Duluth
Large Lakes and Rivers Research Branch
A three dimensional time variable model of the phytoplankton and nutrients of Lake Ontario and the Rochester Embayment is examined in detail. The data from the International Field Year on the Great Lakes (IFYGL) are used as the primary data base. The data are summarized and statistically analyzed on a three dimensional grid and segment averages using a 67 segment representation of the lake and a 72 segment representation of Rochester Embayment, are calculated. In addition, averages for eight regions of the lake and lake wide averages for two depth layers are computed. Average phytoplankton levels during the period May, 1972 and June, 1973 in the near shore region are approximately 3 ug/l higher than open lake values. Similarly, near shore open lake total phosphorus gradients of about 5 ug P/L appear to persist for a substantial part of the year. The data base collected during IFYGL exhibited significant spatial and temporal variations at scales of 10 x 40 km. The two data bases available, Canadian Centre for Inland Waters (CCIW) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), only agree within certain limits. The verification analysis of the models indicates that the median relative error for the results of calculated versus observed chlorophyll on the segment to segment level is about 30%. The inclusion of diatoms and nondiatoms and silica limitation in the kinetic structure...
Editorial (1 typed page) which was printed in the Niagara Falls (Ontario) Evening Review on May
20, 1937, entitled “Captain Creighton Probably called it Clifton First”. This is printed on Lundy’s
Lane Historical Society Letterhead by Mrs. Stanley Tolan. The article mentions “Samuel DeVeaux
who created a “Niagara Falls Tourist Guide” which was published in 1839, April 24, 1948.