Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade Católica de Temuco

A Universidade Católica de Temuco é uma institução privada confessional do Chile, fundada pelo bispo Alejandro Menchaca Lira em 1959.

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‣ Estudio comparativo de la producción de miel con una y tres reinas por colmena en la zona de nueva imperial, Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
In the Region of La Araucanía tests have been made where the production of honey of double queen beehives was compared to single queen beehives, with encouraging results. This motivated the accomplishment of this study in the zone of Nueva Imperial, which compared the conventional production of honey of triple queen systems and systems with one queen by beehive. For the accomplishment of this study 12 beehives were used, nine were grouped to form the triple queen systems and the remaining three with one queen were used as control. The research began on November 4th 2004, with weekly visits to control the factors that could affect the honey productions. The crop was made on January 11th 2005, reaching a honey production of 85 kg average for triple queens systems, which was significantly greater to the production obtained by the systems with a single queen which reached 19,17 kg of honey average.; En la Región de La Araucanía se han realizado ensayos donde se comparó la producción de miel de colmenas doble reina y colmenas de una sola reina, con resultados alentadores. Esto motivó la realización de este estudio en la zona de Nueva Imperial, el cual comparó la producción de miel de sistemas de triple reina y sistemas convencionales con una reina por colmena. Para la realización de este estudio se utilizaron 12 colmenas...

‣ Feeding behavior in juvenile snook, Centropomus undecimalis. I. Individual effect of some chemical substances

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This study was designed to analyze the influence of certain chemical substances on the feeding behavior of juvenile common snook. The following chemicals were tested: L-alanine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-glutamic acid, glycine, L-proline, L-histidine, L-serine, L-lysine, L-arginine, inosine-5-triphosphate, and uridine. Feeding responses were studied in tanks containing one or two fish. The substances were placed in pellets made of agar, at a concentration of 0.01 M. The chemicals found to act as attractants were: uridine, L-isoleucine, and inosine with one fish; and those plus glycine, L-proline, L-arginine, L-leucine, and L-glutamic acid with two fish. The feeding responses were stronger with two fish, indicating that the number of fish had an influence on feeding behavior.

‣ Composition and structure of vascular erpiphytes in an old-growth forest of Olivillo (Aextoxicon punctatum R. et P.) in southern Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Vascular epiphytes represent 10% of the total vascular plants of the world. Nevertheless, because it is hard to reach them in the forest upper-canopy where they usually live, there are few studies (especially in Chile) about them. With the objective of identifying the vascular epiphytes growing on tree stems (under 1.5 m height), we sampled three transects in an Olivillo old-growth stand, in the Rucamanque forest, in the central valley of south-central Chile, near the city of Temuco. Several variables were measured for both the vascular epiphytes and their host-trees. We studied the floristic composition of the vascular epiphytes community, and their relationship with their host-trees, as well as their sociability, cover, and frequency. Eight vascular epiphytes species were identified, corresponding to four genus distributed in three families: Hymenophyllum and Hymenoglossum (Hymenophyllaceae), Asplenium (Aspleniaceae) and Sarmienta (Gesneriaceae). We found only a non-statistically significant linear correlation between vascular epiphytes and their host-trees. We determined that Hymenophyllum cuneatum was the most important vascular epiphytes species.

‣ Pharmacokinetic study of propofol in horses

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Se estudian las características farmacocinéticas de propofol en 6 caballos. Se determinaron parámetros farmacocinéticos de propofol cuantificando sus concentraciones sanguíneas en función del tiempo por HPLC, tras su administración de 2.4 mg/kg por vía endovenosa al grupo de animales. Los datos de concentración se interpretaron por un modelo abierto de 2 compartimentos, obteniéndose, entre otros, los valores de t1/2a, t1/2b,Vdc, Vdss, Vdb, Cltotaly MRT. Las variables farmacodinámicas se encuentran acordes a la disposición cinética de este fármaco. El análisisde los parámetros farmacocinéticos del propofol indica que éste posee una rápida y pronta distribución a los tejidos y una rápida eliminación del organismo. El propofol se presenta como una alternativa anestésica factible de ser incorporada dentro de un protocolo anestésico en caballos. Los parámetros farmacocinéticos obtenidos contribuyen para una correcta dosificación ya sea para mantener un estado de anestesia por infusión continua o por inyecciones repetidas; Pharmacokinetic variables of propofol were studied in 6 horses. Blood concentration of propofol at different times, after a single dose of 2.4mg/kg bw, was determined by HPLC. An open two compartment model was used to evaluate blood concentrations of propofol. Values of t1/2a...

