OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare self-report and interview administration methods using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) in patients with rotator cuff disorders. METHODS: Thirty male and female patients over 18 years of age with rotator cuff disorders (tendinopathy or rotator cuff tear) and Brazilian Portuguese as their primary language were recruited for assessment via administration of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. A randomization method was used to determine whether the questionnaires would be self-reported (n=15) or administered by an interviewer (n=15). Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the correlation between the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in each group. The t-test was used to determine whether the difference in mean questionnaire scores and administration time was statistically significant. For statistical analysis, the level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The mean subject age was 55.07 years, ranging from 27 to 74 years. Most patients had a diagnosis of tendinopathy (n=21). With regard to level of schooling...
A cohort of 54,128 men who worked in Ontario mines was observed for mortality between 1955 and 1986. Most of these men worked in nickel, gold, or uranium mines; a few worked in silver, iron, lead/zinc, or other ore mines. If mortality that occurred after a man had started to mine uranium was excluded, an excess of carcinoma of the lung was found among the 13,603 Ontario gold miners in the study (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 129, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 115-145) and in men who began to mine nickel before 1936 (SMR 141, 95% CI 105-184). The excess mortality from lung cancer in the gold miners was confined to men who began gold mining before 1946. No increase in the mortality from carcinoma of the lung was evident in men who began mining gold after the end of 1945, in men who began mining nickel after 1936, or in men who mined ores other than gold, nickel, and uranium. In the gold mines each year of employment before the end of 1945 was associated with a 6.5% increase in mortality from lung cancer 20 or more years after the miner began working the mines (95% CI 1.6-11.4%); each year of employment before the end of 1945 in mines in which the host rock contained 0.1% arsenic was associated with a 3.1% increase in lung cancer 20 years or more after exposure began (95% CI 1.1-5.1%); and each working level month of exposure to radon decay products was associated with a 1.2% increase in mortality from lung cancer five or more years after exposure began (95% CI 0.02-2.4%). A comparison of two models shows that the excess of lung cancer mortality in Ontario gold miners is associated with exposure to high dust concentrations before 1946...
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare trends in hospital admission rates for mechanical neck and back problems between 1982 and 1992 in Ontario and the United States. DESIGN: A descriptive analysis of hospital admissions, with data for Ontario extracted from the Canadian Institute for Health Information database and data for the US extracted from the National Hospital Discharge Survey. SETTING: All acute care hospitals in Ontario and a probability sample of acute care hospitals in the US. PATIENTS: Adults aged 20 years or more who were admitted to an acute care hospital for mechanical neck or back problems in 1982, 1987 or 1992. Mechanical neck and back problems were defined using an algorithm developed by the study team. OUTCOME MEASURE: Hospital admission rate per 100,000 adults. RESULTS: Between 1982 and 1992 the hospital admission rate for medically treated cases decreased by 52% in Ontario and by 75% in the US. Over the same period the admission rate for surgically treated cases increased by 14% and by 35% respectively. By 1992 the admission rate for medically treated cases in the US was 23% higher than that in Ontario, whereas the rate for surgically treated cases was 164% higher. CONCLUSIONS: The hospital-based medical or surgical treatment of mechanical neck and back problems provides an example of discretionary care. The higher admission rates for surgery in the US may reflect a larger supply of surgical specialists and imaging units. Further work is needed to confirm these findings for other types of discretionary care and to compare the appropriateness of care and clinical outcomes for discretionary care in these 2 jurisdictions.
Of the 920 cows tested, 56.7% showed antiretroviral serological reactivity. Prevalence rates (95% confidence interval) of antiretroviral antibodies among individual dairy cows in Ontario were: BIV 5.5% (4.0-7.0), BLV 25.7% (22.9-28.6), and BSV 39.6% (36.4-42.8). The following percentages of cows showed serological reactivity against the specified retroviruses: BIV 2.3%, BLV 14.0%, BSV 27.5%, BIV and BSV 1.3%, BIV and BLV 0.9%, BLV and BSV 9.9%, BIV and BLV and BSV 0.9%. These rates of sero-positivity are similar to those found in other countries. Serological test results were not adjusted for sensitivity and specificity. The prevalence rates of antibodies to the three retroviruses (BIV, BLV, and BSV) were significantly different, but no associations were observed between specific retroviral serological test results among individual cows. The prevalence rates of BIV and BSV seropositivity were constant across Ontario, whereas, there was a significant trend for the prevalence rate of BLV seropositivity to decrease going from southwestern to eastern Ontario; cows in eastern Ontario had approximately half the prevalence rate of those in southwestern Ontario. Cows that were seropositive for BSV were significantly older than BSV seronegative cows. There was no association between culling rate and BSV serology. Significant negative associations were found with winter or summer housing of calves separate from adults and summer outdoor exercise for dry cows. The use of calf hutches in the summer had a significant positive association with BSV seropositivity. Regression analyses were done to assess the association of retroviral (BIV...
