Many synthetic drugs reported to be used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders are of least interest now a days due to their potential side effects and serious adverse effects and as they are found to be highly unsafe for human assistance. Since the last few decades, herbal drugs have regained their popularity in treatment against several human ailments. Herbals containing anti-inflammatory activity (AIA) are topics of immense interest due to the absence of several problems in them, which are associated with synthetic preparations. The primary objective of this review is to provide a deep overview of the recently explored anti-inflammatory agents belonging to various classes of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, polyphenolic compounds, and also the compounds isolated from plants of marine origin, algae and fungi. Also, it enlists a distended view on potential interactions between herbals and synthetic preparations, related adverse effects and clinical trials done on herbals for exploring their AIA. The basic aim of this review is to give updated knowledge regarding plants which will be valuable for the scientists working in the field of anti-inflammatory natural chemistry.
Spinal metastasis is a problem that afflicts many cancer patients. Traditionally, conventional fractionated radiation therapy and/or surgery have been the most common approaches for managing such patients. Through technical advances in radiotherapy, high dose radiation with extremely steep drop off can now be delivered to a limited target volume along the spine under image-guidance with very high precision. This procedure, known as stereotactic body radiosurgery, provides a technique to rapidly treat selected spinal metastasis patients with single- or limited-fraction treatments that have similar to superior efficacies compared with more established approaches. This review describes current treatment systems in use to deliver stereotactic body radiosurgery as well as results of some of the larger case series from a number of institutions that report outcomes of patients treated for spinal metastatic disease. These series include nearly 1400 patients and report a cumulative local control rate of 90% with myelopathy risk that is significantly less than 1%. Based on this comprehensive review of the literature, we believe that stereotactic body radiosurgery is an established treatment modality for patients with spinal metastatic disease that is both safe and highly effective.
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has gained momentum in the recent urologic literature as a new surgical approach for intra-abdominal organs with scarless and painless postoperative recoveries. We sought to review the published literature concerning the safety and reproducibility of NOTES in urology. PubMed literature review of articles published in the English language was performed over a 10-year period, i.e., between 2001 and 2011; all articles were critically reviewed and analyzed. Despite its novelty, pure or hybrid surgical approaches have been adapted in performing NOTES. NOTES essentially utilizes transluminal flexible endoscopic instruments along with laparoscopic instruments to gain access to abdominal, pelvic, and/or retroperitoneal cavities. The preliminary results of NOTES in surgery and to a limited extent in urology appear promising, yet further research in animal survival and human cadaveric models is requisite prior to human applications, especially for complex surgeries. Future innovative research, particularly biomedical engineering, should be directed to improving the technicality and mechanistic application of NOTES; hence, better safety and efficacy of NOTES.
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. This is caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although large numbers of young sexually active women get HPV-infected, only a small fraction develop cervical cancer. This points to different co-factors for regression of HPV infection or progression to cervical cancer. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases such as cervical cancer and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. The aim of this review is to compile the advances in the field of host genetics of cervical cancer. MEDLINE database was searched using the terms, ‘HPV’, ‘cervical’, ‘CIN’, ‘polymorphism(s)’, ‘cervical’+ *the name of the gene* and ‘HPV’+ *the name of the gene*. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to cervical cancer in HPV infected individuals.
Diabetes mellitus with peripheral sensory neuropathy frequently results in forefoot ulceration. Ulceration at the first ray level tends to be recalcitrant to local wound care modalities and off-loading techniques. If healing does occur, ulcer recurrence is common. When infection develops, partial first ray amputation in an effort to preserve maximum foot length is often performed. However, the survivorship of partial first ray amputations in this patient population and associated re-amputation rate remain unknown. Therefore, in an effort to determine the actual re-amputation rate following any form of partial first ray amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy, the authors conducted a systematic review. Only studies involving any form of partial first ray amputation associated with diabetes mellitus and peripheral sensory neuropathy but without critical limb ischemia were included. Our search yielded a total of 24 references with 5 (20.8%) meeting our inclusion criteria involving 435 partial first ray amputations. The weighted mean age of patients was 59 years and the weighted mean follow-up was 26 months. The initial amputation level included the proximal phalanx base 167 (38.4%) times; first metatarsal head resection 96 (22.1%) times; first metatarsal-phalangeal joint disarticulation 53 (12.2%) times; first metatarsal mid-shaft 39 (9%) times; hallux fillet flap 32 (7.4%) times; first metatarsal base 29 (6.7%) times; and partial hallux 19 (4.4%) times. The incidence of re-amputation was 19.8% (86/435). The end stage...
