Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade Católica de Temuco

A Universidade Católica de Temuco é uma institução privada confessional do Chile, fundada pelo bispo Alejandro Menchaca Lira em 1959.

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‣ State of the art in taxonomy of Chilean freshwater bivalves: Advances and difficulties

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
An update of the Chilean freshwater bivalve taxonomy is presented. The bivalves described at present are adscribed to two families: Hyriidae represented only by the genus Diplodon with two species (D. chilensis and D. solidulus) and Sphaeriidae represented by three genera: Pisidium with seven species (P. chilense, P. magellanicum, P. lebruni, P. observationis, P. meierbrooki, P. huillichum and P. llanquihuense), Sphaerium with two species (S. lauricochae and S. forbesi), and Musculium with two species (M. argentinum and M. patagonicum). Sub-generic and sub-specific taxa are recognized for Hyriidae only. The present study includes the synonymy, type locality and geographic distribution where the species have been recorded. The most reliable diagnostic features for Hyriidae species identification are the hinge morphology in adult specimens, the presence or absence of the valve teeth, and their position and shape in larvae. At the generic level within Sphaeriidae, the most reliable taxonomic characters are the morphology and number of the siphons, and the size of both demibranchs. At the species level these characters are valve morphometry and morphology, which includes beak position, hinge features, shape and size of cardinal teeth, valve sculpture and pore density of the inner surface of valves. Results are discussed regarding advances and conflicts related to the taxonomic and systematic arrangement in both families...

‣ Changes in soil erosion associated with the shift from conventional tillage to a no-tillage system, documented using 137Cs measurements

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Caesium-137 measurements have been used to document changes in the rate and extent of soil erosion associated with the shift from conventional tillage to a no-till system on a farm in south-central Chile. The study site is located in the Coastal Mountains of the 9th Region (38°37′S 73°04′W), and is characterized by Araucano series Ultisols (Typic Hapludult), a temperate climate and a mean annual precipitation of 1100 mm year-1. A field, which was under conventional tillage until May 1986 and which was subsequently managed using a no-till system, was selected for the study. An approach for using 137Cs measurements to quantify the medium-term erosion and deposition rates associated with the periods of contrasting land management documented previously was employed. This approach involves both a standard method and a simplified method, which permits a larger number of sampling points to be used. In this study, emphasis was placed on application of the simplified method, which has the important advantage of requiring only two 137Cs measurements per sampling point. The results obtained for the study field showed that the implementation of no-till practices, including crop residue management, coincided with a reduction in the net erosion rate by about 87% and the proportion of the study area subject to erosion from 100% to 57%...

‣ Changes in soil erosion associated with the shift from conventional tillage to a no-tillage system, documented using 137Cs measurements

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Caesium-137 measurements have been used to document changes in the rate and extent of soil erosion associated with the shift from conventional tillage to a no-till system on a farm in south-central Chile. The study site is located in the Coastal Mountains of the 9th Region (38°37′S 73°04′W), and is characterized by Araucano series Ultisols (Typic Hapludult), a temperate climate and a mean annual precipitation of 1100 mm year-1. A field, which was under conventional tillage until May 1986 and which was subsequently managed using a no-till system, was selected for the study. An approach for using 137Cs measurements to quantify the medium-term erosion and deposition rates associated with the periods of contrasting land management documented previously was employed. This approach involves both a standard method and a simplified method, which permits a larger number of sampling points to be used. In this study, emphasis was placed on application of the simplified method, which has the important advantage of requiring only two 137Cs measurements per sampling point. The results obtained for the study field showed that the implementation of no-till practices, including crop residue management, coincided with a reduction in the net erosion rate by about 87% and the proportion of the study area subject to erosion from 100% to 57%...

‣ Effect of caffeine in the motility and fertility of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) sperm

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The present investigation evaluated the effect in the motility and spermatic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fertility of a saline solution 0.98% NaCl enriched with 2.5; 5.0; 10.0 and 20.0mM of caffeine, using as control saline solution without caffeine. The use of caffeine at a concentration of 10mM in the activator solution duplicated the time of spermatic motility (160.0 ± 18,8s) in contrast with the control (80,0 ± 12,5s). Increased fertility was observed when caffeine was used in the activator, although the values were not statistically different in relation with the control (81.6 ± 5.7%). These results demonstrate the capacity of caffeine to enhance spermatic motility in rainbow trout. Further research must be conducted to elucidate the minimum concentrations of caffeine required in intensive production systems.; En la presente investigación se evaluó el efecto en la motilidad y fertilidad espermática de trucha arcoiris (Oncorhynchus mykiss) de una solución salina 0,98% de NaCl enriquecida con 2,5; 5,0; 10,0 y 20,0mM de cafeína, utilizando como control una solución salina sin cafeína. Al utilizar cafeína en concentraciones de 10mM en la solución activadora se duplicó la duración de la motilidad espermática (165...

