Página 23 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.041 segundos

‣ The role of research scientists in adaptive management programs

Lenard, Steven R. (Steven Robert), 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 99 p.; 5039147 bytes; 5038954 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis investigates the effectiveness of the Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) in improving and increasing the contributions of scientists to natural resource management decision-making. Natural resource managers turn to scientists for assistance in understanding the complex natural systems they are charged with managing. However, interaction between scientists and decision makers is traditionally been described in terms of tensions and tradeoffs, which lead to a less than optimal utilization of scientific information in policy decisions. The primary cause of these tensions is a mutual lack of understanding of the differences between the norms of practice within the scientific and policy communities, respectively. Adaptive management is a promising strategy to resolve these tensions. The GCDAMP is one of the most developed adaptive management programs in the country. This research compares the experience of GCDAMP scientists with that of scientists within the US Geological Survey (USGS). USGS is a research science organization within the Federal government, and as such is constantly facing the tension between science and policy. Their experience is used as a proxy for typical interactions between scientists and policy makers. The study found that GCDAMP scientists contributed more freely...

‣ Valuing flexibilities in large-scale real estate development projects

Kang, Jihun, 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 150 leaves; 7594896 bytes; 7789581 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis aims to develop a set of strategic tools for real estate development projects. The conventional tools such as the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method fail to incorporate dynamics of real estate development processes. As a result, their application to real world situation is quite limited. Two methods are introduced to deal with this inadequacy of the DCF method. Decision Tree Analysis (DTA) employs a management science approach to analyze flexibilities and corresponding strategies from management decision making perspective. Real Options Analysis (ROA) aims to apply theories of valuing financial derivatives to real assets and it allows investors to quantitatively analyze flexibilities. Each technique has advantages and shortcomings and should only be used for appropriate situations. DTA is suited for analyses of project specific risks that are not directly related to the overall market. ROA is a superior tool when risks are originated from the uncertainties of markets. Applying both tools in practice requires rather simplified assumptions, and it is crucial to understand them to make the analyses meaningful. The thesis finds that incorporating flexibilities in decision making into an analysis is especially important for large-scale and multi-phase projects. The DCF method treats the later phase projects as if they are fully committed at the present time. This assumption of full commitment is rarely the case in the real world practice...

‣ Explaining the increase of competitiveness in the Colombian car industry after the end of import substitution industralization [sic] policies; Explaining the increase of competitiveness in the Colombian car industry after the end of import substitution industrialization policies

Carrillo-Mora, Felipe, 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 74 [i.e. 75] leaves; 3027409 bytes; 3027218 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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At the beginning of the decade of the nineties, Import Substitution Industrialization - ISI- policies were dismantled all over Latin America, including Colombia. This meant that tariff protection for locally produced products were lowered and that cheap imports increased. For the motor vehicle sector it also meant that it had to modernize and improve its competitiveness if it did not want to disappear. I evaluate how the sector improved its competiveness despite a very tiny margin for maneuver, and under what variables and aspects this improvement can be measured. I found that many of the key aspects that helped the sector to compete successfully were not directly related with production, but with services and other competitive advantages created outside the plants. These included a postsale service structure that covered many parts of the country which importers lacked. It also tackled the new competition by signing free trade agreements, and making strategic alliances with auto part producers and auto dealers. The alliances, in turn, helped to create important backward and forward linkages to other sectors of the economy as well as new jobs. These linkages have been also very successful to help auto part suppliers in producing with high standards of quality and exporting to foreign markets. Last...