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep related breathing disorder. Its prevalence is estimated to be between 2% and 25% in the general population. However, the prevalence of sleep apnea is much higher in patients undergoing elective surgery. Sedation and anesthesia have been shown to increase the upper airway collapsibility and therefore increasing the risk of having postoperative complications in these patients. Furthermore, the majority of patients with sleep apnea are undiagnosed and therefore are at risk during the perioperative period. It is important to identify these patients so that appropriate actions can be taken in a timely fashion. In this review article, we will discuss the epidemiology of sleep apnea in the surgical population. We will also discuss why these patients are at a higher risk of having postoperative complications, with the special emphasis on the role of anesthesia, opioids, sedation, and the phenomenon of REM sleep rebound. We will also review how to identify these patients preoperatively and the steps that can be taken for their perioperative management.
Background. High HIV burden countries have experienced a high burden of pleural TB in HIV-infected patients. Objective. To review the epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of pleural TB in HIV-infected patients. Methods. A literature search from 1950 to June 2011 in MEDLINE was conducted. Results. Two-hundred and ninety-nine studies were identified, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. The immunopathogenesis as denoted by cells and cytokine profiles is distinctly different between HIV and HIV-uninfected pleural TB disease. Adenosine deaminase and interferon gamma are good markers of pleural TB disease even in HIV-infected patients. HIV-uninfected TB suspects with pleural effusions commonly have a low yield of TB organisms however the evidence suggests that in dually infected patients smear and cultures have a higher yield. The Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay has significant potential to improve the diagnosis of pleural TB in HIV-positive patients. Conclusions. Pleural TB in HIV-infected patients has a different immunopathogenesis than HIV-uninfected pleural TB and these findings in part support the differences noted in this systematic review. Research should focus on developing an interferon gamma-based point of care diagnostic test and expansion of the role of Gene Xpert in the diagnosis of pleural TB.
The purpose of this report is to review the relationship between genetic polymorphisms involved in carcinogen metabolism, alcohol metabolism and cell-cycle control with the risk of head and neck cancer. The review was performed on available studies on genetic polymorphisms and head and neck cancer (HNC) published in PubMed up to September 2011. 246 primary articles and 7 meta-analyses were published. Among these, a statistically significant association was reported for glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferases (GSTT1) and human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes. An increased risk for HNC was also associated reported for P53 codon 72 Pro/Pro, ALDH2 and three variants of the ADH gene: ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH7 (rs1573496) and ADH1C (rs698).
Chronic postoperative endophthalmitis (CPE) is a delayed infectious intraocular inflammation process that occurs more than six weeks after ocular surgery and frequently masquerades as autoimmune uveitis. These cases are at risk of delayed diagnosis and erroneous long-term treatment with corticosteroids. This paper aims to review the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, management strategies, and outcome of chronic postoperative endophthalmitis. The incidence of CPE is still uncommon, and multiple pathogens have been reported with varying frequencies. Review of the literature reveals that CPE cases have a high incidence of visual impairment and recurrence rate might be decreased with aggressive surgical approach.
Background. Targeted physical activity drives functional recovery after stroke. This review aimed to determine the amount of time stroke survivors spend physically active during physiotherapy sessions. Summary of Review. A systematic search was conducted to identify published studies that investigated the use of time by people with stroke during physiotherapy sessions. Seven studies were included; six observational and one randomised controlled trial. People with stroke were found to be physically active for an average of 60 percent of their physiotherapy session duration. The most common activities practiced in a physiotherapy session were walking, sitting, and standing with a mean (SD) practice time of 8.7 (4.3), 4.5 (4.0), and 8.3 (2.6) minutes, respectively. Conclusion. People with stroke were found to spend less than two-thirds of their physiotherapy sessions duration engaged in physical activity. In light of dosage studies, practice time may be insufficient to drive optimal motor recovery.
In India, under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), the percentage of smear-positive re-treatment cases is high. The causes of re-treatment include relapse of the disease after successful completion of treatment, treatment failure, and default in treatment. RNTCP does not follow up the patients for any period of time after successful completion of treatment to determine whether they relapse. Given the high cost of treatment for each patient under RNTCP and the potential for spread of disease from these patients, it is crucial for the success of the program and control of the disease in the country to find out more about the reasons behind this. T0 o conduct a systematic review of literature and determine evidence regarding recurrence of TB after its successful treatment with standard short course chemotherapy under DOTS guidelines. T0 en databases were searched including Medline, Cochrane database, Embase and others and reference lists of articles. 255 papers resulted from these searches. Seven studies were finally included in the review after applying the inclusion, exclusion and quality assessment criteria. R0 elapse rate is high (almost 10%) in India which is higher than international studies. Majority of relapse cases present soon after completion of treatment (first six months). Risk factors for relapse included drug irregularity...
