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‣ WNT5A Mutations in Patients With Autosomal Dominant Robinow Syndrome

PERSON, Anthony D.; BEIRAGHI, Soraya; SIEBEN, Christine M.; HERMANSON, Spencer; NEUMANN, Ann N.; ROBU, Mara E.; SCHLEIFFARTH, J. Robert; BILLINGTON JR., Charles J.; BOKHOVEN, Hans van; HOOGEBOOM, Jeannette M.; MAZZEU, Juliana F.; PETRYK, Anna; SCHIMMENTI,
Fonte: WILEY-LISS Publicador: WILEY-LISS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Robinow syndrome is a skeletal dysplasia with both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance patterns. It is characterized by short stature, limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and craniofacial abnormalities. The etiology of dominant Robinow syndrome is unknown; however, the phenotypically more severe autosomal recessive form of Robinow syndrome has been associated with mutations in the orphan tyrosine kinase receptor, ROR2, which has recently been identified as a putative WNT5A receptor. Here, we show that two different missense mutations in WNT5A, which result in amino acid substitutions of highly conserved cysteines, are associated with autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. One mutation has been found in all living affected members of the original family described by Meinhard Robinow and another in a second unrelated patient. These missense mutations result in decreased WNT5A activity in functional assays of zebrafish and Xenopus development. This work suggests that a WNT5A/ROR2 signal transduction pathway is important in human craniofacial and skeletal development and that proper formation and growth of these structures is sensitive to variations in WNT5A function. Developmental Dynamics 239:327-337, 2010. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss...

‣ Mutations in the Δ7-sterol reductase gene in patients with the Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome

Fitzky, Barbara U.; Witsch-Baumgartner, Martina; Erdel, Martin; Lee, Joon No; Paik, Young-Ki; Glossmann, Hartmut; Utermann, Gerd; Moebius, Fabian F.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/07/1998 Português
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The Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an inborn disorder of sterol metabolism with characteristic congenital malformations and dysmorphias. All patients suffer from mental retardation. Here we identify the SLOS gene as a Δ7-sterol reductase (DHCR7, EC 1.3.1.21) required for the de novo biosynthesis of cholesterol. The human and murine genes were characterized and assigned to syntenic regions on chromosomes 11q13 and 7F5 by fluorescense in situ hybridization. Among the mutations found in patients with the SLOS, are missense (P51S, T93M, L99P, L157P, A247V, V326L, R352W, C380S, R404C, and G410S), nonsense (W151X), and splice site (IVS8–1G>C) mutations as well as an out of frame deletion (720–735 del). The missense mutations L99P, V326L, R352W, R404C, and G410S reduced heterologous protein expression by >90%. Our results strongly suggest that defects in the DHCR7 gene cause the SLOS.

‣ Interactions of Human hMSH2 with hMSH3 and hMSH2 with hMSH6: Examination of Mutations Found in Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

Guerrette, Shawn; Wilson, Teresa; Gradia, Scott; Fishel, Richard
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 Português
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Mutations in the human mismatch repair protein hMSH2 have been found to cosegregate with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Previous biochemical and physical studies have shown that hMSH2 forms specific mispair binding complexes with hMSH3 and hMSH6. We have further characterized these protein interactions by mapping the contact regions within the hMSH2-hMSH3 and the hMSH2-hMSH6 heterodimers. We demonstrate that there are at least two distinct interaction regions of hMSH2 with hMSH3 and hMSH2 with hMSH6. Interestingly, the interaction regions of hMSH2 with either hMSH3 or hMSH6 are identical and there is a coordinated linear orientation of these regions. We examined several missense alterations of hMSH2 found in HNPCC kindreds that are contained within the consensus interaction regions. None of these missense mutations displayed a defect in protein-protein interaction. These data support the notion that these HNPCC-associated mutations may affect some other function of the heterodimeric complexes than simply the static interaction of hMSH2 with hMSH3 or hMSH2 with hMSH6.