‣ NGO coordination in humanitarian action : the case of Czech floods of August 2002; Non-Governmental organization coordination in humanitarian action

Kumar, Pankaj, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 59 p.; 4225229 bytes; 4226742 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In responding to disasters and emergencies, it is generally expected that there is effective coordination and exchange of information among those affected by or involved in the disaster response at the national and international level and that relief agencies undertake activities on the basis of need, where their expertise and capacity can have the greatest impact. Benefits of coordination range from reducing activity duplication to allowing organizations to assist more people in need. However, while the importance of coordination is generally accepted and appreciated in the humanitarian aid field, how to accomplish it still remains somewhat elusive and problematic. This thesis attempts to analyze the nature and level of coordination among Czech humanitarian NGOs responding to the devastating floods of 2002 with a view to better understand the challenges to and incentives for NGO coordination in humanitarian action and response. The results show that while an ad-hoc attempt was made to coordinate the rehabilitation effort among the NGOs, differences in management styles and organizational values, along with traditional disincentives to cooperate like competition for funds and publicity limited the level of coordination in responding to the floods.; by Pankaj Kumar; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ The Officeminium : alternative tenure choice in the Office Business Center market; Alternative tenure choice in the Office Business Center market

Williams, Alan R
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 68 leaves; 444989 bytes; 444769 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The Office Business Center (OBC) is a shared office facility, which is fully equipped, staffed and furnished. Many small business and sole proprietors choose OBC space over traditional leased office space because it alleviates the upfront cost and time required to maintain and manage an effective office infrastructure. Additionally, the persistence of low commercial mortgage interest rates have helped to witness a rise in office space ownership through the growth of the office condominium market- a market which is also dominated by small businesses and sole proprietorships. This thesis investigates the viability of a new real estate product, the Officeminium(TM). The Officeminium(TM) is a hybrid product which combines the ownership tenure of the office condominium and the full service environment of an OBC. The Officeminium(TM) provides a subset of small business owners and small proprietors with a hedge against rent risk and opportunistic agency, while affording office building owners and developers with a means to reduce excess building capacity and potentially increase the value of their real estate asset.; by Alan R. Williams.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2005.; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.; In title on t.p. "Officeminium" is followed by the trademark symbol.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 67-68).

‣ Affordable luxury resort residences for the Baby Boomers

Boyer, Mark Valdez
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 129 leaves; 581596 bytes; 581400 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The purpose of this thesis is to determine the business viability of Oasis Destination Club, the first destination club designed entirely for the upper middle income baby boomer. The baby boomer generation is the largest demographic group in the United States, numbering 78 million individuals, between the ages of 41 and 59. As this demographic group ages and nears retirement they are seeking out ways to spend their vacation time. Many are considering vacation housing products; however, there are several key issues surrounding vacation home ownership that are not addressed by the current vacation housing products. These key issues include: 1) overall cost, 2) lack of variety in destinations, 3) illiquidity of investment, 4) inflexible use models, and 5) lack of services. To address these key issues destination clubs were developed. Club members are granted use rights in a portfolio of residences located in different destinations around the world. Each residence is large enough to accommodate a family or group and services are on a par with a well run hotel. In recent years destination clubs have experienced very strong growth in the upper income or high net worth market.; (cont.) Oasis Destination Club plans to be the first destination to target the upper middle income market...

‣ Investing in youth for community well-being : the case of the Fruitvale in Oakland, CA

Bernal, Diana, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 103 leaves; 7994139 bytes; 7998505 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In this thesis I explore how youth spatially perceive their environment in the Fruitvale, an inner city neighborhood in Oakland, California. Through my fieldwork I created a visual map of how youth view their spaces in the neighborhood and what constraints are being imposed on their space with little consideration. In studying the spatial patterns of youth my goal was to uncover the extent to which spatial constraints might be affecting their opportunities for positive development and integration into the neighborhood. I explored their situation within the context of a harsh-on-crime political climate in California over the past fifteen years. In the case of the Fruitvale historical economic and population shifts leading to the concentration of poverty, have caused the creation of informal aggressive subcultures involving drugs, gangs and prostitution. These have grown to dominate youth space on the street and have had large implications on safety. The lack of neighborhood safety is limiting the way youth use space, further limiting their access to greater neighborhood services which can potentially provide them with the support that they need to develop in positive ways and in their transition to adulthood.; (cont.) Given the situation I focused on neighborhood strengths to develop recommendations for addressing the concerns of youth spatial safety. I found these strengths in the amazing work of neighborhood institutions. The Fruitvale neighborhood has a diverse concentration of institutions which have triggered many local changes to improve the conditions of residents. In my recommendations I propose expanding spatial safety by building on community strengths and lessons through the collaboration of neighborhood institutions. Using a similar concept to the Main Streets program currently existing on the eastern side of the neighborhood...

