OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics of single mothers in Ontario. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Ontario residents aged 15 years or older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement survey conducted between December 1990 and April 1991; of 9953 eligible participants, 1540 were mothers with at least 1 dependent child (less than 16 years of age). OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates of sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics. RESULTS: Single mothers were significantly more likely than the mothers in 2-parent families to be poor, to be 25 years of age or less, to have mental health problems (dissatisfaction with multiple aspects of life, affective disorder ever and 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever) and to use mental health services. When compared by income level, poor single mothers had a higher prevalence of all mental health outcomes measured; the difference was significant for anxiety disorder in the past year or ever and for 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever. In a logistic regression analysis, single-mother status was found to have the strongest independent effect on predicting mental health morbidity and utilization of mental health services; the next strongest was low income. CONCLUSIONS: Single mothers are more likely to be poor...
OBJECTIVES: To examine variations in rates of hysterectomy for the five main indications for the procedure in regions of Ontario. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based analysis of hospital discharge abstracts. SETTING: All acute care facilities in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: All 65,599 women whose hospital record contained a procedure code indicating that a hysterectomy was performed between Apr. 1, 1988, and Mar. 31, 1991. Duplicate cases, records of cancelled procedures and nonresidents were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude and age-adjusted rates of hysterectomy, by indication, for each region of Ontario. RESULTS: Five indications accounted for more than 80% of hysterectomies performed. The median age-adjusted rate of hysterectomy for Ontario regions during the study period was 6.25 per 1000 women, with a 2.7-fold variation among regions. The regions with rates of hysterectomy in the highest quartile tended to be rural, and those with rates in the lowest quartile tended to be urban areas with teaching hospitals. When rates of hysterectomy for specific indications were examined, they showed substantial variations among regions in the rate of the procedure for menstrual hemorrhage (18-fold variation), uterine prolapse (9.3-fold) and endometriosis (6.3-fold). A smaller but still significant variation was shown in the rate of hysterectomy for leiomyoma (2.3-fold). Regional variation in the rate of hysterectomy for cancer (2.5-fold) was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: There are large interregional variations in rates of hysterectomy...
OBJECTIVE: To assess interregional differences in the utilization of abortion services in Ontario from 1985 to 1992. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of provincial therapeutic abortion database. SETTING: All hospitals conducting abortions between 1985 and 1992 and all free-standing abortion clinics conducting abortions between 1990 and 1992. POPULATION: All women in Ontario aged 15 to 44 years who underwent a therapeutic abortion in Ontario during the study period. OUTCOME MEASURES: Utilization of abortion services by county and age-specific abortion rates by county of residence. RESULTS: From 1985 to 1989, when only hospital data were gathered, the mean therapeutic abortion rate increased by 11.2%. From 1990 to 1992, when data from hospitals and free-standing clinics were collected, the mean rate increased by 26.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed significant variation in the age-standardized abortion rates between counties in each study year (p < 0.0001). The counties with age-standardized rates below the 25th percentile had the highest proportions of women who sought abortion services outside their county of residence; in some of these counties no abortions were performed in local facilities. CONCLUSION: There are interregional variations in the utilization of abortion services in Ontario. These disparities raise questions about the accessibility of abortion services and need to be further investigated.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perinatal care in southwestern Ontario is regionalized, to identify trends over time in referral patterns, to quantify trends in perinatal death rates and to identify trends in perinatal death rates that give evidence of regionalization. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Thirty-two hospitals in southwestern Ontario (1 level III, 1 modified level III and 30 level II or I). PATIENTS: All pregnant women admitted to the hospitals and their infants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Antenatal and neonatal transfer status, live-born with discharge home alive from hospital of birth, stillborn, and live-born with death before discharge. RESULTS: Between 1982 and 1985 the antenatal transfer rate increased from 2.2% to 2.8% (p less than 0.003). The proportion of births of infants weighing 500 to 1499 g increased from 49% to 69% at the level III hospital. The neonatal transfer rate increased from 26.2% to 47.9% (p less than 0.05) for infants in this birth-weight category and decreased from 10.2% to 7.1% (p less than 0.03) for infants weighing 1500 to 2499 g. The death rate among infants of low birth weight was lowest among those born at the level III centre and decreased at all centres between 1982 and 1985. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal care in southwestern Ontario is regionalized and not centralized; regionalization in southwestern Ontario increased between 1982 and 1985.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of different radiation schedules used in Ontario to treat women with node-negative breast cancer after lumpectomy and axillary dissection. DESIGN: Retrospective survey. SETTING: Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, and regional centres of the Ontario Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation (in Hamilton, London, Ottawa, Windsor and Thunder Bay). PATIENTS: A total of 551 of 1624 consecutive patients with node-negative breast cancer having undergone lumpectomy and axillary dissection who were eligible but did not participate in the Ontario Clinical Oncology Group randomized clinical trial and who received adjuvant breast irradiation between April 1984 and February 1989. OUTCOME MEASURES: Schedules of radiotherapy received. RESULTS: Forty-eight different radiotherapy schedules were identified. Total doses ranged from 4000 to 6600 cGy and the number of fractions from 15 to 30. Several different schedules were preferred: 322 patients (58.5%) received 4000 cGy in 15 or 16 fractions to the whole breast over 3 weeks plus a local boost of 1250 cGy to the primary site in 5 fractions over 1 week; 66 patients (12.0%) received 4000 cGy in 15 or 16 fractions over 3 weeks to the whole breast plus a local boost of 1000 cGy to the primary site in 4 or 5 fractions over 1 week; and 63 patients (11.5%) received 5000 cGy in 25 fractions to the whole breast in 5 weeks...
In Ontario, leukemia causes about 4% of all cancer deaths, ranging from nearly 50% at under 5 years of age to 1-3% at age 50 and over. Age-specific death rates are highest among older people; at all ages, male deaths exceed female deaths. Only about 20% of all leukemia patients in Ontario are registered at Ontario Cancer Clinics; the proportion changed sharply with the advent of chemotherapy. For 1258 patients registered in 1938-1963, the crude one-year survival rate was 50%, ranging from 9% for acute leukemia to about 60% for non-acute lymphatic and myeloid leukemia. The long-term outlook was much better for non-acute lymphatic leukemia than for non-acute myeloid leukemia. For acute leukemia, the treatment of choice was chemotherapy; for non-acute lymphatic leukemia, radiotherapy was used, followed, if required, by chemotherapy or further radiotherapy. For non-acute myeloid leukemia, the advantage of chemotherapy over radiotherapy was not established.
In Ontario, the 18-month well-baby visit is the last scheduled primary care visit before school entry. Recognizing the importance of this visit and the role that primary care plays in developmental surveillance, an Ontario expert panel recommended enhancing the 18-month visit. Their recommendations are based on evidence from multiple disciplines, which underscore the reality that the quality of the early years experience establishes trajectories of health and well-being for children. An underlying premise of the recommendations is that when there are collaborations among parents, primary care, community health and child development services, the outcomes for children will be improved. The present article focuses on two Ontario pilot projects that were funded to discover how, in real life primary care settings, the recommendations could be implemented and outcomes measured. Findings and insights were significant, and future directions are clear, as the strategy for an enhanced 18-month well-baby visit is implemented in the future for Ontario.
The Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of Ontario were reviewed in the context of recently studied material, primarily from insect surveys conducted by the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada). Aleochara daviesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Agaricomorpha websteri Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Dinaraea backusensis Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., and Strigota obscurata Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n. are described as new to science. We also report 47 new Ontario records and 24 new Canadian records. Callicerus rigidicornis (Erichson) and Alevonota gracilenta (Erichson) are newly reported from North America as adventive species. A checklist, with Canadian distributions by province, of the 224 species of Aleocharinae known from Ontario is given. The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Dexiogyia angustiventris (Casey): (Dexiogyia asperata (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia abscissa (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia tenuicauda (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia intenta (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia alticola (Casey) syn. n.). The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Acrotona subpygmaea (Bernhauer): (Acrotona avia (Casey) syn. n., Acrotona puritana (Casey) syn. n.). Lectotypes are designated for Thiasophila angustiventris Casey...