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether workers in Ontario who had been exposed to silica dust and who have radiographic abnormalities are at increased risk of lung cancer. DESIGN: Cohort and case-control studies of rates of death from lung cancer and cancer incidence rates; data were obtained from the Ontario Silicosis Surveillance Registry. Follow-up was through linkage to the Ontario mortality and cancer registries. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 523 workers with radiographic abnormalities and 1568 control subjects with normal radiographic findings who had been exposed to silica dust. Matching criteria were year of birth and the requirement that the control subject have a normal radiographic finding either later than or in the same year that the radiographic abnormality was identified in the silicosis subject. OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and odds ratios for lung cancer. RESULTS: In the cohort analysis, with the Ontario population rates as reference, the all-cause SMR was 0.96 among the workers with radiographic abnormalities and 0.51 among the control subjects. The corresponding SIRs for lung cancer were 2.49 and 0.87 (p < 0.001). In the case-control analysis the workers with silicosis were more likely than the control subjects to have been smokers...
OBJECTIVES: This study compared physician use in Ontario and the midwestern and northeastern United States for persons of different socioeconomic status and health status. The distribution of health problems associated with the most recent physician visit also was compared. METHODS: The design of the study was cross sectional; data derived from the 1990 Ontario Health Survey and the 1990 US National Health Interview Survey were used in analyses. RESULTS: Overall, persons in Ontario averaged 19% more visits than US residents, but differences varied markedly across income and health status. At each level of health status, low- income Canadians had 25% to 33% more visits than their US counterparts. However, among higher income persons, those in excellent or very good health had 22% more visits than Americans, while those in good, fair, or poor health had 10% fewer visits than Americans. Higher visit rates in Ontario were not associated with a greater prevalence of low- priority visits. CONCLUSIONS: Under the Canadian single- payer system, medical care in Ontario has been redistributed to low-income persons and the elderly. Compared with the United States, there has been a lower intensity of medical care for the sick higher income population.
Neisseria meningitidis has been relatively slow to acquire resistance to penicillin. We previously reported an increase in the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) strains with decreased susceptibility to penicillin (DSP) in Ontario. Our objectives were to evaluate trends in IMD with DSP, to identify case-level predictors of IMD with DSP, and to evaluate the relationship among DSP, bacterial phenotype, and the likelihood of a fatal outcome. All IMD isolates received in Ontario between 2000 and 2006 were submitted to the Public Health Laboratories, Toronto, for confirmation of the species, serogroup determination, and susceptibility testing. Isolates were considered to be IMD strains with DSP if the penicillin MIC was ≥0.125 μg/ml. Temporal trends were evaluated using multivariable Poisson regression models. Correlates of diminished susceptibility and fatal outcome were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression models. The overall rate of IMD caused by strains with DSP in Ontario was approximately 1.20 cases per million population annually (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.99 to 1.46). Seventy-nine strains (21.7%) were IMD strains with DSP. There was no year-to-year trend in the incidence of IMD with DSP. IMD with DSP was strongly associated with strains of serogroups Y (odds ratio [OR]...
It has been 21 years since the first successful use of umbilical cord blood as a source of donor cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hsct). Over those years, cord blood transplantation (cbt) has shown marked success as an effective modality in the treatment of children and adults with hematologic malignancies, marrow failure, immunodeficiency, hemoglobinopathy, and inherited metabolic diseases. Furthermore, transplantation without full human leukocyte antigen (hla) matching is possible and, despite a lower incidence of graft-versus-host disease, graft-versus-leukemia effect is preserved. More than 20,000 cbts have been performed worldwide. Ontario is the most populated province in Canada, and its cbt numbers have increased dramatically in recent years, but most of the umbilical cord blood units are purchased from unrelated international registries. There is no public cord bank in Ontario, but there is a private cord banking option, and notably, Ontario has the largest number of live births in Canada [approximately 40% of all Canadian live births per year occur in Ontario (Statistics Canada, 2007)]. In this brief review, the pros and cons of private and public cord banking and the feasibility of starting an Ontario public cord bank are discussed.