‣ Convert! : the adaptive reuse of churches; Adaptive reuse of churches

Kiley, Christopher John, 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 160 p.; 6008103 bytes; 6277926 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines the phenomenon of vacated churches and analyzes the major issues underlying their adaptive reuse in order to help promulgate an awareness of the range of successful strategies and solutions that are available to stakeholders who are interested in seeing a former church building preserved through its conversion to a new use. The reuse potential of a church is affected by the building typology and its structural condition, the stakeholders involved, the process used, the regulatory context, finance and site issues. Reuse potential for a church can also be informed by researching and documenting examples of previously successful reuse strategies. These issues are examined closely in this thesis, as is a case study of a successful public-private church redevelopment project in Brookline, MA. The results of the research and analysis are used to form a series of findings and recommendations regarding the reuse of churches. The recommendations include combining funding sources, engaging the congregation and the public, retaining the appropriate kind of developer for the end goal, undertaking public-private redevelopment processes and the importance of identifying interim solutions. The recommendations are tested for credibility by applying them to a real situation in Plymouth...

‣ Assessing the feasibility of establishing a publicly traded global real estate fund domiciled in the Cayman Islands

Butterfield, Scott (Scott Alan)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 122 p.
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This thesis examines the feasibility of creating a publicly traded, synthetic REIT-type investment fund for the purpose of investing in a portfolio of international real estate assets. The investment strategy is driven by both an increasing supply of international real estate opportunities and an increasing demand for international real estate investments. The fund will be domiciled in the Cayman Islands, where it will benefit from a tax exempt status, limited regulations, and a well established investment fund industry. The global investment strategy of a synthetic REIT-type Cayman Islands fund is a novel investment strategy. Because no standard investment structure for an international real estate fund exists, the analysis will focus on creating a fund level and tier level structure in order to achieve certain defined investment, tax, and regulatory objectives. These objectives include providing accessibility to a broad range of investors, minimizing taxation, minimizing regulatory requirements, providing market liquidity and transparency for shareholders, and targeting real estate investments in 40 countries. A primary focus will be on creating a tax-efficient tier structure for repatriating income from real estate investments to the fund.; (cont.) The feasibility of the fund will be assessed based on how successfully it achieves these objectives. In general...

‣ International dispute settlement system design : analysis of the World Trade Organization

Martinez, Janet Kathryn Griffin, 1951-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 241 p.
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The dispute settlement process established by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1994, (the "DSU"), has drawn widespread attention. While the DSU is the most used international dispute settlement process, it is geared to resolving complaints by one country against another concerning enforcement of the WTO rules and obligations. This research has examined the WTO in two dimensions: first, how does the DSU fit within a larger system of processes for resolving policy making and implementation, as well as enforcement disputes. Secondly, how do those processes measure up to the characteristics of effective dispute resolution. In answer to the first question, I have categorized policy disputes into three orders: first-order disputes in policymaking, second-order disputes in policy implementation, and third-order disputes in policy enforcement. The same issues, e.g., agricultural subsidies or intellectual property, emerge in all three dispute orders. First-order disputes are resolved by all WTO members through consensus-based negotiation. The negotiation experience of the last four multilateral trade negotiations--the Kennedy Round, the Tokyo Round, the Uruguay Round and the pending Doha Round--are assessed. Second-order disputes are considered by all WTO members through operating committees and the Trade Policy Review Mechanism. Third-order disputes are resolved through the DSU; 304 cases were submitted from January 1...

