Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe

A Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) foi criada em 1948 pelo Conselho Econômico e Social das Nações Unidas com o objetivo de incentivar a cooperação econômica entre os seus membros. Ela é uma das cinco comissões econômicas da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) e possui 44 estados e oito territórios não independentes como membros.

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‣ Annotations de l'ordre du jour provisoire et organisation de la Vingt-huitième Session

Fonte: CEPALC Publicador: CEPALC
Português

‣ L'équité, le développement et la citoyenneté: synthèse

Fonte: CEPALC Publicador: CEPALC
Português

‣ Résolutions et décisions récemment emanées d'organismes des Nations Unies et portées a la connaissance de la Commission

Fonte: CEPALC Publicador: CEPALC
Português

‣ Proposiciones sobre el financiamiento de un edificio de las Naciones Unidas en Santiago de Chile = Propositions relatives au financement d'un immeuble des Nations Unies à Santiago du Chili

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía

‣ Report on the Extraordinary Session of the Committee of the Whole of the Economic Commission for Latin America, New York, NY, 1-3 October 1958 = Rapport sur la Session Extraordinaire du Comité Plénier de la Commission Economique pour l'Amérique latine

Fonte: United Nations Publicador: United Nations
Português

‣ La labor de las Naciones Unidas en Chile = The work of the United Nations in Chile = L'oeuvre des Nations Unies au Chili

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português

‣ Compte rendu analytique de la séance d'ouverture

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português

‣ Employment, growth and reforms in Jamaica

Alleyne, Dillon
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Executive summary The main objective of this study on 'Growth and Employment' is to determine the ability of the Jamaican economy to generate productive employment, and how this has been affected by reforms implemented in the last 15 years. To this end, the research focuses primarily on labour demand in the formal sector and the dynamics of salaried employment, although the importance of the informal sector and supply dynamics (volume and composition of labour); will be stressed as well.The findings are as follows: Wherever there has been growth and investment there has been labour absorption and this has been to the benefit to both males and females although males seemed to have benefited more overall. This has been the case for every other major sector except for traditional manufacturing, and agriculture which seemed to have suffered in the short run as a consequence of the reforms which removed much of their protection. While investment in manufacture has risen this has not resulted in increased growth, productivity or increased employment. In addition the employment has been in the area of a better quality labour force as the share of workers with limited education has declined in this sector. It is clear that the investment has been in restructuring and retooling rather than output expansion and over time it would be possible to see the impact of these changes. There has been a considerable informalisation of the labour market as self-employed workers...

‣ The evolution of structural adjustment and stabilization policy in Jamaica

King, Damien
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Introduction The history of economic policy in Jamaica since World War II, viewed at some distance, reflects the broad sweep of fashion in the history of economic development. The cycles of industrialization by foreign investment, import substitution, populist socialism, and structural adjustment are all present. The most recent phase of that history, that of structural economic reform, has however presented some confusion in the literature on Jamaica. At one extreme, economic reform may be dated from 1977, when Jamaica signed its first Stand By Agreement with the IMF, accompanied by the usual list of conditionalities and their implications for economic reform. Witter and Anderson (1991);, largely using that fact, and Lora (1997);, using a narrow list of indicators, imply that Jamaica is an early reformer. At the other extreme, some key elements of economic reform were not implemented until 1991. Following this vein, Handa and King (1997); suggest that economic reform is a phenomenon of the 1990s. The survey of economic reform below reveals a country drawn reluctantly into the reform era, implementing some aspects of economic reform from the early 1980s, delaying others until the 1990s and ignoring a few elements entirely. Economic liberalism has not caught the popular imagination in Jamaica. The fundamental liberal ideas underlying structural adjustment reform are not popular in Jamaica...

