Página 20 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.055 segundos

‣ Flexibility with accountability : an experiment in environmental governance

Amengual, Matthew
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 177 leaves; 9852523 bytes; 9863136 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1300.8544%
Command and control environmental regulation has been under attack from all sides for some time. In Wisconsin, the Department of Natural Resources is experimenting with an alternative form of environmental governance. This new program uses cooperative agreements to provide flexibility to firms in exchange for "superior environmental performance." The program attempts to change norms of adversarial and rule driven regulation, to norms of cooperative and flexible regulation. To maintain democratic accountability, firms that take part in the program are required to create a group of interested community participants. This thesis explores regulatory relationships within this program and under command and control through three case studies. These case studies reveal that flexibility can provide opportunity for greater environmental performance and that bottom up participation can provide a measure of democratic accountability. However, this democratic accountability was compromised by lack of access to expertise among participants, lack of clarity in roles, and difficulty handling conflict. The difficulties faced in this program highlight the need for the state to take a proactive role even when moving away from command and control. Nevertheless...

‣ The Boston Indicators Project : the role of indicators in supporting environmental efforts in the Boston metropolitan region; Role of indicators in supporting environmental efforts in the Boston metropolitan region

Wells, Anna K. (Anna Katherine)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 63 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1300.7686%
Community indicators projects are an increasingly popular way to measure, track, and, advocates claim, make progress. The commonly held belief is that indicators provide residents, governments, private entities, and community groups with the information they need to make "wise choices." Many studies have documented the benefits that can arise from indicators projects as a function of community members coming together to choose indicators and discuss ideas of "sustainability" or "quality of life." However, it is unclear whether the information contained in the indicators influences decisions, actions, or policy in ways that improve performance on the indicator. This thesis examines the environmental sector of the Boston Indicators Project, in Boston, Massachusetts. First, I examine previous studies of indicators project outcomes, two competing theories of information use in behavior change and decision-making, and emerging strategies for fostering pro-environmental behavior.; (cont.) Then, through interviews with participants in and coordinators of the Boston Indicators Project as well as decision/policy-makers in local organizations who could be influenced by the project, I investigate whether and how the information contained in the indicators has prompted them to change their perceptions...

‣ Stocks are from Mars, real estate is from Venus : an inquiry into the determinants of long-run investment performance; Inquiry into the determinants of long-run investment performance

Pai, Arvind
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 80 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.2122%
This thesis presents an inquiry into the historical performance of core institutional real estate investment property during the 1984-2003 period. The focus of the analysis is on identifying systematic determinants of long run investment performance. The analysis seeks to increase our understanding of equilibrium asset pricing within this asset class, as well to provide some useful perspective for core portfolio strategic or tactical planning. This thesis extends earlier research by Geltner (1999) and Li and Price (2005) that indicated that a classical single-factor CAPM accurately modeled the cross-section of long-run total returns across the major asset classes, including real estate. The present thesis narrows that earlier focus to concentrate on the cross-section of long-run total return performance within the core institutional real estate asset class. This thesis uses the property level data of the NCREIF Index to construct portfolios and historical return indexes based on property size (value), and based on CBSA "tier" (that is, "upper", "middle", and "tertiary" cities from an institutional investment perspective). By using unique portfolios created from the NCREIF property set that represent possible factors that systematically affect asset pricing...

‣ Saving the York Avenue Estate : landmark preservation as land use control

Boyce, Meghan J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 152 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.0925%
The battle between preservationists and developers has been waging for years, especially in places where the real estate market is hot. The pressure to develop is often met head-on with the need to conserve the architectural, historical, and cultural resources of the past for the benefit of current and future generations. At the foundation of this confrontation is a desire to control the use of land, making it imperative that neighborhood planning efforts acknowledge the affects of landmark preservation. This is the story of the York Avenue Estate; the City and Suburban Homes Company, which built the Estate; the model tenement movement, which inspired it; Peter Kalikow, the developer who wanted to raze it; the Coalition to Save the City and Suburban Homes Company, the group of residents, community members, and preservationists that fought to save it; and the NYC Landmark Preservation Commission, the political board that had the authority to designated the York Avenue Estate a city landmark.; by Meghan J. Boyce.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Vita. Page 152 blank.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 143-147).