‣ The waterfront engine : proposal for a 21st century Delhi

Morgan de Rivery, Philippe
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 145 p.
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Delhi, a 14 million people megacity, has a huge open space area available in its heart along the banks of the Yamuna River. At the same time, Delhi, which would like to become a fully-fledged global city, does not have a real modern business district yet, which explains why companies are moving to business-friendly neighbouring States such as Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, even as these companies would be much useful for the economic and social development of the capital of India. The banks of the Yamuna appear like an ideal location for a new business center. Or is it really? Research shows that creating a business-oriented waterfront along the Yamuna would be a valuable option and would bring in more revenue to the city than other solutions for the site, but only if certain conditions are respected in terms of environment, infrastructure and politics. Soil improvement and earthquake engineering techniques, renovated systems of transportation, water supply and treatment and electricity generation, mixed land use as well as institutional reforms and an intelligent real estate strategy are all necessary conditions for creating a waterfront that will be both attractive and sustainable. These conditions create minimu and maximum thresholds for development...

‣ A streamlined real options model for Real Estate Development

Barman, Baabak; Nash, Kathryn E
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 53 leaves
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This thesis introduces a streamlined model that incorporates the value of the real options that exist in real estate development projects. Real options add value to a project by providing developers with flexibility to minimize downside risk or take advantage of upside potential as conditions change from deterministic expectations. Though developers currently incorporate this value into their decision making using intuition and judgment, the model presented here provides a tool with which developers can value options in a rigorous and quantitative fashion. Though the model should not be used as a comprehensive land residual model, it serves as a powerful proof of concept for real options analysis in the field of real estate. Further, it can be used to measure the relative value and risk of projects with and without real options. The model is based on both the traditional economic and the more recent engineering real options methodologies. Both approaches have been applied to real estate development projects, but have not yet caught on due to their newness and complexity. The streamlined model incorporates the elements of both methodologies that are most applicable to current development practice. In addition, the model is simplified and tailored to existing valuation techniques. The added benefit of this "hybrid" approach is that it reduces the learning curve associated with real options analysis so as to encourage its adoption in the real estate field in the short term.; (cont.) The model uses Monte Carlo simulations in Excel and is targeted towards specific options scenarios commonly faced by developers; specifically...

‣ Barriers to growth in the US real estate derivatives market

Venter, Jani
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 109 leaves
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Commercial real estate is an important asset class but it does not yet have a well-developed derivatives market in the United States. A derivative is a contract that derives its value from an underlying index or asset. Examples of the most well-known derivatives that have been widely used and traded for years are stock options, commodity futures and interest rate swaps. The advent of direct real estate equity derivative products has created the opportunity for similar applications in both the US and international commercial real estate markets. The United States is currently experiencing a convergence between real estate and finance and it appears that the real estate derivatives market might be ready to take off. The use of derivatives could improve the functioning of the real estate industry by allowing investors to gain or reduce exposure to the commercial real estate asset class without directly buying or selling properties. The increased liquidity and reduced up front capital requirements provide added flexibility in executing real estate investment strategies (i.e. speculating) and managing risk (i.e. hedging). This has resulted in significant interest in the development of commercial property derivatives by key players in all sectors. A number of barriers (e.g....

‣ Can the LCCU & 1199SEIU be partners?; Can the Latino Community Credit Union & United Health Care Workers East be partners?