‣ Floristic comparison and trophic condition based on indicator species in coastal lagoons of the Araucanian Region, Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This study describes and analyses plant species diversity and identifies indicator species for nitrogen eutrophization in four coastal lagoons in the Araucanian Region, Chile. A total of 82 vascular macrophyte species were identified. Tromen lagoon has the highest species richness (45 taxa), followed by Patagila and Peule with 42 species each, while only 36 were found in Puyehue. Patagüa and Peule have the most similar flora, while Puyehue is the most dissimilar. Aloctonous species predominate in all four lakes (more than 47% being introduced species), and the most common life form are the hemicryptophytes with 40 species, indicating a strong human impact on their lakeshores. Patagüa lagoon has the greatest number of eutrophication indicators (8 species), showing a high trophic level. Puyehue, on the other hand, has only three, coinciding with the lowest species richness, so its trophic level should be lower.

‣ Evaluation of marine algae as a source of biogas in a two-stage anaerobic reactor system

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The marine algae are considered an important biomass source; however, their utilization as energy source is still low around the world. The technical feasibility of marine algae utilization as a source of renewable energy was studied to laboratory scale. The anaerobic digestion of Macrocystis pyrifera, Durvillea antarctica and their blend 1:1 (w/w) was evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic digestion system, which consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF). The results show that 70% of the total biogas produced in the system was generated in the UAF, and both algae species have similar biogas productions of 180.4(±1.5) mL g-1 dry algae d-1, with a methane concentration around 65%. The same methane content was observed in biogas yield of algae blend; however, a lower biogas yield was obtained. In conclusion, either algae species or their blend can be utilized to produce methane gas in a two-phase digestion system.

‣ Serological study of a dairy herd with a recent history of Neospora abortion

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Herd history. A cluster of 19 abortions occurred in April and May 1994 on a seasonal dairy farm of 277 cows in Taranaki. Lesions consistent with neosporosis were seen in several foetuses. The age of the aborting cows ranged from 2 to 12 years. Pregnant rising 2-year-old heifers had been grazed off the main farm on a "run-off" until returning in May, when they were replaced on the "run-off" by the rising 1-year-old calves. None of these pregnant heifers aborted. Methods. Sera were obtained from all calves (n = 32), 32 of 33 pregnant heifers, 59 of 60 3-4 year-old cows and 101 of 150 older cows, plus all cows that had aborted. Sera were tested using an indirect fluorescent antibody assay. Non-aborting cattle sera were screened at 1:400, and further dilutions were tested from 15 aborted cows. Results. The percentages of seropositive cattle were: 32% of the calves, 3% of the heifers, 31% of the younger cows and 27% of the older cows. The proportion of seropositive heifers was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than in the other age classes. There was no significant difference in the proportion of seropositive animals between these other age classes (p > 0.05). Of the 15 cows that aborted, and for which further dilutions were tested, nine had titres of 1:12 800...

‣ Comparative demography and diversity of small mammals in precordilleran temperate rainforests of Southern Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Small mammals were studied in two southern Chilean temperate rainforests in the precordillean Andes during 2 low-rainfall years following the 1982 El Niño event. Forests had somewhat different levels of canopy, shrub, and herbaceous cover, and species richness of trees but most of the same plants. Most captures were of four sigmodontine rodents, Akodon olivaceus, Abrothrix longipilis, Abrothrix sanborni, and Oligoryzomys longicaudatus; five other species and a putative hybrid were recorded. Maximum numbers were in January-July (late summer to winter) and lower numbers in August-December (late winter to early summer). All species had seasonal reproduction in September-April (spring to autumn). A. olivaceus and A. longipilis generally were long-lived, whereas survival rates were low for O. longicaudatus. Responses after the 1982 El Niño were small, and some populations increased during 1984. Populations of A. olivaceus fluctuated more than those of A. longipilis; those of A. sanborni were low and O. longicaudatus was sporadic and irruptive. Lower-elevational Chilean and precordilleran Argentine forests have similar species composition, but differences in demography and dominance of the former by more widespread, omnivorous A. olivaceus...

‣ Immobilization of invertase-chitosan conjugate on hyaluronic-acid-modified chitin

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Baker yeast invertase, chemically modified with chitosan, was immobilized on hyaluronic-acid-coated chitin support via polyelectrolyte complex formation. The immobilized enzyme retained 80% of the initial invertase activity. The optimum temperature for sucrose hydrolysis was increased by 5C, and its thermostability was enhanced by about 10C after immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was stable against incubation in high-ionic-strength solutions, and was sixfold more resistant to thermal treatment at 65C than the native counterpart. The biocatalyst prepared retained 100% after 10 cycles of reuse as well as after 74 h of continuous sucrose hydrolysis in a packed bed reactor, respectively. The immobilized enzyme retained 69% of its activity after 50 days of storage at 37C.

