The functions of surface-accessible domains of apolipoprotein (apo) B, the protein moiety of low density lipoprotein (LDL), are unknown, aside from the LDL receptor-binding domain, which lies toward the carboxyl-terminal end of apoB. Since LDL accumulation in arterial lesions does not depend on recognition of LDLs by a cell-surface receptor, we synthesized an oligopeptide with the sequence of the trypsin-accessible domain of apoB that lies closest to the amino-terminal end of the protein and compared its biological activity to that of another synthetic oligopeptide with the sequence of the heparin- and apoB/apoE receptor-binding domains of apoE. (Tyrosine was added at the amino-terminal end of each peptide to facilitate radiolabeling.) The 18-amino acid apoB-based peptide included residues 1000-1016 of apoB, for which no function has been previously described. In radioautographs, the 125I-labeled peptide accumulated focally at the healing edges of regenerating endothelial islands in the balloon-catheter deendothelialized rabbit aorta. In contrast, the 21-residue apoE-based peptide, which included residues 129-148 of apoE, accumulated diffusely and uniformly throughout the deendothelialized areas of the aorta. The data show that focal binding of the apoB-based peptide can delineate arterial lesions and suggest that this arterial wall-binding domain of apoB mediates accumulation of LDLs in arterial lesions.
The study of tumor-specific chromosomal abnormalities has been severely impeded by an inability to link cytogenetic to molecular data. Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping of any particular chromosomal rearrangement to the resolution limit of genetic methodology generates sets of probes that frequently are still too widely spaced to render the rearrangement breakpoints accessible to molecular isolation. The stable propagation of genomic fragments of up to one million base pairs in size as yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) represents an important development in this regard. However, existing YAC libraries have been made from karyotypically normal sources making the localization and cloning of specific rearrangement breakpoints much more difficult. As a solution to this problem, we present an improved method for creating YAC libraries that can utilize specialized tumor-derived materials and that can be executed effectively in a small laboratory setting. Procedures that enabled more consistent DNA insert size selection and enhanced yeast transformation frequency were employed to generate a human YAC library from a neuroepithelioma cell line containing a characteristic t(11;22) chromosomal translocation. Approximately 40...
The eukaryal single-stranded DNA binding protein replication
protein A (RPA) binds short oligonucleotides with high affinity
but exhibits low cooperativity in binding longer templates, opposite
to prokaryal counterparts. This discrepancy could reflect the smaller
size of the replicative template portion availed to RPA. According
to current models, this portion accommodates an RNA–DNA
primer (RDP) of <40 nt (nested discontinuity) or a several-fold
longer Okazaki fragment (initiation zone). Previous in
situ UV-crosslinking revealed that RPA also interacts with
nascent DNA, especially growing RDPs. Here we compare nascent SV40
DNA chains UV-crosslinked to the middle and large RPA subunits and
use the data to re-examine the two models. The middle subunit interacted
with the nascent chains after a few DNA residues were added to the
RNA primer while the large subunit became accessible after extension by
several more. Upon RDP maturation, the middle subunit disengaged
while the large subunit remained accessible during further limited
extension. A corresponding shift in preference in favor of the large subunit
has been reported for purified RPA and synthetic gapped duplexes
upon reduction of the gap from 19 to 9 nt. Combined...
SWI-SNF is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that disrupts DNA-histone interactions. Several studies of SWI-SNF activity on mononucleosome substrates have suggested that remodeling leads to novel, accessible nucleosomes which persist in the absence of continuous ATP hydrolysis. In contrast, we have reported that SWI-SNF-dependent remodeling of nucleosomal arrays is rapidly reversed after removal of ATP. One possibility is that these contrasting results are due to the different assays used; alternatively, the lability of the SWI-SNF-remodeled state might be different on mononucleosomes versus nucleosomal arrays. To investigate these possibilities, we use a coupled SWI-SNF remodeling–restriction enzyme assay to directly compare the remodeling of mononucleosome and nucleosomal array substrates. We find that SWI-SNF action causes a mobilization of histone octamers for both the mononucleosome and nucleosomal array substrates, and these changes in nucleosome positioning persist in the absence of continued ATP hydrolysis or SWI-SNF binding. In the case of mononucleosomes, the histone octamers accumulate at the DNA ends even in the presence of continued ATP hydrolysis. On nucleosomal arrays, SWI-SNF and ATP lead to a more dynamic state where nucleosomes appear to be constantly redistributed and restriction enzyme sites throughout the array have increased accessibility. This random positioning of nucleosomes within the array persists after removal of ATP...