‣ Downtown revitalization in Japan : examination of the Town Management Organization model

Miyazawa, Masatomo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 124 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.1783%
Downtowns have experienced decline since the 1990s in Japan and several strategies have been implemented to deal with it. This research focuses on one of such strategies-the Town Management Organization (TMO) model. Although the model was expected to achieve downtown revitalization through managing downtown areas, it has made negligible contributions. This research examines the reasons why the TMO model has not worked well through a survey and interviews with TMO staff members. This research demonstrates that TMOs tend to face obstacles at two different stages, which has led to the low level of contribution of the TMO model. At the planning stage, most TMO boards are dominated by commercial stakeholders and do not take in broad opinions. As a result, most TMOs do not gain benefits from active participation of various local stakeholders or receive their political and financial support. At the implementation stage, TMOs face different difficulties according to their funding structure. TMOs raising their funds mainly from such outside sources as subsidies tend to face funding shortages and lack of staff, and as a result, do not conduct effective revitalization activities.; (cont.) In contrast, TMOs that are not dependent on outside sources but make most earnings from the sales of goods or services are likely to face deficits and focus on profitable activities which might not be related to downtown revitalization. This research recommends that TMOs reform their boards...

‣ How does the public process impact the selection of a nuisance wildlife management plan?

Siegel, Julianne (Julianne Susan)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 56 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.09586%
Since the 1950s the human relationship with wildlife in the United States shifted dramatically; from primarily consumptive to primarily recreational. Over the same time period a trend of humans moving into suburban communities further from the urban core developed. These people inadvertently enhanced their new suburban environment to be more appealing to certain generalist species known as nuisance wildlife. Policy decisions for nuisance wildlife species are made at a national or state level; however, municipalities manage most nuisance wildlife-human conflicts. An individual town or city is responsible for controlling populations of nuisance species both financially and tactically. Given that a municipality must select a wildlife management tactic when conflict occurs, do different decision-making processes yield different outcomes? This study identifies the link between public process and management outcomes; a connection that informs municipalities of the decision-making methods that lead to the most effective wildlife management.Through an examination of resident Canada goose management in four small Massachusetts cities and towns this study demonstrates the processes used to select nuisance wildlife management plans and the success or failure of those plans. Through the trials of the municipalities examined...

‣ Private land, public interest : small town meets big dairy

Thomas, Kathryn J. (Kathryn Johnson)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 107 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.1423%
This paper examines a grassroots effort undertaken by local residents of the communities of Nora and Warren in northwest Illinois in their attempt to prohibit the construction of a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) in their county. In particular, it is an attempt to understand and document the process by which a sparsely-populated rural community organizes itself in an attempt to disallow this type of facility from being sited in their area. Like poor urban communities, poor rural communities have found themselves the recipients of the wastes that are unwanted by larger, wealthier, politically powerful communities. Unique to rural communities, however, are the environmental and social impacts which transpire as a result of agricultural industrialization and specifically the siting of CAFOs. The objective of this research is to: 1) identify various members of the community who are working to oppose or support the dairy, 2) determine in what way these individuals have responded to this proposal, 3) construct a narrative of their individual viewpoints and concerns pertaining to the dairy, 4) explore their motivation for supporting or opposing the facility, and 5) investigate the political underpinnings and the state and federal agricultural regulations which despite successful community organizing to oppose the dairy...

‣ Recommendations to the Campus Committee : an organizing strategy for the North End of Springfield, MA

Banks, Peter Samuel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 82 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.0925%
The North End neighborhood of Springfield, MA is one of the poorest areas in the entire Commonwealth. For many years, agencies in the community have worked to provide basic services to the residents, who are primarily Puerto Rican. For the past twelve years, the major service organizations in the North End have tried to collaborate in an effort to better serve residents. Out of this collaboration came an idea to create a campus for lifelong learning. Since 2006, these service organizations and many other neighborhood institutions have been a part of what they refer to as the "Campus Committee." The purpose of the Campus Committee is to create and implement the "Campus Concept", which will provide lifelong learning opportunities to community members. Members of the Campus Committee continue to struggle with how to find resident leaders to participate in the process of creating and implementing the Campus Concept. This thesis is an attempt to provide an organizing strategy to find this leadership. This document provides evidence that the Campus Committee must actively search for leadership. Leadership will not simply emerge largely due to of historical trends, disproportionate power relationships, and a mistrust of the service organizations. Thus...