‣ In vivo selection of conditional-lethal mutations in the gene encoding elongation factor G of Escherichia coli.

Hou, Y; Lin, Y P; Sharer, J D; March, P E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1994 Português
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The ribosome translocation step that occurs during protein synthesis is a highly conserved, essential activity of all cells. The precise movement of one codon that occurs following peptide bond formation is regulated by elongation factor G (EF-G) in eubacteria or elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in eukaryotes. To begin to understand molecular interactions that regulate this process, a genetic selection was developed with the aim of obtaining conditional-lethal alleles of the gene (fusA) that encodes EF-G in Escherichia coli. The genetic selection depends on the observation that resistant strains arose spontaneously in the presence of sublethal concentrations of the antibiotic kanamycin. Replica plating was performed to obtain mutant isolates from this collection that were restrictive for growth at 42 degrees C. Two tightly temperature-sensitive strains were characterized in detail and shown to harbor single-site missense mutations within fusA. The fusA100 mutant encoded a glycine-to-aspartic acid change at codon 502. The fusA101 allele encoded a glutamine-to-proline alteration at position 495. Induction kinetics of beta-galactosidase activity suggested that both mutations resulted in slower elongation rates in vivo. These missense mutations were very near a small group of conserved amino acid residues (positions 483 to 493) that occur in EF-G and EF-2 but not EF-Tu. It is concluded that these sequences encode a specific domain that is essential for efficient translocase function.

‣ Recessive NRL mutations in patients with clumped pigmentary retinal degeneration and relative preservation of blue cone function

Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Friedman, James S.; Sandberg, Michael A.; Swaroop, Anand; Berson, Eliot L.; Dryja, Thaddeus P.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mice lacking the transcription factor Nrl have no rod photoreceptors and an increased number of short-wavelength-sensitive cones. Missense mutations in NRL are associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa; however, the phenotype associated with the loss of NRL function in humans has not been reported. We identified two siblings who carried two allelic mutations: a predicted null allele (L75fs) and a missense mutation (L160P) altering a highly conserved residue in the domain involved in DNA-binding-site recognition. In vitro luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the NRL-L160P mutant had severely reduced transcriptional activity compared with the WT NRL protein, consistent with a severe loss of function. The affected patients had night blindness since early childhood, consistent with a severe reduction in rod function. Color vision was normal, suggesting the presence of all cone color types; nevertheless, a comparison of central visual fields evaluated with white-on-white and blue-on-yellow light stimuli was consistent with a relatively enhanced function of short-wavelength-sensitive cones in the macula. The fundi had signs of retinal degeneration (such as vascular attenuation) and clusters of large, clumped, pigment deposits in the peripheral fundus at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium (clumped pigmentary retinal degeneration). Our report presents an unusual clinical phenotype in humans with loss-of-function mutations in NRL.

‣ Characterization of beta-galactosidase mutations Asp332-->Asn and Arg148-->Ser, and a polymorphism, Ser532-->Gly, in a case of GM1 gangliosidosis.

Zhang, S; Bagshaw, R; Hilson, W; Oho, Y; Hinek, A; Clarke, J T; Callahan, J W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2000 Português
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We have identified and characterized three missense mutations in a patient with type 1 G(M1) gangliosidosis, namely a substitution of G for A at nucleotide position 1044 (G1044-->A; in exon 10) on one allele, which converts Asp(332) into asparagine, and both a mutation (C492-->A in exon 4, leading to the amino acid change of Arg(148)-->Ser) and a polymorphism (A1644-->G in exon 15, leading to a change of Ser(532)-->Gly) on the other allele. This patient had less than 1% residual beta-galactosidase activity and minimally detectable levels of immunoreactive beta-galactosidase protein in fibroblasts. To account for the above findings, a series of expression and immunolocalization studies were undertaken to assess the impact of each mutation. Transient overexpression in COS-1 cells of cDNAs encoding Asp(332)Asn, Arg(148)Ser and Ser(532)Gly mutant beta-galactosidases produced abundant amounts of precursor beta-galactosidase, with activities of 0, 84 and 81% compared with the cDNA clone for wild-type beta-galactosidase (GP8). Since the level of vector-driven expression is much less in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells than in COS-1 cells, and we knew that exogenous beta-galactosidase undergoes lysosomal processing when expressed in these cells...