Ce mémoire de maîtrise analyse les influences transnationales qui ont mené à la nationalisation de l’électricité au Québec. En contraste avec les précédentes études sur Hydro-Québec voulant que les incitatifs locaux fussent la source exclusive de la nationalisation de l’électricité au Québec, cette recherche vient démontrer que les idées transnationales ont été tout aussi influentes. Tout au long du récit, on voit que la conjoncture politico-économique de refonte du libéralisme économique classique vers une version plus keynésienne de l’économie occidentale a été un stimulant de première importance pour la nationalisation de l’électricité au Québec. Dans le premier chapitre sont détaillées les nationalisations d’électricité de l’Ontario, de la Vallée du Tennessee et de la France, ainsi que les relations qu’elles ont eues entre elles et avec le Québec. Dans un second temps, il est démontré que l’étatisation de l’électricité en Ontario au début du XXe siècle et celle de la Vallée du Tennessee durant la crise économique des années 1930 ont été des incitatifs majeurs pour le projet menant à la nationalisation de la Montreal Light Heat & Power en 1944. Enfin, dans le troisième chapitre...
This study used data from two surveys (2001 and 2006) and determined the prevalence of medical comorbidities in persons receiving community based mental health services from Southeastern Ontario agencies. An age stratified sample of 979 persons with mental health disorders was assessed using the Colorado Client Assessment Record by trained clinicians (85% response). Medical comorbidities were grouped using International Classification of Disease categories. SPSS program was used to calculate odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and chi square tests of significance to assess the association of socio-demographic factors (age, gender and marital status) with comorbidity. Fifty percent of those aged 25-64 and 65% of those over 65 reported at least one medical problem. Problems with cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and endocrine related disorders were most common. Age and marital status were associated with having a comorbidity; however, gender was not. This study provides a better understanding of the complex care needs of mental health patients in Southeastern Ontario.; Examining the prevalence of medical comorbidities in patients receiving community based mental health services in southeastern Ontario. The study also assesses the association of age...
In this study I investigate the effects of a fragmented southwestern Ontario landscape on the genetic population structure of two sympatric snake species that differ in habitat preference. I was most interested in comparing the relative number and location of both natural and human-created barriers to gene flow between the species. The eastern garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is a common species and a habitat generalist, whereas the eastern foxsnake (Elaphe gloydi) is less common, geographically isolated, and a marsh-specialist. Bayesian spatial assignment revealed three genetic clusters for garter snakes and five genetic clusters for foxsnakes. Each individual garter snake had a near equal probability of membership to two or more clusters with none of the clusters mapping onto a discrete geographic region, indicating that in reality T. sirtalis in southwestern Ontario probably exist in a single genetic population. The five identified foxsnake clusters correspond to geographically circumscribed locations on the Southern Ontario landscape. Slopes of pair-wise isolation by distance between individuals were significantly different from zero, but extremely weak, for both species. Isolation by distance was found to be greater in foxsnakes compared to garter snakes. The results of this study imply that foxsnakes experience more barriers to gene flow than garter snakes across southwestern Ontario.
In light of the fact that literature on toxicity of heavy metals in non-acidified
freshwater systems is sparse, this project was initiated to conduct an environmental
assessment of Lake Gibson. Chemistry of soils from adjacent areas and vineyards in the
region provide a comparative background database. Water quality determinations were used
to identify and highlight areas of environmental concern within the Lake Gibson watershed.
A Shelby Corer was used to obtain 66 sediment cores from Lake Gibson. These were
sectioned according to lithology and color to yield 298 samples. A suite of 122 soil samples
was collected in the region and vicinity of Lake Gibson. All were tested for metals and
some for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Evaluation of the results leads to the
1. Metal concentrations ofAI, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Fe and Zn in soils from the Niagara
Region are well below background limits set by the Ministry of the Environment
and Energy (MOEE) for provincial soils.