‣ Biology of pregnancy in the domestic cat (Felis catus)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
La gata es una hembra poliéstrica estacional en la cual el estímulo coital desencadena la liberación de LH y la ovulación, fenómenos que ocurren dentro de las primeras 50 horas postcoito. La fecundación de los ovocitos ocurre en el oviducto dentro de 30 horas post-ovulación. El transporte embrionario en oviducto toma alrededor de 132 horas y al momento de ingresar al útero los embriones se encuentran al estado de mórula compacta. A continuación los blastocistos migran entre los cuernos uterinos por aproximadamente 80 horas, hasta producirse la implantación 12 a 13 días post-coito. Durante la etapa preimplantacional existe un aumento significativo de la progesterona sérica así como de los receptores luteales a LH. A partir de la segunda mitad de la gestación, decae la producción de progesterona y aumenta la secreción de prolactina, postulándose que esta última sería el principal agente luteotrófico en la gata. También durante la segunda mitad de la gestación aumenta la secreción de relaxina. La producción y rol de la progesterona en la gestación tardía es un tema controversial. Se ha demostrado que la placenta felina posee actividad esteroidogénica y capacidad de sintetizar progesterona, lo cual sugiere que estaría relacionada con el soporte hormonal de la preñez.; The domestic cat can be defined as a seasonal poliestrous female. During mating the physical stimulus produce the release of LH and ovulation...

‣ Hormones of diagnostic value in veterinary medicine

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Como muchas áreas de la medicina veterinaria, la endocrinología clínica ha experimentado importantes avances en el conocimiento de la fisiología, fisiopatología y el diagnóstico de las enfermedades en los animales domésticos. La presente revisión pretende entregar la información disponible, en la actualidad, de las pruebas endocrinas más relevantes de una manera concisa y práctica, tanto para los estudiantes de medicina veterinaria que están en su etapa de residencia clínica, como para los colegas que deseen más información sobre la determinación de condiciones fisiológicas y el diagnóstico diferencial entre alteraciones endocrinas y otras patologías.; As many areas of the veterinary medicine, clinical endocrinology has experienced significant advances in the knowledge of physiology, physiopathology and the diagnosis of diseases in domestic animals. The present review seeks to provide an up-to-date information of most currently used endocrine tests in a concise and practical way for the students of veterinary medicine that are in their clinical residence and for the colleagues that want more information on the understanding of physiologic conditions and the differential diagnosis between endocrine disorders and other pathologies.

‣ Topologically inseparable functions I: Finitary case

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Given a finite set A and a distinguished function f: A → A, we study the set of all functions g: A → A that are continuous for all topologies for which f is continuous. The main result is a characterization of the functions f such that this set is trivial, that is, contains only the constant functions and the iterates of f.

‣ Modelado y simulación de un biofiltro de película para el tratamiento de aire contaminado con hidrocarburos aromáticos

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
We present a mathematical model and simulation of a film biofilter for the treatment of gaseous effluents, using the MathCad Plus 6.0 program. The contaminant mixture included aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, dissolved in air. We applied the model through the film biofilter to the gaseous, liquid and biofilm phases. We established the flow of liquid required to maintain optimum temperature conditions in the bioreactor; the model also takes into consideration the metabolic heat generated by the microorganisms present in the bioreactor and the temperature of the gas used. The operational flow of gas and liquid at various concentrations and the breakdown of the contaminant through the bioreactor were established, as well as the loss of concentration at those flow rates. It can be concluded that pollutant removal efficiency was strongly influenced by its concentration in the gas flow for each specific column height.

‣ Short term effects of exposition to artificial ultraviolet radiation on Parabroteas sarsi (Copepoda, Calanoida)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The increase in the penetration of ultraviolet radiation that has been reported lately for freshwater ecosystems in southern South America would allegedly generate alterations in ecological processes. In this respect the mortality of Parabroteas sarsi, a calanoid copepod distributed in South American lakes and ponds, was studied. Specimens were reared at two different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and subjected to 72 h exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation. At high dissolved organic carbon concentration the mortality of P. sarsi increased at 24 h and stabilized at 48 and 72 h, whereas at low dissolved organic carbon concentration mortality increased linearly during the studied period. The results support both the description of a screen effect of dissolved organic carbon against ultraviolet radiation, and the potential photorepairing role of visible radiation that explains the increase of mortality in conditions of low dissolved organic carbon concentration.