‣ Null mutations in the lin-31 gene indicate two functions during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development.

Miller, L M; Hess, H A; Doroquez, D B; Andrews, N M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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The lin-31 gene is required for the proper specification of vulval cell fates in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and encodes a member of the winged-helix family of transcription factors. Members of this important family have been identified in many organisms and are known to bind specific DNA targets involved in a variety of developmental processes. DNA sequencing of 13 lin-31 alleles revealed six nonsense mutations and two missense mutations within the DNA-binding domain, plus three deletions, one transposon insertion, and one frameshift mutation that all cause large-scale disruptions in the gene. The missense mutations are amino acid substitutions in the DNA-binding domain and probably disrupt interactions of the LIN-31 transcription factor with its DNA target. In addition, detailed phenotypic analysis of all 19 alleles showed similar penetrance for several characteristics examined. From our analysis we conclude: (1) the null phenotype of lin-31 is the phenotype displayed by almost all of the existing alleles, (2) the DNA-binding domain plays a critical role in LIN-31 function, and (3) direct screens for multivulva and vulvaless mutants will probably yield only null (or strong) alleles of lin-31.

‣ Three novel mutations reflect the variety of defects causing phenotypically diverse X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome

LÓPEZ-GRANADOS, E; CAMBRONERO, R; FERREIRA, A; FONTÁN, G; GARCÍA-RODRÍGUEZ, M C
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Inc Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2003 Português
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X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM1) (MIM#308230), is a severe primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene coding for CD40 ligand (CD40L or CD154), a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. The interaction of this protein with its ligand, CD40, mediates crucial processes in the immune response. The variety of defects that have been described in HIGM1 patients range from a complete lack of CD40L protein expression to missense mutations that interfere with its interaction with CD40L. In this study we describe three families – a total of seven HIGM1 patients and carriers, presenting a spectrum of severity in clinical evolution. In two of these families, patient DNA samples were available for genetic studies. In the third, carrier detection was performed on female family members. The results of immunological studies – the different patterns of CD40L expression and binding capacity as measured by flow cytometry – and molecular diagnosis are presented. Three novel mutations were identified: an intron mutation that partially interferes with the splicing process (intron 3, position + 5 G/T); a missense mutation (Ser222 Phe) located in the molecular region which interacts with the receptor and which abrogates binding capacity; and a 14 base pair deletion leading to a frameshift and a premature truncated mutation (del I 171 X 195). An attempt to correlate protein expression and function of the CD40L mutants with clinical disease evolution is described.

‣ Transforming mutations of RAC guanosine triphosphatases in human cancers

Kawazu, Masahito; Ueno, Toshihide; Kontani, Kenji; Ogita, Yoshitaka; Ando, Mizuo; Fukumura, Kazutaka; Yamato, Azusa; Soda, Manabu; Takeuchi, Kengo; Miki, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Takahiko; Naoe, Tomoki; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Katada, Toshiaki;
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Members of the RAS superfamily of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) transition between GDP-bound, inactive and GTP-bound, active states and thereby function as binary switches in the regulation of various cellular activities. Whereas HRAS, NRAS, and KRAS frequently acquire transforming missense mutations in human cancer, little is known of the oncogenic roles of other small GTPases, including Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (RAC) proteins. We show that the human sarcoma cell line HT1080 harbors both NRAS(Q61K) and RAC1(N92I) mutant proteins. Whereas both of these mutants were able to transform fibroblasts, knockdown experiments indicated that RAC1(N92I) may be the essential growth driver for this cell line. Screening for RAC1, RAC2, or RAC3 mutations in cell lines and public databases identified several missense mutations for RAC1 and RAC2, with some of the mutant proteins, including RAC1(P29S), RAC1(C157Y), RAC2(P29L), and RAC2(P29Q), being found to be activated and transforming. P29S, N92I, and C157Y mutants of RAC1 were shown to exist preferentially in the GTP-bound state as a result of a rapid transition from the GDP-bound state, rather than as a result of a reduced intrinsic GTPase activity. Activating mutations of RAC GTPases were thus found in a wide variety of human cancers at a low frequency; however...