‣ Serologic evidence of Neospora infection in dairy cattle in Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Neospora caninum is a recently recognised parasite that produces infection in dogs and herbivorous. In cows, the disease does not produce clinical signs of illness, instead it produces losses. Chile has a large dairy industry and pregnancy losses in that system seem to be economically important. However a large number of abortions remain with unknown aetiology and abortion due to protozoa has not been investigated. We report here, for the first time, that aborted cows belonging to three different farms in the IX Region, Chile had antibodies to N. Caninumis given here. The episode of abortion was "sporadic" and occurred in adult cows. The sera were diluted in 1:200 and processed with the Neospora IFA test. Whole tachyzoite surface fluorescent was considered positive. Aantibodies were found in 10 of 21 adult cows, none of 2 heifers and 1 of 6 calves in farm A. In farm B, they were found in 7 of 24 adult cows and in 2 of 2 adult cows of farm C. All the aborted cows (2 on farm A; 3 aborted and 1 mummified on farm B; and 2 on farm C) were positive to the test. Taking into consideration the IFA test results and the negativity of serology to other common infections which cause bovine abortion, the hypothesis that these cows aborted due to Neospora infection is supported. How the disease has spread world wide is unknown...

‣ Clinical biochemistry values in serum from grazing brahman cows

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This study was designed in order to get the reference values for the concentration of different metabolites included in a standard metabolic profile for grazing Brahman cattle (B. indicus) from Caldas, Colombia. Serum samples (5-10 mL) were taken from 21 healthy grazing Brahman cows to analyse ß-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, globulines, urea, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), calcium and magnesium. The results were analyzed by calculating range, mean and standard deviation (SD). The reference interval was set at 95% (x±2SD). The mean and SD obtained for the concentration of the different metabolites were: ß-hydroxybutyrate 0.34±0.15 mmol/L; total protein 81±9 g/L; albumin 41±3 g/L; globulines 40±10 g/L; urea 3.31±1.43 mmol/L; AST 158±34 U/L; Ca2.50±0.21 mmol/L, and Mg 1.40±0.44 mmol/L. The increasing of ß-hydroxybutyrates and globulines, and a high activity of AST were the most frequent alterations. The serum biochemistry values for grazing B. indicus cattle are similar to the described values for B. taurus.

‣ The effect of size and acetylation degree of chitosan derivatives on tobacco plant protection against Phytophthora parasitica nicotianae

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Enzymatic degradation of chitosan polymer with Pectinex Ultra SPL was used to obtain derivatives with biological potential as protective agents against Phytophthora parasitica nicotianae (Ppn) in tobacco plants. The 24 h hydrolysate showed the highest Ppn antipathogenic activity and the chitosan native polymer the lowest. The in vitro growth inhibition of several Phytophthora parasitica strains by two chitosans of different DA was compared. While less acetylated chitosan (DA 1%) fully inhibited three P. parasitica strains at the doses 500 and 1000 mg/l the second polymer (DA 36.5%) never completely inhibited such strains. When comparing two polymers of similar molecular weight and different DA, again the highest antipathogenic activity was for the less acetylated polymer. However, degraded chitosan always showed the highest pathogen growth inhibition. Additionally, a bioassay in tobacco seedlings to test plant protection against Ppn by foliar application demonstrated that partially acetylated chitosan and its hydrolysate induced systemic resistance and higher levels of glucanase activity than less acetylated chitosan. Similarly, when treatments were applied as seeds coating before planting, about 46% of plant protection was obtained using chitosan hydrolysate. It was concluded that...

‣ Estado de conservación de las aves rapaces de Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
We classified 30 species of raptors in Chile using the technique proposed by Reca et al. (1994) and the conservation categories proposed by Grigera and Úbeda (2000). The results were obtained by means of an index that considers 12 variables that represent factors of importance for the survival or the conservation of the species. Eight species (27%) were classified in the category of maximum priority, nine (30%) in the special attention category, and 13 (43%) in the no priority category. Strix rufipes and Buteo exsul were considered with the highest priority of conservation, and together with Accipiter chilensis, Buteo albigula, Buteo ventralis, Phalcoboenus australis, Vultur gryphus, and Phalcoboenus albogularis conform the category of maximum priority conservation. Diurnal raptors (Falconiformes) need a greater conservation priority than nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes). At the family level, Accipitridae had the highest species richness and also showed major conservation problems. We concluded that the technique is a useful tool with simple application that allows orienting the public conservation decisions on this taxonomic group.