‣ Gasto social y distribución del ingreso: caracterización e impacto redistributivo en países seleccionados de América Latina y el Caribe

Mostajo Guardia, Rossana
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Introducción Los reformas estructurales implementadas en los países de la región otorgaron prioridad a la consecución de una estabilidad macroeconómica que sentara las bases para acelerar el ritmo de crecimiento de la economía y aumentar las ganancias de productividad; esto, a su vez, permitiría promover el empleo en un marco de mayor equidad. El mecanismo de transmisión hacia mayores grados de equidad distributiva sería la creación de puestos de trabajo de baja calificación lo que tendría un doble efecto: ocupar a trabajadores desempleados y subempleados de los estratos con menores ingresos y reducir la brecha salarial entre trabajadores calificados y no calificados. Sin embargo, la tasa de empleo fue menor en los noventa, aumentó el desempleo, creció la informalidad y las mejoras salariales beneficiaron principalmente a los trabajadores calificados. Con esto, los desarrollos de la dimensión equidad estuvieron fuertemente ligados a las políticas de gasto social. En el marco del proyecto 'Crecimiento, Empleo y Equidad: El impacto de las reformas económicas en América Latina y el Caribe' 2 , el objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar los principales desarrollos en la dimensión de equidad a través del análisis de la evolución y comportamiento del gasto social...

‣ Growth and reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 1990s

Paunovic, Igor
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Abstract This paper is an attempt to shed some light on the connection between the growth performance in the 1990s and economic reforms in seventeen Latin American and Caribbean countries. It presents a classification of the countries studied based on comparison of the growth rates in the 1990s and the 'base period' (1951-1980);. Three groups of countries are identified: leaders, laggards and intermediate cases. An attempt is made to see if there emerges a pattern or any kind of regularity with respect to the causes of the adoption of reforms. Relevant short-term and long-term factors are identified. The way reforms were implemented, and in particular, whether different levels of intensity of macroeconomic stabilization and structural reforms were related to the growth performance in the post-reform period, is also analyzed. Several characteristics define countries in each of the three groups identified. The 'leading' economies had a lower average rate of growth in the base period than in the 1990s and low or negative growth rates coupled with huge macroeconomic imbalances immediately before the reforms took place. That sparked the reform process that was much more comprehensive than in other countries. 'Laggards'...

‣ Políticas de estabilización y de reformas estructurales en Bolivia a partir de 1985

Antelo Callisperis, Eduardo
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Introducción La crisis económica, política y social que caracterizó a Bolivia durante la primera mitad de la década de 1980, determinó la necesidad de impulsar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo en el país, basado en un programa de estabilización económica, de carácter ortodoxo, a partir de la promulgación del Decreto Supremo 21060, en agosto de 1985, que instauraba la Nueva Política Económica, y en la implementación paulatina de reformas estructurales, enmarcadas en los lineamientos del 'Consenso de Washington', que se llevaron a cabo con mayor énfasis a partir de los años noventa.El objetivo principal del documento es evaluar este nuevo modelo de desarrollo, analizando las reformas llevadas a cabo en los últimos catorce años y lo que está pendiente, de tal forma a determinar sus impactos sobre el crecimiento y la estabilidad económica, empleo, distribución del ingreso y pobreza en Bolivia y su sostenibilidad y perspectivas futuras. Con esta finalidad, en la sección siguiente se discuten las condiciones macroeconómicas, políticas y sociales del inicio de la década de 1980, de tal forma a caracterizar la situación de crisis que enfrentaba Bolivia y que impulsó tanto la política de estabilización...

‣ REDATAM: manual del usuario = REDATAM: user's manual

Fonte: CELADE Publicador: CELADE
Português
Incluye Bibliografía

‣ Productividad del sector público, evaluación de la gestión del gasto público e indicadores de desempeño en Guatemala

Mostajo Guardia, Rossana
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Resumen El objetivo del presente trabajo es hacer un diagnóstico preliminar del estado actual de los principales desarrollos en materia de gestión de los programas de gasto público en Guatemala, a través de un marco de conformado por criterios de productividad, eficiencia, eficacia y calidad de los servicios públicos. La evolución del manejo de las finanzas públicas en Guatemala se asemeja, a grandes rasgos, a la de muchos países de la región en el sentido de que los problemas económicos llevaron a centrar la atención en aspectos del equilibrio financiero por sobre otros objetivos de la política fiscal. El relativo énfasis a temas de equidad, transparencia y necesidad de establecer un nuevo modelo de administración pública orientada a resultado surge a partir de la firma de los Acuerdos de Paz. La combinación de una serie de factores como la escasez de recursos, el creciente escrutinio público sobre las operaciones públicas y las tendencias internacionales hacia la globalización e interdependencia de las economías, conducen a la necesidad de focalizar en la productividad del sector público como condición necesaria para que los gobiernos puedan responder a cambiantes situaciones domésticas...