Cooling greenhouses is essential to provide a suitable environment for plant growth in arid regions characterized by brackish water resources. However, using conventional cooling methods are facing many challenges. Filtering out near infra-red radiation (NIR) at the greenhouse cover can significantly reduce the heating load and can solve the overheating problem of the greenhouse air. This paper is to review (i) the problems of using conventional cooling methods and (ii) the advantages of greenhouse covers that incorporate NIR reflectors. This survey focuses on how the cover type affects the transmittance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), the reflectance or absorptance of NIR and the greenhouse air temperature. NIR-reflecting plastic films seem to be the most suitable, low cost and simple cover for greenhouses under arid conditions. Therefore, this review discusses how various additives should be incorporated in plastic film to increase its mechanical properties, durability and ability to stand up to extremely harsh weather. Presently, NIR-reflecting covers are able to reduce greenhouse air temperature by no more than 5°C. This reduction is not enough in regions where the ambient temperature may exceed 45°C in summer. There is a need to develop improved NIR-reflecting plastic film covers.
Mangrove plants are specialised plants that grow in the tidal coasts of tropic and subtropic regions of the world. Their unique ecology and traditional medicinal uses of mangrove plants have attracted the attention of researchers over the years, and as a result, reports on biological activity of mangrove plants have increased significantly in recent years. This review has been set out to compile and appraise the results on antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of mangrove plants. While the Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and PubMed were the starting points to gather information, other pieces of relevant published literature were also adequately explored for this purpose. A total of 29 reports on 17 plant species have been found to report such activities. While 19 reports were on the biological activity of the crude extracts, 10 reports identified the active compound(s) of various chemical classes of natural products including terpenes, steroids, and flavonoids. This review finds that antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity appears to be widespread in mangrove plants.
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) had its origins in numerous small animal studies primarily examining safety and feasibility. In human trials, safety and feasibility remain at the forefront; however, additional logistic, practical, and regulatory requirements must be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and summarize published studies to date of NOTES in humans. The literature review was performed using PUBMED and MEDLINE databases. Articles published in human populations between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated. A review of this time period resulted in 48 studies describing procedures in 916 patients. Transcolonic and transvesicular procedures were excluded. The most common procedure was cholecystectomy (682, 75%). The most common approach was transvaginal (721, 79%). 424 procedures (46%) were pure NOTES and 491 (54%) were hybrid NOTES cases. 127 (14%) were performed in the United States of America and 789 (86%) were performed internationally. Since 2007, there has been major development in NOTES in human populations. A preponderance of published NOTES procedures were performed internationally. With further development, NOTES may make less invasive surgery available to a larger human population.
Background. Long-term edentulism may in many cases result in resorption of the alveolar process. The sinus lift procedure aims to create increased bone volume in the maxillary sinus in order to enable installation of dental implants in the region. The method is over 30 years old, and initially autogenous bone grafts were used and later also different bone substitutes. Since 1997, a limited number of studies have explored the possibility of a graftless procedure where the void under the sinus membrane is filled with a blood clot that enables bone formation. Aim. To describe the evolution of the sinus-lift technique and to review the literature related to the technique with a focus on long-term studies related to the graft-less technique. Methods. The electronic database PubMed was searched, and a systematic review was conducted regarding relevant articles. Results. A relatively few long-term studies using the described technique were found. However, the technique was described as reliable considering the outcome of the existing studies. Conclusion. All investigated studies show high implant survival rates for the graftless technique. The technique is considered to be cost-effective, less time-consuming, and related to lower morbidity since no bone harvesting is needed.
Implant rehabilitation of the edentulous posterior maxilla may be a challenging procedure in the presence of insufficient bone volume for implant placement. Maxillary sinus augmentation with or without using grafting materials aims to provide adequate bone volume. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the existing literature on transalveolar maxillary sinus augmentation without grafting materials and to propose and describe an osteotome-mediated approach in postextraction sites in combination with platelet derivative. The systematic review showed that high implant survival rate (more than 96% after 5 years) can be achieved even without grafting the site, with a low rate of complications. Available alveolar bone height before surgery was not correlated to survival rate. In the described case report, three implants were placed in posterior maxilla after extraction of two teeth. An osteotome-mediated sinus lifting technique was performed with the use of platelet derivative (PRGF); a synthetic bone substitute was used to fill the gaps between implant and socket walls. No complications occurred, and implants were successfully in site after 1 year from prosthetic loading. The presented technique might represent a viable alternative for the treatment of edentulous posterior maxilla with atrophy of the alveolar bone though it needs to be validated by studies with a large sample size.