‣ Síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus: Situación de los roedores reservorios y la población humana en la Décima Región, Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
In Chile, three Hantavirus seropositive rodent species (O longicaudatus, A olivaceus and A longipilis) are distributed from the Pacific coast to the Andes mountains and represent nearly 90% of the rodents captured in the Xth Region. Aim: To study the seroprevalence of Hantavirus among captured rodent species and its relationship with the appearance of human cases of pulmonary syndrome. Material and methods: From May 1998 to September 2001, 675 rodents were captured in the region. Serum samples were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies against Andes and Sin Nombre virus. Sera from human cases with a suspected Hantavirus infection were analyzed for IgM antibodies against Black Lagoon virus and for IgG antibodies against Andes and Sin Nombre virus. Results: Twenty two of the 675 rodents were seropositive for the virus, 18 O longicaudatus and 4 A longipilis. Regional seroprevalence changed from 2.2% in 1998, 0.0% in 1999, 1.0% in 2000 and up to 7.1% in 2001. A total of 77 positive human cases were studied from 1998 to March 2002. Although there were positive cases in all seasons, data showed a spring-summer seasonal preponderance. A relationship between the flowering of "colihue" bushes and the increased values of rodent abundance...

‣ Littoral crustaceans in mountain lakes of Huerquehue National Park (38°S, Araucania region, Chile)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The water bodies studied herein are located in the Huerquehue National Park, a mountain zone with Nothofagus alpina, N. pumilio, N. dombeyi, and Araucaria araucana forests, at 700-1500 m a. s. l. There are numerous oligotrophic lakes, with characteristics similar to the deep Araucanian lakes. Many of these small lakes are difficult to reach, because the only routes leading there are long mountain paths. The sites studied in the present paper are five lakes: the first is located at the basis of the mountains (700 m a.s.l.) and is fed by a river that reaches it from series of three other lakes higher in the mountains (1300 m a.s.l.), which are connected by small streams. These four lakes are inhabited by fish populations. The fifth site is a small, shallow, and fishless pond located at one of the highest sites in the park (1400 m a.s.l). Samples were collected for analysis of chlorophyll concentrations and for littoral, aquatic crustaceans. All sites are oligotrophic, and show low crustacean species richness. In the four lakes with fishes, the crustacean littoral fauna was composed of Hyalella araucana (Amphipoda) only. In the fifth lake, the crustaceans collected were H. araucana, copepods (Boeckella gracilis and Mesocyclops longisetus)...

‣ Evaluación de respuesta ovárica y calidad de ovocitos en gatas tratadas con hormona folículo estimulante (FSH) utilizando dos esquemas de administración

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del tratamiento gonadotrófico con FSH sobre las características foliculares y ovocitarias de gatas adultas, y comparar dos esquemas de administración de FSH en términos del número de ovocitos potencialmente aptos para MIV. Usando veinte gatas adultas, aleatoriamente, se formaron tres grupos de tratamiento. Grupo SC (n=7) 5 mg/ día de FSH por 4 días, vía subcutánea; Grupo IM (n=6) 2 mg/día de FSH por 5 días, vía intramuscular y un Grupo Control (n=7). Las gatas fueron ovariectomizadas y se realizó recuento, medición de folículos y recuperación de ovocitos. Los folículos fueron agrupados en dos categorías: < 2 mm y >= 2 mm (considerados como preovulatorios). El tratamiento gonadotrófico aumentó (P< 0.05) el número total de folículos y número de folículos >= 2 mm, comparado con el grupo control, independiente del esquema de administración de FSH. El tratamiento gonadotrófico, también aumentó (P<0.05) el número total de ovocitos recuperados y el número de ovocitos aptos para MIV, comparado con el grupo control, independiente del esquema de administración de FSH. Las tasas de recuperación de ovocitos totales y ovocitos aptos para MIV fueron superiores (P < 0.05) en folículos >= 2 mm versus folículos< 2 mm. Podemos concluir entonces que la administración...

