Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade Católica de Temuco

A Universidade Católica de Temuco é uma institução privada confessional do Chile, fundada pelo bispo Alejandro Menchaca Lira em 1959.

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‣ Amounts of conjugate linoleic acid (ALC) in lacteal foods in Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (ALC) - Isomers: cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12- were measured in a milk tank of the NESTLE Company and of diary food in Chile and were analyzed through gas chromatography. The ALC was found higher (p <0.05) in samples taken in the city of Osorno compared to milk of the city of Los Angeles. The highest value was found during spring in Osorno (1,72 g/100 g), while the lowest value (0,415 g/100 g) was found in winter in Los Angeles. The average amount of ALC in milk powder and con-densed milk was of 1,967 and 1,493 g/100 g, respectively, during 2004. Butter, cheese and cream had respectively an average of 1,502, 0,883 and 1,900 g/100 g. In conclusion, the diary products analyzed have a high value of ALC in Chile.

‣ Perceived discrimination amongst the indigenous Mapuche people in Chile: Some comparisons with Australia

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
With similar settler-colonial histories having left them occupying the position of marginalized minority groups, indigenous people in Chile and Australia are struggling to assert their rights and retain their cultures. Research in each location suggests that there is widespread prejudice and discrimination against them, even though the mainstream society sees itself as tolerant and harmonious. This paper reports on a study in which thirty Mapuche people in Chile were interviewed about their perceptions of discrimination against them. Their responses were systematically analysed using a taxonomy of racist experiences established in a study of Aborigines in Australia. Like indigenous Australians, the Mapuche people of Chile reported that they experience extensive discrimination in all areas of life. These findings are discussed with respect to the issues related to relationships between settlers and colonized communities. © 2009 Taylor & Francis.

‣ Substrate selection by the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828): Field and laboratory experiments

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
To evaluate the capacity for movement of freshwater mussels in sandy and sand-gravel substrates and to test their ability to differentiate among types and qualities of substrates, experiments were carried out in the laboratory and in the field, using Diplodon chilensis from Lake Panguipulli, Chile. The movement of mussels was greater in sandy than in sand-gravel substrates. In the absence of food, there was a significant preference for sandy substrate, and when mussels were offered sandy or sand-gravel substrates with and without food they chose the substrate with food with no preference to substrate type. Under natural conditions mussel presence and abundance along time is regulated by variables with a synergistic effect, niche of which substratum is not always the major one.

‣ Efectividad de la azadirachtina en la inhibición de la embriogénesis de Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Raspberry is cultivated in the southern part of Chile mainly for export. Its fruit is severely affected by the raspberry weevil (RW) Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin), a Curculionidae native of Chile. Little is known about the biology RW and control measures. Conventional insecticides have been tried against the adult, however, their use has been hindered in the practice by the coincidence of the presence of the mature insect with flowering and fructification periods. Entomopathogenic fungi are being incorporated lately, but still not massively used. This work aimed to evaluate azadirachtin, using the commercial product Neem as a growth regulator. Six doses of Neem, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 ml/L of water, were applied under laboratory conditions, maintaining a check with no insecticide. RW adults stayed confined on the foliage of raspberry bushes treated with Neem during five days and in thirty days during egglaying. Number of eggs, number of emerged larva, percentage of born larva, effectiveness; effective half dose (DE50) and ninety effective dose (DE90) were determined. Neem treatments had significantly lower egg-laying amount, lower emergence of larvae and greater effectiveness, compared to the untreated check. The lowest egg-laying number was obtained with 2 ml of Neem...

‣ Salmonicultura e Innovación: ¿Quién manda a quién?