2. There is a spatial and depth difference for some of the metals within the various
soils. The Cr, Ni and Pb contents of soils vary throughout the region (p
Ontario Editorial Bureau (O.E.B.); This fonds is part of the larger Ontario Editorial Bureau archives (OEB) also housed at Brock University. The bulk of the collection is correspondence relating to the Maple Leaf Mills.
It has been well documented, within the field of landscape ecology, that terrestrial
fragmentation contributes to increased heterogeneity at the landscape level. It has also been
observed that elevated areas of edge habitat occur within fragmented landscapes. Spatial
and temporal edge effects were investigated in four areas designated as Nature Reserve
Zones within Short Hills Provincial Park, near St. Catharines, Ontario.
Random sampling along exposed edges was performed on trees and saplings, at 5
and 25 ill edge depths, using the point-centred quarter method. Diameter at breast height
(dbh) and distance from point measurements were used to establish relative density,
dominance, frequency and importance value. One-way analyses of variance were used on
dbh measurements of tree species and Chi-Square contingency tables were used on size
class distributions of saplings species to determine significant differences between 5 and 25
metres. Qualitative comparisons of importance values were also used to determine
differences between 5 and 25 metres as well as between trees and saplings.
These statistical and qualitative comparisons suggest that a significant overall
spatial edge effect is currently exhibited by fragmented wooded islands within the park.
The major species of the park...
The McElroy and Larder Lake assemblages, located in the southern Abitibi Greenstone
Belt are two late Archean metavolcanic sequences having markedly contrasting physical
characteristics arid are separated from one another by a regional fault. An assemblage is an
informal term which describes stratified volcanic and/or sedimentary rock units built during
a specific time period in a similar depositional or volcanic setting and are commonly bounded
by faults, unconformities or intrusions. The petrology and petrogenesis of these assemblages
have been investigated to determine if a genetic link exists between the two adjacent
The McElroy assemblage is homoclinal sequence of evolved massive and pillowed
fl.ows, which except for the basal unit represents a progressively fractionated volcanic pile.
From the base to the top of the assemblage the lithologies include Fe-tholeiitic, dendritic
flows; komatiite basaltic, ultramafic flows; Mg-tholeiitic, leucogabbro; Mg-tholeiitic, massive
flows and Fe-tholeiitic, pillowed flows. Massive flows range from coarse grained to aphanitic
and are commonly plagioclase glomerophyric. The Larder Lake assemblage consists of
komatiitic, Mg-rich and Fe-rich tholeiitic basalts, structurally disrupted by folds and faults.
Tholeiitic rocks in the Larder Lake assemblage range from aphanitic to coarse grained
massive and pillowed flows. Komatiitic flows contain both spinifex and massive textures.
Geochemical variability within both assemblages is attributed to different petrogenetic
histories. The lithologies of the McElroy assemblage were derived by partial melting of a
primitive mantle source followed by various degrees of crystal fractionation. Partial melting
of a primitive mantle source generated the ultramafic flows and possibly other flows in the
assemblage. Fractionation of ultramafic flows may have also produced the more evolved
McElroy lithologies. The highly evolved...
The steeply dipping, isoclinally folded early Precambrian
(Archean) Berry Creek Metavolcanic Complex comprises
primary to resedimented pyroclastic, epiclastic and
autoclastic deposits. Tephra erupted from central
volcanic edifices was dumped by mass flow mechanisms into
peripheral volcanosedimentary depressions. Sedimentation
has been essentially contemporaneous with eruption and
transport of tephra.
The monolithic to heterolithic tuffaceous horizons
are interpreted as subaerial to subaqueous pumice and ash
flows, secondary debris flows, lahars, slump deposits and
turbidites. Monolithic debris flows, derived from crumble
breccia and dcme talus, formed during downslope collapse
and subsequent gravity flowage. Heterolithic tuff, lahars
and lava flow morphologies suggest at least temporary
emergence of the edifice. Local collapse may have
accompanied pyroclastic volcanism.