‣ Three novel truncating TINF2 mutations causing severe dyskeratosis congenita in early childhood

Sasa, Ghadir S.; Ribes-Zamora, Albert; Nelson, Nya D.; Bertuch, Alison A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a telomere-biology disorder characterized by a mucocutaneous triad, aplastic anemia, and predisposition to cancer. Mutations in a narrow segment of TINF2 exon 6 have been recognized to cause often-severe DC that is either sporadic or autosomal dominant. We describe three children with very early presentations of DC, including one with the severe variant known as Revesz syndrome. Whereas most TINF2 mutations reported to date are missense changes, each of our patients carried a novel heterozygous nonsense or frameshift mutation, revealing a new 5’ boundary to the affected gene segment in patients with DC. Examination of patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines revealed stable expression of the predicted truncated TIN2 proteins. In co-immunoprecipitation assays, the ability of a truncation mutant to interact with TRF1 was severely impaired, whereas the ability of the most common DC-associated mutant was much less affected. This suggests that disruption of TIN2-TRF1 interaction may contribute to the severe clinical phenotype observed in the context of the TIN2 truncation mutation but is unlikely to be the primary cause of telomere shortening associated with the more prevalent TIN2 missense mutations. Telomere flow-FISH analysis of one pedigree demonstrated the dramatic effect a de novo nonsense TINF2 mutation had on telomere length in early development. These cases underscore the severe manifestations of truncating TINF2 mutations.

‣ The contribution of de novo coding mutations to autism spectrum disorder

Iossifov, Ivan; O’Roak, Brian J.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Ronemus, Michael; Krumm, Niklas; Levy, Dan; Stessman, Holly A.; Witherspoon, Kali; Vives, Laura; Patterson, Karynne E.; Smith, Joshua D.; Paeper, Bryan; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Dea, Jeanselle; Dong,
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We sequenced exomes from more than 2,500 simplex families each having a child with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). By comparing affected to unaffected siblings, we estimate that 13% of de novo (DN) missense mutations and 42% of DN likely gene-disrupting (LGD) mutations contribute to 12% and 9% of diagnoses, respectively. Including copy number variants, coding DN mutations contribute to about 30% of all simplex and 45% of female diagnoses. Virtually all LGD mutations occur opposite wild-type alleles. LGD targets in affected females significantly overlap the targets in males of lower IQ, but neither overlaps significantly with targets in males of higher IQ. We estimate that LGD mutation in about 400 genes can contribute to the joint class of affected females and males of lower IQ, with an overlapping and similar number of genes vulnerable to causative missense mutation. LGD targets in the joint class overlap with published targets for intellectual disability and schizophrenia, and are enriched for chromatin modifiers, FMRP-associated genes and embryonically expressed genes. Virtually all significance for the latter comes from affected females.

‣ Primary bile acid malabsorption caused by mutations in the ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter gene (SLC10A2).