Transcriptional activators are believed to work in part by recruiting general transcription factors, such as TATA-binding protein (TBP) and the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Activation domains also contribute to remodeling of chromatin in vivo. To determine whether these two activities represent distinct functions of activation domains, we have examined transcriptional activation and chromatin remodeling accompanying artificial recruitment of TBP in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We measured transcription of reporter genes with defined chromatin structure by artificial recruitment of TBP and found that a reporter gene whose TATA element was relatively accessible could be activated by artificially recruited TBP, whereas two promoters, GAL10 and CHA1, that have accessible activator binding sites, but nucleosomal TATA elements, could not. A third reporter gene containing the HIS4 promoter could be activated by GAL4-TBP only when a RAP1 binding site was present, although RAP1 alone could not activate the reporter, suggesting that RAP1 was needed to open the chromatin structure to allow activation. Consistent with this interpretation, artificially recruited TBP was unable to perturb nucleosome positioning via a nucleosomal binding site...
Yeast promoter regions are often more accessible to nuclear proteins than are nonpromoter regions. As assayed by HinfI endonuclease cleavage in living yeast cells, HinfI sites located in the promoters of all seven genes tested were 5- to 20-fold more accessible than sites in adjacent nonpromoter regions. HinfI hypersensitivity within the his3 promoter region is locally determined, since it was observed when this region was translocated to the middle of the ade2 structural gene. Detailed analysis of the his3 promoter indicated that preferential accessibility is not determined by specific elements such as the Gcn4 binding site, poly(dA-dT) sequences, TATA elements, or initiator elements or by transcriptional activity. However, progressive deletion of the promoter region in either direction resulted in a progressive loss of HinfI accessibility. Preferential accessibility is independent of the Swi-Snf chromatin remodeling complex, Gcn5 histone acetylase complexes Ada and SAGA, and Rad6, which ubiquitinates histone H2B. These results suggest that preferential accessibility of the his3 (and presumably other) promoter regions is determined by a general property of the DNA sequence (e.g., base composition or a related feature) rather than by defined sequence elements. The organization of the compact yeast genome into inherently distinct promoter and nonpromoter regions may ensure that transcription factors bind preferentially to appropriate sites in promoters rather than to the excess of irrelevant but equally high-affinity sites in nonpromoter regions.
SubtiList is the reference database dedicated to the genome of Bacillus subtilis 168, the paradigm of Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria. Developed in the framework of the B.subtilis genome project, SubtiList provides a curated dataset of DNA and protein sequences, combined with the relevant annotations and functional assignments. Information about gene functions and products is continuously updated by linking relevant bibliographic references. Recently, sequence corrections arising from both systematic verifications and submissions by individual scientists were included in the reference genome sequence. SubtiList is based on a generic relational data schema and a World Wide Web interface developed for the handling of bacterial genomes, called GenoList. The World Wide Web interface was designed to allow users to easily browse through genome data and retrieve information according to common biological queries. SubtiList also provides more elaborate tools, such as pattern searching, which are tightly connected to the overall browsing system. SubtiList is accessible at http://genolist.pasteur.fr/SubtiList/. Similar bacterial databases are accessible at http://genolist.pasteur.fr/.
The GenBank sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of more than 105 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank data is accessible through NCBI’s integrated retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical literature via PubMed. Sequence similarity searching is provided by the BLAST family of programs. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. NCBI also offers a wide range of World Wide Web retrieval and analysis services based on GenBank data. The GenBank database and related resources are freely accessible via the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
The Celera Discovery System™ (CDS) is a web-accessible research workbench for mining genomic and related biological information. Users have access to the human and mouse genome sequences with annotation presented in summary form in BioMolecule Reports for genes, transcripts and proteins. Over 40 additional databases are available, including sequence, mapping, mutation, genetic variation, mRNA expression, protein structure, motif and classification data. Data are accessible by browsing reports, through a variety of interactive graphical viewers, and by advanced query capability provided by the LION SRS™ search engine. A growing number of sequence analysis tools are available, including sequence similarity, pattern searching, multiple sequence alignment and Hidden Markov Model search. A user workspace keeps track of queries and analyses. CDS is widely used by the academic research community and requires a subscription for access. The system and academic pricing information are available at http://cds.celera.com.
PsaD subunit of Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 photosystem I (PSI) plays a critical role in the stability of the complex and is part of the docking site for ferredoxin (Fd). In the present study we describe major physiological and biochemical effects resulting from mutations in the accessible C-terminal end of the protein. Four basic residues were mutated: R111, K117, K131, and K135, and a large 36-amino acid deletion was generated at the C terminus. PSI from R111C mutant has a 5-fold decreased affinity for Fd, comparable with the effect of the C terminus deletion, and NADP+ is photoreduced with a 2-fold decreased rate, without consequence on cell growth. The K117A mutation has no effect on the affinity for Fd, but decreases the stability of PsaE subunit, a loss of stability also observed in R111C and the deletion mutants. The double mutation K131A/K135A does not change Fd binding and reduction, but decreases the overall stability of PSI and impairs the cell growth at temperatures above 30°C. Three mutants, R111C, K117A, and the C-terminal deleted exhibit a higher content of the trimeric form of PSI, in apparent relation to the removal of solvent accessible positive charges. Various regions in the C terminus of cyanobacterial PsaD thus are involved in Fd strong binding...