‣ Bond markets for Latin American debt in the 1990s

Velloso, Helvia; Bustillo, Inés
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Introducción During the 1990s the market for Latin America's debt grew in volume, types of instruments traded and number of investors and trade houses involved. Investors were drawn by high growthpotential and high yields in most Latin American countries, as well as by a general trend towards the implementation of economic and political reforms. As a result, the relative size of Latin America's market worldwide grew.This growth, however, was affected by a series of market events that underscored Latin America's vulnerability to financial shocks. Growth in trading volumes and asset values was first interrupted in 1994, in the aftermath of Mexico's peso devaluation in mid-December. Mexico's devaluation set in motion 'contagion' (the 'tequila effect');, which depressed market values throughout Latin America and other emerging markets during early 1995. Investor confidence recovered by mid-1995, following the massive rescue package for Mexico organized by the International Monetary Fund with support from United States and other G-7 countries. Capital flows to Latin America and other emerging markets grew considerably for the next two years. Market conditions were favorable until the onset of financial and economic difficulties in Southeast Asia in mid-1997. Market contagion spread these difficulties to Russia by mid-1998...

‣ Developing countries' anti-cyclical policies in a globalized world

Ocampo, José Antonio
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Introduction The volatility and contagion characteristic of international financial markets, which have dominated emerging economies during the 1990s, have long historical roots.1/ Indeed, from the mid-1970s to the end of the 1980s, Latin America and other regions in the developing world experienced a long boom-bust cycle, the most severe of its kind since that of the 1920s and 1930s. The shortening but also the intensity of boom-bust cycles have been distinctive features of the recent decade. The latter is reflected, in the words of the Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, in the fact that the 'size of the breakdowns and required official finance to counter them is of a different order of magnitude than in the past'.2/ Viewed from the perspective of developing countries, the essential feature of instability is the succession of periods of intense capital inflows, in which financial risks significantly increase, facilitated and sometimes enhanced by pro-cyclical domestic macroeconomic policies, and the latter phase of adjustment, in which not only are these risks are exposed but also the pro-cyclical character of the measures adopted to 'restore confidence' amplify the flow (economic activity) and stock (portfolio) effects of adjustment processes. An essential part of the solutions to these problems lies in strengthening the institutional framework to prevent and manage financial crises at the global level.3/ This paper looks...

‣ La supervisión bancaria en América Latina en los noventa

Livacic, Ernesto; Sáez, Sebastián
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Resumen Durante los años noventa el proceso de transformación de los sistemas financieros ha sido profundo. Sin embargo, las reformas adoptadas no siempre estuvieron acompañadas de un fortalecimiento de la supervisión del sector. Esto significó en varios casos una fragilidad que se hizo patente una vez que las economías estuvieron sujetas a algún tipo de shock externo. La segunda mitad de la década de los noventa representa un proceso de transición hacia sistemas bancarios más sólidos, basados en un adecuado equilibrio entre los incentivos del mercado y un marco regulatorio y de una supervisión preventiva. En lo que se refiere a estructura de mercado, América Latina presenta aún algunos viejos problemas como la alta participación estatal, materia en la que, sin embargo hay claros avances. De igual manera se han generado nuevos problemas estructurales, como el de una concentración de mercado que podría ir más allá de los deseable, no solo a nivel de país, sino que también a escala regional, superando el alcance, sólo doméstico, de las 'redes de seguridad sistémicas'. Para la superación de la mayor parte de las deficiencias y en especial aquellas que dicen relación con los problemas de la regulación...

‣ Políticas de población en América Latina: experiencia de 10 años = Population policies in Latin America: 10 years' experience

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Analiza el crecimiento demografico de America Latina en los ultimos 10 anos, asi como la situacion de las politicas de poblacion en la region.

‣ Resolución 248(XI): Democratización del proceso de industrialización = Resolution 248(XI): Democratization of the industrialization process = Résolution 248(XI): Démocratisation du processus d'industrialisation

Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português

‣ Resolución 249(XI): Estudios sectoriales de industria = Resolution 249(XI): Sectoral studies of industry = Résolution 249(XI): Etudes sectorielles de l'industrie

Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português