‣ Modeling and source apportionment of diesel particulate matter

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The fine and ultra fine sizes of diesel particulate matter (DPM) are of greatest health concern. The composition of these primary and secondary fine and ultra fine particles is principally elemental carbon (EC) with adsorbed organic compounds, sulfate, nitrate, ammonia, metals, and other trace elements. The purpose of this study was to use an advanced air quality modeling technique to predict and analyze the emissions and the primary and secondary aerosols concentrations that come from diesel-fueled sources (DFS). The National Emissions Inventory for 1999 and a severe southeast ozone episode that occurred between August and September 1999 were used as reference. Five urban areas and one rural area in the Southeastern US were selected to compare the main results. For urban emissions, results showed that DFS contributed (77.9% ± 8.0) of EC, (16.8% ± 8.2) of organic aerosols, (14.3% ± 6.2) of nitrate, and (8.3% ± 6.6) of sulfate during the selected episodes. For the rural site, these contributions were lower. The highest DFS contribution on EC emissions was allocated in Memphis, due mainly to diesel non-road sources (60.9%). For ambient concentrations, DFS contributed (69.5% ± 6.5) of EC and (10.8% ± 2.4) of primary anthropogenic organic aerosols...

‣ Bovine embryo development produced by in vitro fertilization cultured with oviductal cell or conditioned medium and transfer to recipients

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Se comparó el desarrollo in vitro de ovocitos obtenidos de ovarios de vaca de matadero, madurados, fecundados y cultivados in vitro bajo dos sistemas. Los ovocitos fueron cultivados en un medio de maduración a 39 °C, 5 % de CO2 y humedad relativa de 95 % durante 22 horas. Posteriormente, fueron incubados con espermatozoides seleccionados a través de una gradiente discontinua de Percoll. La tasa de maduración nuclear y fecundación fueron de 93,7 % (74/79) y 76,9 % (50/65) respectivamente. Un total de 252 ovocitos fecundados fueron cultivados in vitro. El porcentaje de desarrollo in vitro a las 2 días post-inseminación (embriones de 4-8 células) fue de 62,7 % (64/102) para los cigotos cultivados con células oviductales y de 67 % (100/150) para los cultivados en medio condicionado (P0,05). El porcentaje de desarrollo de mórulas fue de 17,6 % (18/102) para los cigotos cultivados con células oviductales y de 13,3 % (20/150) para los cultivados con medio condicionado (P0,05). Se obtuvo una tasa de desarrollo del 15,7 % (16/102) de blastocistos para aquellos cigotos cultivados con células oviductales. No se obtuvo blastocistos a partir de cigotos cultivados en medio condicionado. Cuatro blastocistos fueron transferidos a dos hembras receptoras. A los 42 y 57 días se encontró la presencia de un feto en cada hembra; The in vitro development of matured and fertilized bovine oocytes was compared between two culture systems. Oocytes were collected by aspiration of follicles of 3-8 mm in diameter using an 18g needle. After morphological selection the oocytes were incubated at 39 0C...

‣ Far away from power : Towards the implementation of a quota system law in Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This essay intends to justify, from the point of view of equality - as it has been stated in the Chilean Constitution - a system of electoral quotas that helps to reverse the limited participation of women in public life. The paper describes the basic concepts of discrimination and affirmative action. In addition, it analyzes the principle of equality and the positive results of quotas systems in countries such as Argentina and Costa Rica. Finally, it studies the possible application of a quotas law in the Chilean electoral system.

‣ Environmental implications of the delignification of eucalyptus kraft pulps using peracids

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Because of great environmental pressures, the cellulose industry has studied the potential of use of new bleaching agents among which peroxymonosulfuric acid and peracetic acid stand out. This survey summarizes the results of various laboratory investigations using peracids to delignify eucalyptus kraft pulps. The effect of a step using peroxymonosulfuric acid followed by a D-Eo-D sequence [free of elemental chlorine] was studied and compared with the use of peracetic acid and mixtures of these two acids. It was shown that a mixture of peroxymonosulfuric acid and peracetic acid reduced more lignin (measured as kappa index) than the individual peracids, and reduced more hexenuronic acid than peracetic acid with less degradation of the cellulose than with peroxymonosulfuric acid. This was explained on the basis of the electrophilic and nucleophilic properties of these acids that improved the delignification of eucalyptus kraft pulp. The effluents generated in these steps involving the peracids had greater color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phenols correlating with the amount of lignin removed and the analyses of bioassays did not show acute toxicity from effluents coming from a peroxymonosulfuric acid step. The delignification with peracids may possibly reduce the use of chlorine dioxide in a sequence involving bleaching with elemental free chlorine (ECF)...