‣ Why some were so fast while others not : speed of entry as a new competitive asset in late-industrialization; Speed of entry as a new competitive asset in late-industrialization

Kwak, Jooyoung
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 146 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.1644%
The object of this dissertation is to gain an understanding of the speed of entry into high-tech industries by "latecomers," private and national firms from late-industrializing countries. While entry is traditionally measured with R&D performance, we have approached it from the perspective of skill formation. Accordingly, we have investigated how some latecomers have quickly learned new skills and connected their existing technical knowledge with a new stock of knowledge, defining the speedy (latecomer) entrant as the first latecomer (for an initial entry) and the first-to-market (for subsequent entries), respectively. Specifically, we have conceptualized that a fast entry requires a continuous search for new markets and adaptation to a new environment. In this regard, the speed of entry into the high-tech industries, based on the experience in the mid-tech industries, indicates of dynamic capability and, accordingly, becomes a competitive asset in the context of late-industrializing countries. Theories in economics, management, or geography, which our hypotheses for speed of entry are drawn from, have explained factors or mechanism that enable a firm to perform better. We have first examined how literature envisages the effects of business groups...

‣ The people or the place? : revitalization / gentrification in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point

Nafici, Saara
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 79 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.2122%
The long-neglected minority neighborhoods of Bayview and Hunters Point, San Francisco, are facing the prospect of an uncertain future. The next few years will bring to the neighborhood intense private and public investment in largely market-rate residential developments, large-scale commercial development, new transit service, and massive environmental remediation of abandoned toxic sites. With this renewed interest in the area comes the potential for speculation, rising property values, and the likely displacement of the predominantly low-income, African-American neighborhood residents. With the specter of gentrification looming over these new projects, how can the community ensure that benefits arising from ecological clean-up and neighborhood reinvestment are borne by them, and not gentrifying newcomers? This thesis explores the process of community planning and examines proposed future community benefits of redevelopment projects in Bayview Hunters Point.; (cont.) Drawing inspiration from struggles and innovative programs in other cities, community members, faith-based coalitions, union leaders, organizers, and others can work towards equitable development without resident displacement - revitalization for and by the community of Bayview Hunters Point. This thesis intends to explore those paths in the unique context of Bayview Hunters Point. Key words: gentrification...

‣ An analysis of the impact of mergers between community development corporations

Haque, Shoma S
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 116 p.; 7158202 bytes; 7163028 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1300.815%
This thesis explores the occurrence of mergers between community development corporations (CDC's) in the United States in the past five years. The research examines how mergers between CDC's affect their capacity to achieve their mission and serve their constituents. In addition, the author explores the drivers behind CDC mergers, the impacts from those mergers, and the factors that contribute to merger success. There is currently limited data and literature on CDC and non-profit mergers. This paper uses three case studies of mergers between CDC's to explore how and to what extent CDC capacities changed, as a result of the merger. A CDC capacity framework created by Glickman and Servon (1997) is operationalized and applied to each case study to analyze the capacity changes. The results from the case studies and review of the literature show that CDC's can likely benefit the most from a growth in programmatic capacity as a result of a merger.; by Shoma S. Haque.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 101-104).

‣ The struggle for vibrancy : a study of local government intervention in Detroit's inner suburbs

Kohn, Amy J. (Amy Jennifer)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 138 p.; 11970117 bytes; 11975945 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1300.9727%
Today, many communities located on the periphery of central cities confront traditionally "urban" problems. Detroit's inner suburbs struggle with aging infrastructure, limited governmental capacity, commercial disinvestment, population decline, poverty, failing schools, and racial and ethnic tensions. These challenges are compounded by growing fiscal difficulties fueled by shrinking revenues and increasing costs. This thesis asks what strategies an inner suburban government facing population decline, economic disinvestment, and fiscal constraints can use to retain local vibrancy. Focusing on three inner suburban communities, I describe how metro Detroit local governments are attempting to: redefine their community's identity; provide "good government" for residents; facilitate redevelopment; wage promotional campaigns; engage in inter-jurisdictional collaboration; and attempt annexation. I conclude that local government intervention can be a powerful catalyst for positive change in inner suburbs but that structural constraints limit success.; by Amy J. Kohn.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 131-138).