Oelkers, P; Kirby, L C; Heubi, J E; Dawson, P A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/1997 Português
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Primary bile acid malabsorption (PBAM) is an idiopathic intestinal disorder associated with congenital diarrhea, steatorrhea, interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and reduced plasma cholesterol levels. The molecular basis of PBAM is unknown, and several conflicting mechanisms have been postulated. In this study, we cloned the human ileal Na+/bile acid cotransporter gene (SLC10A2) and employed single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis to screen for PBAM-associated mutations. Four polymorphisms were identified and sequenced in a family with congenital PBAM. One allele encoded an A171S missense mutation and a mutated donor splice site for exon 3. The other allele encoded two missense mutations at conserved amino acid positions, L243P and T262M. In transfected COS cells, the L243P, T262M, and double mutant (L243P/T262M) did not affect transporter protein expression or trafficking to the plasma membrane; however, transport of taurocholate and other bile acids was abolished. In contrast, the A171S mutation had no effect on taurocholate uptake. The dysfunctional mutations were not detected in 104 unaffected control subjects, whereas the A171S was present in 28% of that population. These findings establish that SLC10A2 mutations can cause PBAM and underscore the ileal Na+/bile acid cotransporter's role in intestinal reclamation of bile acids.

‣ Heterozygous De Novo and Inherited Mutations in the Smooth Muscle Actin (ACTG2) Gene Underlie Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome

Wangler, Michael F.; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Gambin, Tomasz; Penney, Samantha; Moss, Timothy; Chopra, Atul; Probst, Frank J.; Xia, Fan; Yang, Yaping; Werlin, Steven; Eglite, Ieva; Kornejeva, Liene; Bacino, Carlos A.; Baldridge, Dustin; Neul, Jeff; Lehm
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2014 Português
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Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare disorder of enteric smooth muscle function affecting the intestine and bladder. Patients with this severe phenotype are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. The cause of this syndrome has remained a mystery since Berdon's initial description in 1976. No genes have been clearly linked to MMIHS. We used whole-exome sequencing for gene discovery followed by targeted Sanger sequencing in a cohort of patients with MMIHS and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We identified heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants in 15 unrelated subjects, ten being apparent de novo mutations. Ten unique variants were detected, of which six affected CpG dinucleotides and resulted in missense mutations at arginine residues, perhaps related to biased usage of CpG containing codons within actin genes. We also found some of the same heterozygous mutations that we observed as apparent de novo mutations in MMIHS segregating in families with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, suggesting that ACTG2 is responsible for a spectrum of smooth muscle disease. ACTG2 encodes γ2 enteric actin and is the first gene to be clearly associated with MMIHS, suggesting an important role for contractile proteins in enteric smooth muscle disease.

‣ Fabry disease: thirty-five mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene in patients with classic and variant phenotypes.

Eng, C. M.; Ashley, G. A.; Burgert, T. S.; Enriquez, A. L.; D'Souza, M.; Desnick, R. J.
Fonte: The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research Publicador: The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1997 Português
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BACKGROUND: Fabry disease, an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, results from mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A) gene located at Xq22.1. To determine the nature and frequency of the molecular lesions causing the classical and milder variant Fabry phenotypes and for precise carrier detection, the alpha-Gal A lesions in 42 unrelated Fabry hemizygotes were determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from affected probands and their family members. The seven alpha-galactosidase A exons and flanking intronic sequences were PCR amplified and the nucleotide sequence was determined by solid-phase direct sequencing. RESULTS: Two patients with the mild cardiac phenotype had missense mutations, I9IT and F113L, respectively. In 38 classically affected patients, 33 new mutations were identified including 20 missense (MIT, A31V, H46R, Y86C, L89P, D92Y, C94Y, A97V, R100T, Y134S, G138R, A143T, S148R, G163V, D170V, C202Y, Y216D, N263S, W287C, and N298S), two nonsense (Q386X, W399X), one splice site mutation (IVS4 + 2T-->C), and eight small exonic insertions or deletions (304del1, 613del9, 777del1, 1057del2, 1074del2, 1077del1, 1212del3, and 1094ins1), which identified exon 7 as a region prone to gene rearrangements. In addition...