This study analyzed sheep prion protein (PrP) genotypes of samples submitted from Ontario and other provinces of Canada to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, between 2005 and 2012. In Ontario, the proportion of scrapie-resistant sheep increased from 2005 to 2012 as evidenced by an increase in the ARR haplotype. When Canadian provinces (Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia) were compared from 2008 to 2012, a high proportion of scrapie-resistant sheep was found in all the provinces. The proportions of resistant sheep were lower in Alberta and Quebec than in Ontario and Nova Scotia. Alberta had higher proportions of susceptible sheep and a higher frequency of VRQ alleles, and Quebec had a higher frequency of the ARQ allele.
Sediment relationships observed during geological mapping
in southeastern Ontario indicate a relatively simple deglaciation
history for the area during late Wisconsin time. The
ice from the north (part of the Lake Simcoe lobe) and the
Lake Ontario ice lobe, which were coalesced during most of late
Wisconsin time, initially separated along the crest of the
Oak Ridges Moraine. Available data indicate that the Oak
Ridges Moraine is composed primarily of sediments pre-late
Wisconsin in age capped by late Wisconsin till and interlobate
Retreat of the northern ice was relatively steady and
resulted in the deposition of the Dummer Moraines, a facies
of the drumlinized till to the south. Retreat of the Lake
Ontario ice lobe into the Lake Ontario basin was interrupted
by a re-advance which covered the southeastern half of the map
area. The northern ice had already retreated from the area
by this time. The Lake Ontario lobe was fed through the
St. Lawrence Valley, indicating that the Ottawa Valley was
ice filled at this time.
High level glacial lakes fronted the ice during deglaciation.
These waters quickly fell to low levels as the ice
retreated from the St. Lawrence Valley, opening lower outlets.
Since the discovery of West Nile (WN) virus in the Western Hemisphere many surveillance
programs have been implemented to monitor the epidemiology and genetic variation of WN
virus in North America. This project was based on the WN virus Adult Mosquito
Identification and Diagnostic Program conducted at Brock University for Ontario, Canada,
during the 2002 and 2003 transmission seasons. There are three sections to this thesis. The
first section investigated which mosquito species carry WN virus in Ontario, Canada
throughout the 2002-2003 transmission seasons. It was found that from the 2002 data, eight
mosquito species were detected with WN virus (Aedes vexans, Anopheles punctipennis,
Coquilleltidia perlurbans, Culex salinarius, Cx. pipiens, Cx. resluans, Ochlerolalus Irivillalus
and Och. Iriserialus) and 7.19% of the total mosquito pools tested were found to be WN virus
positive (129 positive poolsll, 793 total pools tested). In 2003, WN virus was detected in only
five mosquito species (Ae. vexans, Cx. salinarius, Och. Iriserialus, Cx. pipiens and Cx.
resluans) and 1.42% of the total mosquito pools tested were WN virus positive (101 positive
poolsl7,1 01 total pools tested). WN virus positive mosquito pools were detected 3-4 weeks
earlier in 2002 compared to 2003 data. The second section investigated the actual infection
rate (IR) of clearly identified Cx. pipiens and Cx. resluans from the 2002 outbreak. It was
found that significantly more ex. resluans were infected with WN virus compared to ex.
pipiens. The third section investigated the degree of variability of the WN virus genome. A
879 nucleotide section of the WN virus genome was amplified from 21 American Crows and
20 adult female mosquitoes from Ontario...
An accomplished poet, writer and journalist, Ethelwyn Wetherald’s works were present in all Ontario readers for school children. Among her most notable works are; The Indigo Bird, The Red-Winged Blackbird, and The Pasture Field. The above poem Legacies is one of her most famous works and appears on her gravestone.
Wetherald was born in 1857 as the sixth child out of an eventual eleven. Although born in Rockwood Ontario, she spent most of her life in Fenwick (Pelham Township), Ontario, where she died in 1940. Wetherald used her surroundings as her inspiration and focused on nature. She has been coined a nature poet and journalist.
Wetherald received her education at both the Friends boarding school in Union Springs, N.Y. and at Pickering College in Pickering Ontario. After her schooling she wrote numerous articles for the Toronto Globe under the pen name Bel Thistelwaite, derived from her Grandmother’s name. These articles lead to a position as Women’s editor of the Globe and later she was part of the Advertiser’s editorial staff in London Ontario.