‣ Preserving the Queen (City's) crown jewel : historic preservation in Cincinnati's Over-the-Rhine

Rieman-Klingler, Daniel G. (Daniel Glenn)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 136 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.0357%
Over-the-Rhine is a nationally significant historic district in Cincinnati, Ohio, and one of the City's greatest assets. Despite its tremendous character and potential, for years the district has languished through disinvestment and neglect, resulting in substantial demolitions of the historic fabric. Without an intervention, demolition and insensitive new development will continue, and the opportunity to leverage Over-the-Rhine as a unique asset may be lost. This thesis represents an attempt to identify the particular threats to the preservation of Over-the-Rhine and, through careful research and analysis, devise a plan that will maintain the district's historic integrity. The thesis begins by detailing the history and significance of Over-the-Rhine, and identifying the specific nature of the threat: demolition by neglect. Following a review of preservation literature, a targeting analysis is performed, resulting in the selection of three priority conservation areas in the district. Next, 7 relevant case studies are presented of buildings that were saved and rehabilitated despite being seriously neglected and "too far gone" in the eyes of many.; (cont.) From this research, it is concluded that: "too far gone" is an ambiguous term dependent on the motives of the building owner; the selection of engineers and contractors plays a crucial role in the feasibility of preservation; community members often provide the initial impetus for preservation; preserving severely damaged structures can be quite profitable; innovation is a key component in such preservation projects; and economics ultimately determine whether or not a project is feasible. Next...

‣ Which way is up : towards accessible wayfinding in transit stations; Towards accessible wayfinding in transit stations

Leven, Dalia (Dalia Beth)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 203 p.; 57524752 bytes; 57524083 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1300.8544%
Passengers' most frequent interaction with a rail transit system is at its stations, which represent the beginning, the end and sometimes the middle of transit trips. The design of these stations can greatly affect a user's travel experience by creating friendly, efficient, attractive environments that are inherently usable as transit stations. Many types of devices are necessary in these stations to help people navigate from one point to another within a transit system. Wayfinding devices are the elements, whether architectural or graphic, that provide information not only on how to navigate a station, but also how to use the services provided there. Because they provide such important information, these elements must be accessible to all potential passengers. This thesis used the structure of Systems Engineering to give a clear focus to the problem of design accessible wayfinding systems in transit stations. In order to create a comprehensive listing of design requirements for these systems, a detailed inventory of all potential user groups was developed. Following directly from this, a framework was developed that allows for easy cataloging of the design requirements for each of these groups.; (cont.) Three technical areas that are developed in this thesis cover all of the issues inherent in wayfinding design include content...

‣ A hotel economic feasibility study : Monsignor O'Brien Highway, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Rogers, Mark P. (Mark Paul)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 86 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1300.9694%
A hotel economic feasibility study was carried out for an assemblage of four (4) parcels located on Monsignor O'Brien Highway in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The primary objective of this economic feasibility study was to assess the supply and demand factors affecting the market for transient accommodations in the East Cambridge area for the purpose of recommending the size and type of hotel which is most logical for this assembled site. Once these perimeters were determined, an economic feasibility study was performed to evaluate the anticipated economic benefits and probable total project cost. The financial analysis undertaken was utilized to determine whether the return on investment makes the proposed project economically feasible. It was determined in the initial stages of the study that the assemblage of parcels was flawed. After reconfiguring the assembled site, further analysis continued. In the end, the study validated the economic feasibility of a 250 key lifestyle brand type hotel. The hotel is conceived to be in operation as of January 1, 2011. The planning and entitlement process is expected to last approximately sixteen months. Construction is scheduled to take an additional two years time. The development will be have both mortgage and equity components. The internal rate of return based on the economic valuation of the property value of $68...

‣ MapNexus : a framework to derive human intent from architectural space to enable context-aware information exchanges in a wireless intranet; Framework to derive human intent from architectural space to enable context-aware information exchanges in a wireless intranet

Fuller, Napier Sandford
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 60 leaves; 14048518 bytes; 14048164 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1300.7812%
Architectural interior spaces provide a rich syntax for context-aware modeling. In a wireless wide area network (WAN), an urban environment can be geographically tessellated into a series of polygons reflecting the radio transmission range of each wireless access point (AP). By using these APs as spatial aggregation units in a relational database, logical assumptions about short-term behavioral patterns can be modelled; this paper describes a method to capture, encode, and interpret context-aware cues. These cues are then utilized by an intranet web server to produce context-aware output, information that fits the client's short-term activity landscape and intentions. The method does not require any special client-side software and preserves the user's anonymity as it derives the client's physical location implicitly. Such a framework permits a new type of context-aware web interaction based upon the logical "common sense" patterns that are specific to architectural interior spaces at a given time.; by Napier Sandford Fuller.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 59-60).