A systematic review was conducted to examine traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) patterns commonly diagnosed in subjects with insomnia and clinical features associated with the TCM patterns, and an insomnia symptom checklist for TCM diagnostic purpose was developed based on the review. Two independent researchers searched the China Academic Journals Full-Text Database and 10 English databases. A total of 103 studies and 9499 subjects were analyzed. There was a wide variation in terminology relating to symptomatology and TCM pattern. We identified 69 patterns, with the top 3 patterns (i.e., deficiency of both the heart and spleen, hyperactivity of fire due to yin deficiency, and liver-qi stagnation transforming into fire) and the top 10 patterns covering 51.8% and 77.4% of the 9499 subjects, respectively. There were 19 sleep-related, 92 non-sleep-related, 14 tongue, and 7 pulse features included as diagnostic criteria of the top 10 TCM patterns for insomnia. Excessive dreaming, dizziness, red tongue, and fine pulse were the most common sleep-related, non-sleep-related, tongue, and pulse features. Overlapping symptomatology between the TCM patterns was present. A standardized symptom checklist consisted of 92 items, including 13 sleep-related...
The objective was to systematically review the literature to identify and grade tools used for the end point assessment of procedural skills (e.g., phlebotomy, IV cannulation, suturing) competence in medical students prior to certification. The authors searched eight bibliographic databases electronically – ERIC, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Psychinfo, PsychLIT, EBM Reviews and the Cochrane databases. Two reviewers independently reviewed the literature to identify procedural assessment tools used specifically for assessing medical students within the PRISMA framework, the inclusion/exclusion criteria and search period. Papers on OSATS and DOPS were excluded as they focused on post-registration assessment and clinical rather than simulated competence. Of 659 abstracted articles 56 identified procedural assessment tools. Only 11 specifically assessed medical students. The final 11 studies consisted of 1 randomised controlled trial, 4 comparative and 6 descriptive studies yielding 12 heterogeneous procedural assessment tools for analysis. Seven tools addressed four discrete pre-certification skills, basic suture (3), airway management (2), nasogastric tube insertion (1) and intravenous cannulation (1). One tool used a generic assessment of procedural skills. Two tools focused on postgraduate laparoscopic skills and one on osteopathic students and thus were not included in this review. The levels of evidence are low with regard to reliability – κ = 0.65–0.71 and minimum validity is achieved – face and content. In conclusion...
If there were a stigma scale for chemotherapy, alkylating agents would be ranked at the top of the list. The chemical term alkylation is associated with nonselective toxicity, an association that dates back to the use of nitrogen mustards during World War I as chemical warfare agents. That this stigma persists and extends to compounds that, through selectivity, attempt to “tame” the indiscriminate destructive potential of alkylation is the subject of this review. Selective alkylation, as it is referred to herein, constitutes an extremely nascent and dynamic field in oncology. The pharmacodynamic response to this selective strategy depends on a delicate kinetic balance between specificity and the rate and extent of binding. Three representative compounds are presented: RRx-001, 3-bromopyruvate, and TH-302. The main impetus for the development of these compounds has been the avoidance of the serious complications of traditional alkylating agents; therefore, it is the thesis of this review that they should not experience stigma by association.
Background. Within the developing world, many personal, sociocultural, and economic factors cause delayed patient presentation, a prolonged interval from initial symptom discovery to provider presentation. Understanding these barriers to care is crucial to optimizing interventions that pre-empt patient delay. Methods. A systematic review was conducted querying: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, J East, CAB, African Index Medicus, and LiLACS. Of 763 unique abstracts, 122 were extracted for full review and 13 included in final analysis. Results. Studies posed variable risks of bias and produced mixed results. There is strong evidence that lower education level and lesser income status contribute to patient delay. There is weaker and, sometimes, contradictory evidence that other factors may also contribute. Discussion. Poverty emerges as the underlying common denominator preventing earlier presentation in these settings. The evidence for sociocultural variables is less strong, but may reflect current paucity of high-quality research. Conflicting results may be due to heterogeneity of the developing world itself. Conclusion. Future research is required that includes patients with and without delay, utilizes a validated questionnaire...