‣ Prevalence of Neospora caninum in two dairy herds of the IX Region of Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
La neosporosis ha sido reconocida y descrita como causa de aborto en la mayoría de las áreas ganaderas del mundo. En Chile se demostró la presencia de la enfermedad, sin embargo, muchos aspectos son desconocidos, razón por la cual se estudió la prevalencia de infección medida a través de anticuerpos séricos mediante la técnica de IFA en dos predios lecheros con antecedentes de abortos causados por este parásito. Se consideró a un bovino positivo cuando se evidenció fluorescencia a una dilución de 1:200. El 30,2% (52/173, IC=6,8%) de los animales estudiados en el predio A y el 15,7% (31/198, IC=5%) del predio B presentaron anticuerpos séricos contra el parásito. Los resultados por edades fueron para el predio A de 39,6% (42/106) para las vaquillas y de 15,2% (10/66) para las vacas (c2=10,42, P=0,0012) y para el predio B de 22,7% (15/66) para las terneras, de 17,8% (8/45) para las vaquillas y de 9,2% (8/87) para las vacas. Las terneras y vaquillas positivas del predio B difirieron de las vacas adultas (c2=4,07, P=0,043). Cuatro de los siete caninos existentes en el predio A presentaron anticuerpos contra N. caninum en dilución 1:50. Se discuten los resultados en relación a las posibles vías de difusión de infección en nuestro medio; Neosporosis is an important cause of economic loss in the cattle industry throughout the world. In Chile...

‣ Pharmacokinetics of propofol in 10 to 15 days old foals

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Se estudian las características farmacocinéticas de propofol en 6 potrillos de 10 a 15 días de edad. Se determinaron parámetros farmacocinéticos de propofol, cuantificando sus concentraciones sanguíneas en función del tiempo por HPLC, tras su administración de 2,4 mg/kg por vía endovenosa al grupo de animales. Los datos de concentración se interpretaron por un modelo abierto de 2 compartimentos, obteniéndose, entre otros, los valores de t1/2a, t1/2b, Vdc, Vdss, Vdb, Cltotal y MRT. El análisis de los parámetros farmacocinéticos del propofol, indican que éste posee una rápida y pronta distribución a los tejidos y una rápida eliminación del organismo. Los parámetros farmacocinéticos obtenidos contribuyen a efectuar cálculos para una correcta dosificación; Pharmacokinetic variables of propofol were studied in 8 foals. Plasma levels of propofol at different time after a single intravenous dose of 2.4 mg/kg bw, were determined by HPLC. An open two compartments model was used to evaluate plasma levels of propofol and values of t1/2a, t1/2b, Vdc, Vdss, Vdb, Cltotal y MRT were obtained. Propofol pharmacokinetic disposition showed a rapid distribution and removal from organic tissues, and the reported pharmacokinetic variables contribute to determine the appropriate dose to be given

‣ Experimental evidence of the disproportionation equilibrium in copper mixed-valence complexes

Fonte: Elservier Science BV Publicador: Elservier Science BV
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Experimental evidence for a dismutation equilibrium in the mixed-valence (MV) [Mn+ -M(n+1)+] system type has been elusive and its existence can be established only when the oxidation-reduction processes involved are reversible. Previous research in the field of binuclear Cu(II)-Cu(II), Cu(I)-Cu(I) and the related MV Cu(II)-Cu(I) complexes allowed us to obtain electrochemical evidence for the disproportionation equilibrium in some of these systems. In this communication we report discuss experiments with [(RCOO)2Cu(II)-Cu(I)(OOCR)2]- (R = CH3, Ph) type MV complexes that give direct non-electrochemical experimental evidence for the presence in solution of the disproportion equilibrium: 2[(R-COO)2Cu(II)-Cu(I)(OOC-R)2]-⇔ (R-COO)4Cu2(II) + [(RCOO)4Cu(I)2]2- It was possible to isolate the different components of the disproportionation equilibrium by varying temperature and solvent conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first non-electrochemical experimental evidence of this equilibrium for copper MV complexes in solution. Furthermore, as is discussed in the text, these results may be the basis for giving an alternative point of view to that given in some studies already reported in the literature, which relate to solvent and temperature effects on the intensity and energy of the intervalence transfer bands and also to changes in the EPR spectra of MV species.