‣ Crustacean (Copepoda and Cladocera) zooplankton richness in Chilean Patagonian lakes

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The Chilean Patagonian lakes are characterized by their oligotrophy, high endemism, significant predominance of calanoid copepods in comparison to daphnid cladocerans, and low species richness. These characteristics are in marked contrast to the situation in North American lakes. In the present study, published information of chlorophyll concentrations and species richness for Chilean Patagonian lakes was considered. The results denoted direct correlations between chlorophyll concentration and species richness, as well as an inverse correlation between latitude and species richness, whereas a relationship between lake surface and species richness was not observed. The results obtained would indicate that the oligotrophic status of the sites studied is the main cause of low species richness. Our conclusions most probably reveal the existence of different regulator mechanisms in comparison to North American lakes. Ecological and biogeographical topics are discussed.

‣ Contenido de yodo en forrajes de predios lecheros de las Regiones IX y X de Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
El contenido de yodo (I) en la ración es un factor relacionado con la concentración sanguínea de tiroxina (T4) y triyodotironina (T3). En vacas lecheras a pastoreo en el sur de Chile, se han observado concentraciones bajas de T4. El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener información acerca de la concentración de I en forrajes de predios lecheros de las Regiones IX y X de Chile. En 1999 se obtuvieron muestras de forraje en 25 predios de ambas Regiones, la concentración de I se determinó mediante un método colorimétrico cinético. Se obtuvo el promedio, desviación estándar y rango para los valores observados y la frecuencia de valores bajo el contenido considerado adecuado ( 0.4 ppm). La concentración de I observada fue 0.20±0.08 ppm, no encontrándose forrajes con valores adecuados. Los valores obtenidos en este estudio revelan una deficiencia en el contenido de I en los forrajes de los predios de las Regiones IX y X de Chile, sugiriendo que los valores bajos de T4 observados, estarían asociados a un escaso consumo de este mineral.; Iodine (I) content of rations is a factor associated with the blood concentration of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in cattle. In herds from southern Chile, low blood concentrations of T4 in grazing dairy cows have been reported. The objective was to obtain information about the I content in forage samples from dairy farms in the IXth and Xth Regions of Chile. During 1999 forage samples were taken from 25 dairy farms located in both Regions. The I concentration was analysed by a kinetic-colorimetric method. Mean...

‣ Lipid and fatty acid composition during embryo and larval development of puye Galaxias maculatus Jenyns, 1842, obtained from estuarine, freshwater and cultured populations

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Galaxias maculatus eggs and larvae obtained from broodfish captured either in an estuarine or a freshwater environment, as well as from cultured broodstock were analysed to compare their lipid and fatty acid profiles. Results showed a lower lipid content in embryos and larvae from estuarine populations than those from fresh water, denoting the influence of environmental conditions. The n-3:n-6 ratio was higher in eggs from estuarine and cultured populations, being in the range of marine fishes, whereas for eggs from freshwater fish was lower and typical of freshwater fishes. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), were higher in eggs and larvae of broodstock coming from culture or estuarine environments than in those from fresh water. Moreover, these fatty acids markedly increased after hatching in larvae coming from estuarine populations, suggesting the effect of the environment on fatty acid profiles to physiologically prepare the larvae to adapt to higher salinity conditions. Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) content was higher in fresh water fish and its reduction during embryo and larval development was accompanied by a significant increase of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6)...

‣ Hipotiroidismo en rumiantes

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
La glándula tiroides está presente en todos los vertebrados y es única entre las glándulas endocrinas en que almacena sus productos de secreción (hormonas tiroidales) extracelularmente. Estas hormonas juegan un papel indispensable en una variedad de reacciones bioquímicas en tejidos periféricos como el músculo esquelético, cardíaco, el hígado y el riñón los que colectivamente controlan la actividad metabólica basal del organismo. A pesar de que muchos procesos fisiológicos en rumiantes requieren una actividad normal de la glándula tiroides, generalmente se ha resaltado su rol principalmente en la fisiología reproductiva. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de la literatura actual, la síntesis y acciones de las hormonas tiroidales en la fisiología de los rumiantes se ha extrapolado del conocimiento extenso que se tiene en la especie canina y felina. Por lo tanto, este trabajo pretende entregar información actualizada sobre la fisiología endocrina de la glándula tiroides en los rumiantes, enfatizando su rol en el bovino y ovino y las causas mas comunes de hipotiroidismo clínico en los rumiantes domésticos.; The thyroid gland is present in all vertebrates and it is unique among endocrine glands in that it stores its secretory products (the thyroid hormones) extracellularly. These hormones play an indispensable role in a variety of biochemical reactions at the level of peripheral tissues such as the skeletal and heart muscle...