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
No es necesario iniciar este documento con lo importante que ha sido la Acuicultura y en particular la salmonicultura en nuestro país, o lo vertiginoso que ha sido su crecimiento en la últimas dos décadas y que es una industria de clase mundial a pesar de este último año, y que la innovación ha sido y será factor importante de este desarrollo. Qué preguntas debe hacerse una industria que quiere crecer anualmente a una tasa de dos dígitos, que desea ser sustentable en todas sus áreas, que anhela coexistir con otras actividades económicas que crecen a una tasa similar. Plantearse desafíos claros, precisos y realistas dadas las coyunturas políticas, legales y del mercado externo e interno, proyectando qué es lo que se requiere enfrentar, harán la clave no sólo del crecimiento, sino que del desarrollo. A pesar que hace años se ha hablado, escrito, realizado seminarios y publicado respecto a la innovación en tecnológica y en procesos, es en los últimos 5 años, donde podemos ver que todo lo anterior se empieza a implementar, yo diría tímidamente o por lo menos no a la tasa necesaria, donde efectivamente se realiza la agregación de valor y se realiza la innovación, esto es en los centros de cultivo y post cosecha.

‣ Analysis of the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the endometrium of ewes of the races Romney Marsh and Araucana

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The morphofuncional state of the genital tract of females ewes is determined by sexual hormones, those that act through specific receptors. These regulate the expression of numerous proteins that participate in the development of the endometrium. Possibly the reproductive performance of different races from ewes could be determined by the expression differential of the receptors. The objective of the present study was to analyze the presence of estrogen receptors (RE) and progesterone receptors(RP) in the endometrium of prepuberal and cycling ewes of the races Romney Mash and Araucana. The histhologic study of endometrium was made in cross sections of 5 mm stained with hematoxilina-eosin. The presence of both receptors is detect by immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies. In addition we evaluated by Dot-blot the presence of receptors in total protein extracts obtained from endometrial tissue Inmunoreaction signal against both receptors in lambs was detected and in adults cicling of both races The positive inmunoreaction is localizate in nuclei of estromales and glandular epitelium cells. The RE in adult ewes showed greater expression that in prepuberal, without significant differences between both races. The RP gave positive inmunoreaction in both races...

‣ Importancia de los estudios nutricionales para una acuicultura sustentable

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
La nutrición y el fortalecimiento larval es un área no suficientemente abordada en Chile, pese a que existe un importante conocimiento científico a nivel mundial, desarrollado principalmente en países donde la industria acuícola se encuentra consolidada. En nuestro país, el conocimiento internacional no necesariamente es aplicable a las condiciones ambientales propias de nuestro territorio, a las especies actualmente cultivadas (trucha y salmón) o a especies nativas que se busca cultivar. La mayoría de las formulaciones utilizadas en la nutrición de las especies se basa en investigaciones realizadas en condiciones no siempre similares a las que se encuentran en nuestras aguas. Este hecho es una de las hipótesis que se plantean para explicar la dificultad en el escalamiento productivo de nuevas especies cultivadas y en los resultados erráticos en la producción de alevines salmonídeos con baja sobrevivencia, mayores costos y menor eficiencia.

‣ The porous medium equation with blowing up boundary data

Fonte: Advances in Nonlinear Studies, INC Publicador: Advances in Nonlinear Studies, INC
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
We study the blow-up set of a solution u(x,t) to the porous medium equation, ut = δ(um), in ω x (0,T) for two different boundary conditions, u(x,t)=f (x)/(T - t)1/m-xor -∂um/∂n̂(x,t) = g(x)/(T - t)m/m-1 on ∂ω× (0,T). Here m > 1 and ω is a bounded smooth domain in ℝN. We establish point-wise and integral conditions on f and g respectively in order to obtain regional or global blow-up.

‣ Inclusion of macroalgae meal (Macrocystis pyrifera) as feed ingredient for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Effect on flesh fatty acid composition

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The use of macroalgae as an additional component in animal feeding has been studied. However, information on how it could influence muscle composition of fish body is scarce. This study evaluates four diets with different macroalgae inclusion levels (0%, 1.5%, 3% and 6%) to test the effect on body fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Tanks with a volume of 600 L were stocked with 60.6 ± 7.9 g fish at a density of 45 individuals tank-1 and fed for 124 days. At the end of the experiment there were not significant differences (P<0.05) in muscle proximate composition among fish fed the different treatments. However, it was determined that inclusion of 3% and 6% of macroalgae meal resulted in a significant increase (P<0.05) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in muscle. In summary, macroalgae meal in rainbow trout diets do not enhance the quantity of protein and lipid contents at muscle level but an addition of 3-6% might contribute to increase the level of PUFAs, specially EPA, DHA and LIN. Thus, use of macroalgae meal might help to increase lipid quality content in the final product due the beneficial effects of PUFAs for human health.