‣ Water by truck in Mexico City

Pike, Jill (Jill Susan)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 96 p.; 5344393 bytes; 5349460 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.18164%
Supply of water to urban households by tanker truck in developing and advanced developing countries is often associated with early stages of urbanization or with the private markets on which water vendors serve households not connected to the piped network. Despite Mexico City's high household network coverage rate and recent improvements in billing, collection, and network maintenance and upgrading, the public sector supplies bulk water to households by truck in response to persistent water scarcity and insufficient network service levels in some areas. Analysis of the public trucked water delivery services in two of Mexico City's sixteen delegations-or districts-shows two distinct paths to improved trucked service performance in a shared new environment of democratic governance. Although both delegation administrations are led by the same political party, in one delegation officials pursue accountability in the public trucked water service through an evolving set of new internal business practices. In the other delegation, organized residents and elected politicians support service accountability through co- production with delegation authorities and external oversight. This thesis asks how and why two distinct models of accountability in trucked water service delivery operate across two Mexico City delegations...

‣ Assessing the viability of lifestyle retail development as a traditional town center

Torino, Roger
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 111 p.; 6696830 bytes; 6703163 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.0403%
The lifestyle center, a recently emerged real estate retail product, is the culmination of shifts in cultural attitudes, real estate economic trends, and changes in the role of local government on the development of built space in the suburban landscape. In the latter half of the 20"' Century, the view of suburbia as the antithesis of urbanity, centerless sprawl devoid of the city's redeeming civic and community features, gained currency. Built to resemble early 20th Century main streets or town squares, lifestyle centers offer a counterpoint to the disaggregating effects of suburbanization wrought over the past half century. But, do they represent a true return to small town ways of living? Are they a viable model for giving a physical focus to suburbia This thesis gauges the performance of lifestyle centers relative to standards set by traditional main streets or town squares. Issues of publicness, mix of use, physical configuration, and community perception are taken into account. Regarding these measures, lifestyle centers are partially successful in creating a physical center and community in the perceived disorder of suburbia. However, the lifestyle center does not fully achieve the goal in the sense that it remains relatively exclusive and narrowly focused. Although derided as Disney-esque environments that thinly disguise their goal of encouraging consumption...

‣ Flushing sprawl down the drain : is TIF an option for Vermont growth center wastewater projects?

Markarian, Molly E. (Molly Elizabeth)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.1783%
In keeping with a long history of striving to preserve its traditional settlement pattern and promote smart growth, Vermont's most recent growth management policies encourage municipalities to plan for and accommodate development in dense, mixed-use growth centers. However, concentrating development in this manner requires a level of wastewater treatment capacity that is absent in a majority of Vermont municipalities and in nearly half of Vermont's existing designated village centers. It is certainly true that wastewater treatment capacity is neither the only nor the most critical barrier to implementing the growth center concept in Vermont. Nonetheless, it is an obstacle that Vermont must address if it wishes to see its smart growth goals fulfilled statewide, including in unsewered towns that are experiencing development pressure and need to increase their wastewater treatment capacity to accommodate such development in their growth centers. The State is currently developing a publication and trainings to educate local decision-makers about wastewater treatment problems and the range of possible conventional and alternative solutions.; (cont.) This outreach effort will definitely help unsewered towns to better understand their wastewater treatment needs and to find the most innovative and economical wastewater management solutions for their given situation. However...

‣ The responsibility of race in community-based practice

Fennelly, Meghan C. (Meghan Cartier), 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 101 p.; 4266065 bytes; 4265874 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1301.09586%
Practitioners in community-based organizations operate in an environment of difference. Often they are bridging relationships between low-income community members and government agencies or they are bonding diverse constituents to work together toward community change. Their work is often framed in this way: focused externally on the ways in which they work across difference to build unity. Missing from this framework, however, is the parallel internal focus on how individual identity affects practice. The community-based practitioner is likely working across racial, class and educational lines. In U.S. metropolitan areas, for example, a community-based worker can not escape the effects of racial segregation, discrimination and conflict that have left historical and lasting imprints on this country's urban neighborhoods. While a practitioner in this setting would not hesitate to point out resource disparities, the subject of racial disparity remains shrouded in ambiguity. In respect to race, working across difference requires a particular competency, commitment and responsibility. When the need to address race is left to individual initiative, its importance is undermined. The stories that inform this thesis describe particular moments in the work of community-based practitioners where race emerged as an important point of contention. Their reflections guide us through an exploration of what was done...