‣ APP717, APP693, and PRIP gene mutations are rare in Alzheimer disease

Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Anderson, Leojean; O'dahl, Sheldon; Wisjman, Ellen M.; Sadovnick, Adele D.; Ball, Melvyn J.; Larson, Eric B.; Kukull, Walter A.; Martin, George M.; Roses, Allen D.; Bird, Thomas D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1991 Português
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The amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene codes for the precursor to the β-protein found in the amyloid deposits of Alzheimer disease (AD). Recently Goate et al. identified in codon 717 of this gene a missense mutation which segregates with AD in a familial AD (FAD) kindred. The same mutation was also found in affected subjects from a second FAD family but not in other FAD families or in normal controls. The following work was undertaken to determine the frequency of the codon 717 mutation in FAD and nonfamilial AD cases and in normal controls. We tested 76 FAD families, 127 “sporadic” AD subjects, 16 Down syndrome cases, and 256 normal controls for this mutation, and none were positive. We also tested for the APP codon 693 mutation associated with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis–Dutch type, for PRIP gene missense mutations at codons 102, 117, and 200, and for the PRIP insertion mutations which are associated with Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Straussler Scheinker syndrome. No examples of these mutations were found in our population. Thus these APP and PRIP mutations are rare in both FAD and nonfamilial AD.

‣ Genomic organization and structure of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase: localization of mutations associated with varied clinical presentations and course in X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia.

Ohta, Y; Haire, R N; Litman, R T; Fu, S M; Nelson, R P; Kratz, J; Kornfeld, S J; de la Morena, M; Good, R A; Litman, G W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/09/1994 Português
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X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia is a life-threatening disease that involves a failure in normal development of B lymphocytes and is associated with missense mutations in BTK, a gene encoding a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase, EC 2.7.1.112), a member of the Tec family of protein-tyrosine kinases. The genomic organization has been determined by using conventional restriction fragment mapping, extended DNA sequencing, and PCR fragment-sizing approaches. The DNA sequences of the 18 coding exons composing BTK and their flanking-region sequences are reported; an additional exon(s) encodes a 5' untranslated segment. Single-base-pair substitutions and 4-nt deletions resulted in amino acid replacement, premature termination, frameshift, and exon deletion in a group of X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia patients exhibiting different clinical presentations and courses. The nature of the mutations is interpreted in terms of the genomic organization of the BTK gene and the disease course in individual patients. Several examples are found in which the same mutation occurs in unrelated patients, and one of these mutations occurs at the same codon that is substituted in the murine form of BTK, resulting in X chromosome-linked immunodeficiency disease. Considerable variation in presentation and disease course in X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia appears associated with the nature and position of different missense mutations.

‣ Pathogenic mechanisms of tooth agenesis linked to paired domain mutations in human PAX9

Wang, Ying; Groppe, Jay C.; Wu, Jingfeng; Ogawa, Takuya; Mues, Gabriele; D'Souza, Rena N.; Kapadia, Hitesh
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mutations in the paired-domain transcription factor PAX9 are associated with non-syndromic tooth agenesis that preferentially affects posterior dentition. Of the 18 mutations identified to date, eight are phenotypically well-characterized missense mutations within the DNA-binding paired domain. We determined the structural and functional consequences of these paired domain missense mutations and correlated our findings with the associated dental phenotype variations. In vitro testing included subcellular localization, protein–protein interactions between MSX1 and mutant PAX9 proteins, binding of PAX9 mutants to a DNA consensus site and transcriptional activation from the Pax9 effector promoters Bmp4 and Msx1 with and without MSX1 as co-activator. All mutant PAX9 proteins were localized in the nucleus of transfected cells and physically interacted with MSX1 protein. Three of the mutants retained the ability to bind the consensus paired domain recognition sequence; the others were unable or only partly able to interact with this DNA fragment and also showed a similarly impaired capability for activation of transcription from the Msx1 and Bmp4 promoters. For seven of the eight mutants, the degree of loss of DNA-binding and promoter activation correlated quite well with the severity of the tooth agenesis pattern seen in vivo. One of the mutants however showed neither reduction in DNA-binding nor decrease in transactivation; instead...