Costanzo, Maria C.; Hogan, Jennifer D.; Cusick, Michael E.; Davis, Brian P.; Fancher, Ann M.; Hodges, Peter E.; Kondu, Pinar; Lengieza, Carey; Lew-Smith, Jodi E.; Lingner, Carol; Roberg-Perez, Kevin J.; Tillberg, Michael; Brooks, Joan E.; Garrels, James I
Fonte: Oxford University PressPublicador: Oxford University Press
The Yeast Proteome Database (YPD™) has been for several years a resource for organized and accessible information about the proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have now extended the YPD format to create a database containing complete proteome information about the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (WormPD™). YPD and WormPD are designed for use not only by their respective research communities but also by the broader scientific community. In both databases, information gleaned from the literature is presented in a consistent, user-friendly Protein Report format: a single Web page presenting all available knowledge about a particular protein. Each Protein Report begins with a Title Line, a concise description of the function of that protein that is continually updated as curators review new literature. Properties and functions of the protein are presented in tabular form in the upper part of the Report, and free-text annotations organized by topic are presented in the lower part. Each Protein Report ends with a comprehensive reference list whose entries are linked to their MEDLINE abstracts. YPD and WormPD are seamlessly integrated, with extensive links between the species. They are freely accessible to academic users on the WWW at http://www.proteome.com/databases/index.html ...
The GenBank® sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of >55 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (Web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank data is accessible through NCBI’s integrated retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping and protein structure information, plus the biomedical literature via PubMed. Sequence similarity searching is provided by the BLAST family of programs. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. NCBI also offers a wide range of WWW retrieval and analysis services based on GenBank data. The GenBank database and related resources are freely accessible via the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
The Exon/Intron (ExInt) database incorporates information on the exon/intron structure of eukaryotic genes. Features in the database include: intron nucleotide sequence, amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein, position of the introns at the amino acid level and intron phase. From ExInt, we have also generated four additional databases each with ExInt entries containing predicted introns, introns experimentally defined, organelle introns or nuclear introns. ExInt is accessible through a retrieval system with pointers to GenBank. The database can be searched by keywords, locus name, NID, accession number or length of the protein. ExInt is freely accessible at http://intron.bic.nus.edu.sg/exint/ exint.html
We have developed a publicly accessible database (ALFRED, the ALlele FREquency Database) that catalogues allele frequency data for a wide range of population samples and DNA polymorphisms. This database is web-accessible through our laboratory (Kidd Lab) Web site: http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd . ALFRED currently contains data on 60 populations and 156 genetic systems including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and insertion–deletion polymorphisms. While data are not available for all population–DNA polymorphism combinations, over 2000 allele frequency tables have been entered. Our database is designed (i) to address our specific research requirements as well as broader scientific objectives; (ii) to allow researchers and interested educators to easily navigate and retrieve data of interest to them; and (iii) to integrate links to other related public databases such as dbSNP, GenBank and PubMed.
We showed previously that homeoproteins bind to multiple DNA sites throughout the length of most genes in Drosophila embryos. Based on a comparison of in vivo and in vitro DNA binding specificities, we suggested that homeoprotein binding sites on actively transcribed genes are largely accessible, whereas the binding of homeoproteins to inactive and poorly transcribed genes may be significantly inhibited at most sites, perhaps by chromatin structure. To test this model, we have measured the accessibility of restriction enzyme sites in a number of genes in isolated nuclei. Surprisingly, our data indicate that there is no difference in the overall accessibility of sites for several restriction enzymes on active versus inactive genes. However, consistent with our model, restriction enzyme recognition sequences that overlap with homeoprotein binding sites are less accessible on inactive genes than they are on active genes. We propose that transcriptional activation in all animals may involve a localized increase in accessibility at the AT-rich regions bound by homeoproteins and perhaps at a few other regions, rather than a generalized effect on all sites throughout a gene.
The life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is tightly linked to the differentiation status of the host cell. While early genes are expressed during the initial stages of viral infection, late gene expression occurs in the suprabasal layers of the cervical epithelium. Late genes encode E1^E4, a cytosolic protein, and capsid proteins L1 and L2. We have mapped over 30 initiation sites for late transcripts and show that the transcripts initiate in a 200-nucleotide region within the E7 open reading frame. The mechanisms regulating the activation of late gene expression, however, are not yet understood. DNase I hypersensitivity analysis of HPV-31 chromatin in cell lines that maintain viral genomes extrachromosomally indicates that a major shift in nuclease digestion occurs upon differentiation. In undifferentiated cells, hypersensitive regions exist in the upstream regulatory region proximal to the E6 open reading frame. Upon differentiation, a region between nucleotides 659 and 811 in the E7 open reading frame becomes accessible to DNase I. These results indicate that the late transcript initiation region becomes accessible to transcription factor binding upon differentiation. Several complexes mediate chromatin rearrangement, and we tested whether histone acetylation was sufficient for late transcript activation. Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A was found to be insufficient to activate late gene expression in undifferentiated cells. However...