Espinoza-Toro, Carlos J. (Carlos Javier)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 40 leaves
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This thesis explores how organizations competent at harnessing the collective power of low-income immigrants might successfully combine their strategies to advance the well-being of their mutual constituencies. Based in Durham, North Carolina, the LCCU is a successful community development credit union that delivers financial products and financial education programs to a fast growing low-income Latino community. Based in New York City, New York, 1199SEIU is a successful local labor union that organizes low-income workers to negotiate fair wages and benefits. The LCCU and 1199SEIU represent two dissimilar models of harnessing collective power in different geographic areas in the U.S. Yet, an in-depth analysis at the history of these organizations finds certain elements of common ground upon which they could base a potential partnership. The LCCU and 1199SEIU serve a mutual constituency of low-income immigrants and share the mutual goal of improving their lives. Furthermore, an analysis of their unique competences exposes complementary sets of skills and resources. Given the existence of common ground and a subsequent interest from each organization in exploring a potential partnership, this thesis attempts to answer the following question: Can the LCCU and 1199SEIU be partners? This thesis argues that the LCCU and 1199SEIU can generate synergistic possibilities of collaboration by combining their unique competences to pursue mutual interests. However...

‣ Environmental leadership : the discipline of green champions

Lyddy, Christopher (Christopher James)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 88 p.
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Modern society's inertia is driving it towards an ever-expanding environmental footprint, a course that if unchecked will produce calamitous environmental outcomes. Avoiding this future requires increasing capacity for deep and durable change in society. Since existing approaches - e.g., science, education, policy, market incentives - have been unsuccessful at achieving this level of change, a key ingredient is apparently missing. Environmental leadership, which I define as the capacity of a human community to improve its future connection with and impact upon the environment, can be that catalyst of a more sustainable society. This thesis explores how to increase environmental leadership capacity by revealing effective environmental leadership strategy. Given pragmatic concerns with the limited power possessed by environmentalists, the inherently unstable nature of gains made through power, and unlikelihood of achieving deeper transformations through coercion, I explore leadership strategy for creating change beyond the extent of its authority and without imposing the government's coercive power. I had presumed three existing veins within leadership literature - Interpersonal Influence, Capacity-Building, and Contextual Design - would adequately explain environmental leadership strategy...

‣ Does it have to be so complicated? : municipal renewable energy projects in Massachusetts

Riberio, Lori A. (Lori Ann)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 leaves
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This thesis examines municipal implementation of renewable energy projects in Massachusetts. It explores projects that have been planned and completed, drivers for municipal adoption of renewable energy, the implementation experience, barriers, and key success factors. The data presented include a survey of Massachusetts municipalities, stakeholder interviews, and an in-depth case study of a solar Brightfield project implemented in Brockton, Massachusetts. The case study describes in detail the city's experience implementing a "Brownfields to Brightfields" solar project initiated through the US Department of Energy's Brightfields program. The Brockton Brightfield is a 425 kW utility scale solar array on a former brownfield site. The case study of Brockton's Brightfields experience reveals a series of obstacles and success factors that ought to be considered in future efforts to implement municipal renewable energy projects. The barriers include inadequate government resources and capacity building dedicated to program implementation; institutional policy barriers (requiring legislative fixes), and the complexity surrounding the joint action required to navigate the administrative processes involved. The thesis concludes with a series of policy recommendations.; (cont.) Recommended state legislative changes include 1) providing municipalities explicit legal authority to finance...

‣ Structured financial solutions for green affordable housing projects

Subramanian, Shwetha
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 63 p.; 662733 bytes; 662553 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Environmentally responsible buildings are increasing gaining recognition in the building industry because they address objectives such as conserving natural resources, improving energy efficiency and indoor air quality and they make more economic sense. Affordable housing and Green buildings in particular combine well together as the goals of both overlap. A joint team comprising of New Ecology Initiatives, the Tellus Institute, LISC Boston and the Green CDC's Initiative is currently investigating the Costs and Benefits of Green Affordable Housing. This thesis builds on the research in progress, by focusing on the financial challenges and opportunities faced by green affordable housing. In an attempt to incentivize green affordable housing, this thesis investigates the capital sources that are available at key stages of the development process and how they can best be allocated to meet the costs and needs that arise at each developmental stage. Specifically, the fiscal sources utilized on two representative projects- one rental project and one homeownership project, were analyzed and solutions were found to restructure these resources to pay for green premiums. Several viable solutions emerged to offset the incremental costs of greening in the early phases of the two projects.; (cont.) But the most significant finding of this thesis was the opportunity for cost savings and enhancement of economic value of Green Affordable housing by capitalizing savings from lowered operating costs. This is a powerful mechanism that has the ability to service more debt on the project and cover costs incurred during the interim stages. This thesis demonstrates that there are several ways of structuring successful financing solutions to meet the objectives of all the participants involved...