‣ Mutations in SLC45A2 Cause Plumage Color Variation in Chicken and Japanese Quail

Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Hellström, Anders R.; Tixier-Boichard, Michele; Minvielle, Francis; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Ito, Shin'ichi; Jensen, Per; Rattink, Annemieke; Vereijken, Addie; Andersson, Leif
Fonte: Copyright © 2007 by the Genetics Society of America Publicador: Copyright © 2007 by the Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2007 Português
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S*S (Silver), S*N (wild type/gold), and S*AL (sex-linked imperfect albinism) form a series of alleles at the S (Silver) locus on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome Z. Similarly, sex-linked imperfect albinism (AL*A) is the bottom recessive allele at the orthologous AL locus in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The solute carrier family 45, member 2, protein (SLC45A2), previously denoted membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP), has an important role in vesicle sorting in the melanocytes. Here we report five SLC45A2 mutations. The 106delT mutation in the chicken S*AL allele results in a frameshift and a premature stop codon and the corresponding mRNA appears to be degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. A splice-site mutation in the Japanese quail AL*A allele causes in-frame skipping of exon 4. Two independent missense mutations (Tyr277Cys and Leu347Met) were associated with the Silver allele in chicken. The functional significance of the former mutation, associated only with Silver in White Leghorn, is unclear. Ala72Asp was associated with the cinnamon allele (AL*C) in the Japanese quail. The most interesting feature concerning the SLC45A2 variants documented in this study is the specific inhibition of expression of red pheomelanin in Silver chickens. This phenotypic effect cannot be explained on the basis of the current...

‣ Comprehensive assessment of cancer missense mutation clustering in protein structures

Kamburov, Atanas; Lawrence, Michael S.; Polak, Paz; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Lage, Kasper; Golub, Todd R.; Lander, Eric S.; Getz, Gad
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Tumor sequencing efforts have enabled the identification of cancer genes based on an excess of mutations in the gene or clustering of mutations along the (one-dimensional) DNA sequence of the gene. Here, we show that this approach can be extended to identify cancer genes based on clustering of mutations relative to the 3D structure of the protein product. By analyzing the PanCancer compendium of somatic mutations in nearly 5,000 tumors, we identified known cancer genes and previously unidentified candidates based on clustering of missense mutations in protein structures or at interfaces with binding partners. In addition, we found that 3D clustering is present in both oncoproteins and tumor suppressors—contrary to the view that such clustering is a hallmark of oncoproteins.

‣ Porfiria variegata en Chile: identificación de mutaciones en el gen protoporfirinógeno oxidasa y su implicancia diagnóstica; Identification of mutations in the protoporphyrin oxidase gene and its diagnostic implications in porphyria variegata in Chile

Poblete Gutiérrez, Pamela; Frank, Jorge; Wolff Fernández, Carlos Armando
Fonte: INST NACIONAL NUTRICION Publicador: INST NACIONAL NUTRICION
Tipo: Artículo de revista
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Variegate porphyria (VP) results from a hereditary deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) that is transmitted in an autosomal dominan fashion. The diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and is confirmed biochemically. Sometimes, however, these diagnostic tools reveal limitations in establishing the definitive diagnosis of the prevailing type of acute porphyria. In these patients, molecular genetic analyses can be useful. We performed molecular genetic studies in 13 Chilean families by PCR amplification of the PPOX gene, conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis, and automated DNA sequencing. In five symptomatic patients from different families, respectively, the biochemical data confirmed the diagnosis of VP. In seven other families, however, the biochemical studies were not conclusive. Furthermore, the original biochemical analysis in one clinically severely affected patient from a further family even suggested the diagnosis of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). Beside the respective index patients, we studied 78 asymptomatic family members and 50 healthy, unrelated individuals for control purposes. In five families, the previous diagnosis of VP could be confirmed genetically. Further, half of the asymptomatic relatives revealed a mutation in the PPOX gene...