The SWI-SNF complex in yeast and related complexes in higher eukaryotes have been implicated in assisting gene activation by overcoming the repressive effects of chromatin. We show that the ability of the transcriptional activator GAL4 to bind to a site in a positioned nucleosome is not appreciably impaired in swi mutant yeast cells. However, chromatin remodeling that depends on a transcriptional activation domain shows a considerable, although not complete, SWI-SNF dependence, suggesting that the SWI-SNF complex exerts its major effect at a step subsequent to activator binding. We tested this idea further by comparing the SWI-SNF dependence of a reporter gene based on the GAL10 promoter, which has an accessible upstream activating sequence and a nucleosomal TATA element, with that of a CYC1-lacZ reporter, which has a relatively accessible TATA element. We found that the GAL10-based reporter gene showed a much stronger SWI-SNF dependence than did the CYC1-lacZ reporter with several different activators. Remarkably, transcription of the GAL10-based reporter by a GAL4-GAL11 fusion protein showed a nearly complete requirement for the SWI-SNF complex, strongly suggesting that SWI-SNF is needed to allow access of TFIID or the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Taken together...
The Aspergillus PacC transcription factor undergoes proteolytic activation in response to alkaline ambient pH. In acidic environments, the 674 residue translation product adopts a ‘closed’ conformation, protected from activation through intramolecular interactions involving the ≤150 residue C-terminal domain. pH signalling converts PacC to an accessible conformation enabling processing cleavage within residues 252–254. We demonstrate that activation of PacC requires two sequential proteolytic steps. First, the ‘closed’ translation product is converted to an accessible, committed intermediate by proteolytic elimination of the C-terminus. This ambient pH-regulated cleavage is required for the final, pH-independent processing reaction and is mediated by a distinct signalling protease (possibly PalB). The signalling protease cleaves PacC between residues 493 and 500, within a conserved 24 residue ‘signalling protease box’. Precise deletion or Leu498Ser substitution prevents formation of the committed and processed forms, demonstrating that signalling cleavage is essential for final processing. In contrast, signalling cleavage is not required for processing of the Leu340Ser protein, which lacks interactions preventing processing. In its two-step mechanism...
We utilized a site-specific cross-linking technique to investigate the mechanism of nucleosome remodeling by hSWI/SNF. We found that a single cross-link between H2B and DNA virtually eliminates the accumulation of stably remodeled species as measured by restriction enzyme accessibility assays. However, cross-linking the histone octamer to nucleosomal DNA does not inhibit remodeling as monitored by DNase I digestion assays. Importantly, we found that the restriction enzyme-accessible species can be efficiently cross-linked after remodeling and that the accessible state does not require continued ATP hydrolysis. These results imply that the generation of stable remodeled states requires at least transient disruption of histone-DNA interactions throughout the nucleosome, while hSWI/SNF-catalyzed disruption of just local histone-DNA interactions yields less-stable remodeled states that still display an altered DNase I cleavage pattern. The implications of these results for models of the mechanism of SWI/SNF-catalyzed nucleosome remodeling are discussed.
Virion capture assays, in which immobilized antibodies (Abs) capture virus particles, have been used to suggest that nonneutralizing Abs bind effectively to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary viruses. Here, we show that virion capture assays, under conditions commonly reported in the literature, give a poor indication of epitope expression on the surface of infectious primary HIV-1. First, estimation of primary HIV-1 capture by p24 measurements shows a very poor correlation with an estimation based on infectivity measurements. Second, virion capture appears to require relatively low Ab affinity for the virion, as shown by the ability of a monoclonal Ab to capture a wild-type and a neutralization escape variant virus equally well. Nevertheless, in a more interpretable competition format, it is shown that nonneutralizing anti-CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs compete with a neutralizing anti-CD4bs Ab (b12) for virus capture, suggesting that the nonneutralizing anti-CD4bs Abs are able to bind to the envelope species that is involved in virion capture in these experiments. However, the nonneutralizing anti-CD4bs Abs do not inhibit neutralization by b12 even at considerable excess. This suggests that the nonneutralizing Abs are unable to bind effectively to the envelope species required for virus infectivity. The results were obtained for three different primary virus envelopes. The explanation that we favor is that infectious HIV-1 primary virions can express two forms of gp120...