‣ Effect of ovarian superstimulation on COC collection and maturation in alpacas

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The objective of the present study was to compare the ovarian follicular response, cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) collection rate, and maturational status of COC collected from alpacas subsequent to treatment with two different superstimulatory protocols. Alpacas (n = 7 per group) were treated with: (1) 200 mg of FSH im divided bid for 3 d, plus a single i.v. dose of 1000 IU hCG 24 h after the last FSH treatment, or (2) 1200 IU of eCG as a single i.m. dose, plus a single i.v. dose of 1000 IU of hCG on day 3 after eCG treatment (day 0 = start of superstimulatory treatment). At 20-24 h post-hCG treatment, the ovaries were surgically exposed and COC were collected by needle aspiration of all follicles ≥6 mm. The FSH and eCG treatment groups did not differ with respect to the number of follicles ≥6 mm at the time of COC collection (20.0 ± 7.5 versus 27.0 ± 3.3; P = 0.5), the number of COC collected (26.2 ± 8.4 versus 23.3 ± 3.7; P = 0.7), or the collection rate per follicle aspirated (89% versus 87%; P = 0.7). No differences were detected between FSH- and eCG-treated alpacas in the number of expanded COC collected per alpaca (11.5 ± 2.9 versus 8.8 ± 2.8; P = 0.54), the number of expanded COC in metaphase II (8.5 ± 1.9 versus 6.0 ± 2.1; P = 0.1)...

‣ Estudio de resistencia de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus aisladas de mastitis subclínica bovina frente a cinco antibióticos en tres sectores de la IX región de Chile (nota técnica)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for penicillin G, ampicillin, cloxacillin, neomycin and enrofloxacin against 39 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in three locations of the IX Region of Araucanía (Chile), in order to evaluate their in vitro susceptibility patterns. Agar diffusion and dilution tests were used according to NCCLS recommendations. Strains producing betalactamase were also determined by a chromogenic cephalosporin method. High resistance levels to penicillin G and ampicillin was detected. Cloxacillin, neomycin and enrofloxacin demonstrated activity against all strains. Results obtained here emphasize the necessity of establishing resistance plan monitoring for treatments applied in Veterinary Medicine. This concept, acquires greater importance considering the role of the veterinarian in public health protection.

‣ Understanding the role of mobile ad hoc networks in non-traditional contexts

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
With the rapid development of short-range wireless technology new venues to apply it in more sophisticated, complex, and dynamic environments have been opened. Nevertheless, the applicability of such technology in non-traditional settings like face-to-face encounters and disaster relief environments, remains unclear. This article describes a research effort aimed to narrow that gap by means of using two non-traditional settings as case studies; face-to-face encounters among unacquainted people and first responders in urban disaster relief environments. Among the results obtained are: a) interactions among unacquainted people may be promoted, though the level of interaction becomes easily constrained due to the current state of RF technology and the design of the experiments, and b) it is feasible to obtain a reliable communication platform for first responders operating in disaster relief missions. These results supports the idea that short-range wireless technology may play both a facilitator and a promoter role in face-to-face contexts, and at least a facilitator role in the case of users co-located in highly dynamic contexts.

‣ Sera antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in lam as and alpacas of Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Sera samples from 113 Ilamas (Lama glama) and 127 alpacas (Lama pacos) from the IX and V Regions, respectively, of Chile were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used in both species and titers 1:25 were considered diagnostically significant based in previously published data. Sera from 49 lamas (43.3%) and 15 alpacas (11.8%) were positive to T. gondii. Percentaje seropositivity in serum dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, 1:500 and 1:5000 was 17.6%; 7.9%; 14.1% and 3.5% in lamas and 0%; 2.3%; 0.7% and 8.6% in alpacas, respectively. The rather low prevalence in alpacas may be associated with geographical conditions, management practices or contacts with cats rather than different species susceptibility. As expected, older animals showed higher reactivity of T. gondii than young animals.; Se obtuvieron 113 sueros de llamas y 127 de alpacas de criaderos ubicados en la IX y V Regiones del país respectivamente para determinar la presencia de infección de T. gondii. Para el análisis de los sueros se utilizó el "test" modificado de aglutinación (MAT) a diluciones 1:25; 1:50, 1:500; 1:5000. Del total de 113 sueros de llamas estudiados 49 (43,3%) de ellas presentaron anticuerpos contra T. gondii, mientras que en las alpacas 15 de las 127 (11...