Wetherald continued writing after she was finished with the papers and published six volumes of poetry between 1895 and 1931. Her work was not only known amongst school children...
Serving the Niagara and surrounding areas for over 120 years, Walker Industries has made its impact not only commercially, but also culturally.
Beginning in 1875 with the erection of a stone sawing mill on a property John Walker purchased from the Welland Canal Loan Company. One of the first projects Walker cut stone for was the Merritton Town Hall. In 1882 the business expanded to include Walkers children, changing the name to Walker & Sons. Eventually in 1887 the two eldest sons took control of the business operation and their partnership changed the company’s name to Walker Brothers, the same year the company began operating its first quarry. The quarry was conveniently located alongside the 3rd Welland canal, offering easy access to Toronto and Hamilton. It was also close to the railway system which allowed immediate access to Thorold and Niagara Falls and later access to parts of Ontario and Quebec. The quarry supplied stone to build numerous halls and armouries across Ontario. A use was also found for the ‘waste products’ of cutting the limestone. Leftover stone chips were sent to paper mills, where stone was needed as part of the sulphite pulp process for making paper.
Beginning to supply the Ontario Paper Company with stone in 1913...
Lewis Tyrell married Jane Gains on August 31, 1849 in Culpeper
Court House, Virginia. Jane Gains was a spinster. Lewis
Tyrell died September 25, 1908 at his late residence, Vine St. and Welland Ave., St. Catharines, Ont. at the age of 81 years, 5 months. Jane Tyrell died March 1, 1886, age 64 years. Their son? William C. Tyrell died January 15, 1898, by accident in Albany, NY, age 33 years, 3 months.
John William Taylor married Susan Jones were married in St. Catharines,
Ont. on August 10, 1851 by William Wilkinson, a Baptist minister.
On August 9, 1894 Charles Henry Bell (1871-1916), son of Stephen
(1835?-1876) and Susan Bell, married Mary E. Tyrell (b. 1869?) daughter
of Lewis and Alice Tyrell, in St. Catharines Ontario. By 1895 the Bell’s
were living in Erie, Pennsylvania where children Delbert Otto (b. 1895) and Edna Beatrice (b. 1897) were born. By 1897 the family was back in St. Catharines where children Lewis Tyrell (b. 1899), Gertrude Cora (b. 1901), Bessie Jane (b. 1902), Charles Henry (b. 1906), Richard Nelson (b. 1911) and William Willoughby (b. 1912) were born. Charles Henry Bell operated a coal and ice business on Geneva Street. In the 1901 Census for St. Catharines...
Lopez, Scribner and Mahitivanichcha (2001) discuss the limited volume of
literature that directly addresses ethnic minority parents' involvement in their children's
education and they call upon researchers to fill this gap in the literature. This study is one
such positive step with its focus on exploring how ethnic minority parents of secondary
school students in southern Ontario understand their involvement in their children's
education. Participants in the study included three ethnic minority parents recruited from
a local adult education centre, and my parents who, as ethnics minority parents, also
faced challenges trying to support their children as we progressed through the Ontario
educational system. Primary data were collected through in-depth, open-ended interviews
approximately one hour in length. Each of the five participants was interviewed twice.
Secondary data included Ontario Ministry of Education documents that addressed
programs, policies, and supports for ethnic minority students in Ontario secondary
schools. Fieldnotes and a research journal also provided secondary data.
The findings highlight, among other things, the challenges the participants faced
as ethnic minority parents with a deep desire to support their children's education...
The public education system in Ontario, like many other education systems worldwide, is currently undergoing drastic changes effected by globalization. The globalization of education, which can be understood as “the worldwide discussions, processes, and institutions affecting local education practices and policies” (Spring, 2009, p. 1), has led to Ontario’s curriculum being used in over 20 schools located outside the province (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2011). Because these schools grant the Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD), students must satisfy the same graduation requirements as those students who attend secondary school located in Ontario.
A requirement for graduation includes the successful completion of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT), a large-scale assessment intended to measure literacy. English Language Learners (ELLs) have more difficulty passing the OSSLT than their peers who speak English as their first language (Doe, Cheng, Klinger, & Zheng, 2011; Fox & Cheng, 2007). This issue is of particular concern to educators and students at these schools. Because the majority of these schools are located in China, my study focuses on ELLs in one school in China which uses the Ontario curriculum. The purpose of my study is twofold: 1) to understand how Chinese English Language Learners perceive the news report on the OSSLT...
Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to: a) describe the current context of Ontario’s employment policies by conducting a policy analysis to understand the ways in which the Ontario Human Rights Code, the Labour Relations Act, and Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) function together to provide a framework for action to guide employer attitudes towards disabilities in the private sector of Ontario, and b) investigate employer knowledge/understanding and application of these three policies in the Ontario private sector by conducting interviews.
Methods: To perform the policy analysis, relevant documents were systematically collected and qualitatively analyzed. In addition to the policy analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with three employers to investigate the policy knowledge and application in the workplace.
Results: From the policy analysis, ten themes arose: anti-discrimination and accommodation, the individual complaint system of the Ontario Human Rights Code, the need for government participation, education, and awareness in the AODA, the application of the Labour Relations Act, required employer knowledge of the three Ontario policies, minority group treatment of people with disabilities in policy...
Since the commencement of welfare state restructuring in the mid 1990’s under the Harris government in Ontario, significant cuts to social assistance, or what symbolically became ‘Ontario Works’, have fundamentally altered how assistance is managed and delivered. Accompanying these financial reforms was the increased surveillance of individuals and families receiving social assistance in the province of Ontario. The central focus of this project examines the technological, task force-oriented and community surveillance practices administered by Ontario Works. Based on primary research of policy documents, legislation, regulations and directives, the thesis argues that through the multitude of surveillance technologies, Ontario Works has made living on social assistance increasingly more demoralizing, in addition to the added difficulty of obtaining welfare benefits. Finally, since an overwhelming majority of recipients are single mothers, the thesis addresses the substantial gender and class dimensions attached to Ontario Works’ surveillance practices and further questions the neoliberal policies such as the ‘war on fraud’ which justified the increased surveillance of poor mothers.; Thesis (Master, Sociology) -- Queen's University...
Marquée par la mise en place et par le développement graduel d’importantes transformations de type socioéconomique et démographique, la deuxième moitié du 19e siècle constitue le scénario à partir duquel nous analysons et comparons le phénomène de la mobilité sociale intergénérationnelle au Québec et en Ontario, plus précisément dans la période 1852-1881. Grâce à la disponibilité de bases de microdonnées censitaires largement représentatives de la population qui habitait dans chacune de ces deux provinces en 1852 et en 1881 ainsi qu’au développement récent d’une technique de jumelage automatique, nous avons réussi à obtenir un échantillon de 4226 individus jumelés entre les recensements canadiens de 1852 et de 1881. Ces individus sont les garçons âgés de 0 à 15 ans en 1852, qui habitaient majoritairement en milieu rural au Québec ou en Ontario et qui se trouvent dans l’échantillon de 20% du recensement canadien de 1852. Cet échantillon jumelé nous a permis d’observer les caractéristiques de la famille d’origine de ces garçons en 1852 – par exemple, le statut socioprofessionnel du père et la fréquentation scolaire – ainsi que leur propre statut socioprofessionnel (en tant qu’adultes) en 1881. Malgré certains défis posés par la disponibilité et le type de données ainsi que par la procédure de jumelage...
L’Organisation mondiale de la santé animale (OIE) est l’institution internationale responsable de la mise en place des mesures sanitaires associées aux échanges commerciaux d’animaux vivants. Le zonage est une méthode de contrôle recommandée par l’OIE pour certaines maladies infectieuses, dont l’influenza aviaire. Les éclosions d’influenza aviaire été extrêmement coûteuses pour l’industrie avicole partout dans le monde.
Afin d’évaluer la possibilité d’user de cette approche en Ontario, les données sur les sites de production avicole ont été fournies par les fédérations d’éleveurs de volailles ce cette province. L’information portant sur les industries associées à la production avicole, soit les meuneries, les abattoirs, les couvoirs, et les usines de classification d’œufs, a été obtenue par l’entremise de plusieurs sources, dont des représentants de l’industrie avicole. Des diagrammes de flux a été crée afin de comprendre les interactions entre les sites de production et les industries associées à ceux-ci. Ces industries constituaient les éléments de bas nécessaires au zonage. Cette analyse a permis de créer une base de données portant sur intrants et extrants de production pour chaque site d’élevage avicole...