‣ Transportation choices : can social marketing make a difference?

Sorell, Miriam Lydia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 121 p.; 6836840 bytes; 6843195 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In the US, automobile use is responsible for 25% of air pollution, resulting in health and respiratory problems, and increasing the likelihood of climate change. In order to limit these negative impacts of automobile use, governmental bodies and transportation agencies employ a number of different strategies including changes in transportation policy, infrastructure, and technology. Marketing and advertising campaigns represent another strategy which is used extensively, but which has not been thoroughly evaluated. This thesis investigates how to develop marketing campaigns that will encourage people to voluntarily switch to alternative modes of transportation such as walking, biking, or using transit. The field of Social Marketing provides valuable insight into how marketing and promotional strategies can be used more generally to encourage the adoption of behavior changes that benefit health, the environment, and the social condition; a model of the Social Marketing process and principles is assembled and used to evaluate three examples of transportation marketing campaigns in the US: San Francisco's "Spare the Air" campaign, the Chicago Transit Authority's New Residents program, and the federal "It All Adds Up to Cleaner Air" campaign. While the specific campaigns vary greatly in terms of the tactics they employ...

‣ Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration from the Mexican oil industry : an action plan

Lacy, Rodolfo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 86 p.; 4949666 bytes; 4953679 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Climate change has become an important focus of international environmental negotiations. In response, global energy corporations have been looking for practical ways of reducing their industrial carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Capturing massive quantities of CO₂ from flue gases (at large stationary sources) and storing them in geologic formations is a technically feasible and ecologically convenient way to close the "fossil fuel life cycle." CO₂ can be injected into mature oil reservoirs to enhance their productivity at the same time as it is being stored. Indeed, carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies - combined with enhanced oil recovery operations (EOR) - offer a very attractive strategy for mitigating the adverse global impacts of energy production. The potential of this strategy may be crucial to the future development of the oil and electricity industries in signatory countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These signatories and their major corporations have research initiatives underway to deploy and test CCS-EOR. If these projects are successful, they will make it easier to achieve compliance with Kyoto Protocol emissions target and provide an impetus for the Clean Development Mechanism (part of the Kyoto Protocol) to support CCS. Mexico...

‣ Getting beyond the lowest common denominator : Developing countries in global environmental negotiations; Developing countries in global environmental negotiations

Najam, Adil
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 518 p.; 71166675 bytes; 71166434 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This study explores the collective negotiation behavior of the developing countries of the South in international environmental politics. The so-called 'South'-represented in global negotiations by Group of 77 (G77)-is an unwieldy and unlikely collective made up of over 130 countries displaying dramatically different economic conditions, ideological persuasions, political systems and geographic features and environmental endowments. Yet, for over 30 years now, the collective has demonstrated remarkable resilience in the face of internal divisions as well as external threats. Although sometimes described as an economic collective 'of the poor', the South is, in fact, a political collective 'of the marginalized'. Its resilience stems from its member's strongly shared sense of exclusion from the international system and their collective desire to change the 'rules of the game'. This resilience, however, has often come at the cost of having to slip into 'lowest common denominator' positions. In following an 'asymmetrically prescriptive-descriptive' research approach, this study seeks to explore the nature of the 'South' as a negotiating collective and understand why it tends to slip into lowest common denominator positions. The study uses the case of global negotiations on the Desertification Convention and twelve experimental runs of a simulation-game (The Chlorine Game; conducted in four countries...