The tephra, produced by hydromagmatic to magmatic
eruptions, were rapidly transported, by primary and
secondary mechanisms, to a shallow littoral to deep water
subaqueous fan developed upon the subjacent mafic
metavolcanic platform. Deposition resulted from traction,
traction carpet, and suspension sedimentation from laminar
to turbulent flows. Facies mapping revealed proximal
(channel to overbank) to distal facies epiclastics
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version; BioMed Central LtdFormato: 10 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
BACKGROUND: Legionellosis is a common cause of severe community acquired pneumonia and
respiratory disease outbreaks. The Ontario Public Health Laboratory (OPHL) has conducted most
testing for Legionella species in the Canadian province of Ontario since 1978, and represents a
multi-decade repository of population-based data on legionellosis epidemiology. We sought to
provide a laboratory-based review of the epidemiology of legionellosis in Ontario over the past 3
decades, with a focus on changing rates of disease and species associated with legionellosis during
that time period.
METHODS: We analyzed cases that were submitted and tested positive for legionellosis from 1978
to 2006 using Poisson regression models incorporating temporal, spatial, and demographic
covariates. Predictors of infection with culture-confirmed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (LP1) were
evaluated with logistic regression models.
Results: 1,401 cases of legionellosis tested positive from 1978 to 2006. As in other studies, we
found a late summer to early autumn seasonality in disease occurrence with disease risk increasing
with age and in males. In contrast to other studies, we found a decreasing trend in cases in the
recent decade (IRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.95, P-value = 0.001); only 66% of culture-confirmed
isolates were found to be LP1.
CONCLUSION: Despite similarities with disease epidemiology in other regions...
One of the oldest wineries in Ontario, Bright’s Wines is now a part of Vincor International Inc. and still producing wines today.
In the year 1874 Thomas G. Bright and Francis A. Shirriff came together in a partnership and formed a wine company in Toronto, Ontario. As the company began to prosper the gentlemen decided to move the location to Niagara, Ontario. Sixteen years later the Niagara Falls Wine Company opened on Dorchester Road. In 1911, Bright bought out all of Shirriff’s shares in the company and the name became the T. G. Bright and Co. Limited. A few years later in 1933 Harry C. Hatch bought the wine company from the Bright family and began changing how Bright’s operated through greater, more diverse wine production, as well as research and development.
Bright’s leadership in wine research and development in Canada helped bring Canadian wines to their position of respect around the world. In 1934 Bright’s began a viticultural and vinicultural program, changing the way the Canadian wine industry worked. They put more money into research and development than any other winery in all of Canada. Soon, gold medals and “best of class” international designations were being awarded to Bright’s wines.
As a result of their success...
This study \Alas initiated in response to the Junior
Division Review (1985) publ ished by the Ministry of
Education for the Province of Ontario.
Curriculum integration is an element used within the
educational paradigm designed by the Ontario Ministry
of Education. It is a term frequent1y verbal ized b>'
educators in this province, but because of 1 imi ted
resource support regarding this methodology, it was
open to broad interpretation resulting in an extreme
v ar i at i on i nit simp 1 eme n tat i on • I n de ed, the Min i s try
intimated that it was not occurring to any significant
degree across the province. The objective of this
thes is was· to define integration in the junior
classroom and de-:.ign a meas.ur·ement in-:.tr-ument which
would in turn high 1 i gh t indicators of curriculum
The :.tudy made a prel iminary, field-based survey of
educa tiona 1 professionals in order to generate a
relevant description of integrated curr-iculum
programm i ng as def i ned in the j un i or classroom. The
description was a compilation of views expressed by a random selection of teachers, consultants, supervisory
officers and principals.
The survey revea 1 ed a much more comprehens i ve vi et·<,l of
the attributes of integrated programming than tradition
would dictate and resulted in a functional definition
tha t was broader than past prac t ices. Based on the
information generated by this survey...