‣ Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on an ecological crop of chili peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Mapuche farmers in southern Chile have been cultivating local ecotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), called locally "Cacho de cabra", for many decades. It is used to make "merkén", a condiment that is consumed locally and exported. This vegetable requires a nursery stage and can obtain nutritional benefits from symbiotic associations such as mycorrhizal fungi, achieving a better adaptation to transplanting. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate biotrophes appearing in abundance in agroecosystems with conservation management. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of two AMF, a commercial mycorrhizal inoculant (IC, Glomus intraradices) and another native (IN, Glomus claroideum) with a control without inoculation (-I) on the production and quality of "Cacho de cabra". At 45 days after sowing (DAS) transplanting was carried out and at 90 and 216 DAS fruit quality, fungal and edaphic parameters were evaluated. The harvest was at four stages. With IN inoculation plants and with greater foliar area were obtained. Also, precocity of fruit production was observed. The harvest started 49 days earlier and fresh weight was 177% higher than that of the control. Root colonization was low, showing significant differences between IN and IC...

‣ Littoral crustaceans in lakes of Conguillio National Park (38°S), Araucania region, Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Conguillio National Park, an area protected by the Chilean government and characterized by the presence of mainly Araucaria araucana, coexisting there with Nothofagus antarctica (G. Forst) Oerst., N. pumilio, and N. dombeyi, was studied for littoral crustaceans. Four lakes including Verde, Arcoiris, Conguillio, and Captren, were taken into consideration. Horizontal hauls were made in the littoral zones with an Apstein net with 20 cm mouth diameter and 100μm mesh size. Data of chlorophyll and humic acid concentrations collected in field work in December 2005, were considered in interpreting the results. The crustacean fauna was characterized by the presence of the amphipod, Hyalella araucana Grosso & Peralta, at all sites studied. The sites studied show low chlorophyll concentrations and relatively low contents of humic acids.

‣ Diversidad de árboles y arbustos en fragmentos de bosque nativo en el sur de Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
We sampled the diversity of trees and shrubs, and built the rarefaction and accumulation species curve in 10 native forest fragments in southern Chile. Results indicated that: (1) there were 23 species in all sampled fragments, (2) species richness increased significantly with fragment size, (3) all fragments require a minimal sampling from 40 to 170 individuals to reach the maximum theoretical species richness, and (4) sampling richness was greater than that theoretically expected (20 species).

‣ Discursive typology of perceived discrimination against mapuches in Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This paper develops a discourse typology of perceived discrimination against mapuches in Chile. Specifically, this paper focuses on two out of eleven categories: "discriminatory event" and "social representations". The participants are 50 mapuche men and women from Temuco and 50 from Santiago. The findings reveal four types of perceived discrimination: "verbal", expressed by means of name calling, remarks, jokes and taunts; "behavioral", expressed by ignoring, looking and segregating; "institutional", through the application of norms; and "macrosicial", by a lack of interest from central society, cultural dominance and an ethnocentric interpretation of the nation history. On the other hand, the discourse of perceived discrimination, analysed using the method of critical discourse analysis proposed by Merino (2006), is structured on an "argumentative story", with dominance of expressive and declarative speech acts and local semantic strategies, two of which are transferred from the native language into oral Spanish..

‣ Phenomenological model of fungal biofilters for the abatement of hydrophobic VOCs

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This work describes the growth of filamentous fungi in biofilters for the degradation of hydrophobic VOCs. The study system was n-hexane and Fusarium solani B1. The system is mathematically described and the main physical, kinetic data and morphological parameters were obtained by independent experiments and validated with data from laboratory experiments. The model describes the increase in the transport area by the growth of the filamentous cylindrical mycelia and its relation with n-hexane elimination in quasi-stationary state in a biofilter. The model describing fungal growth includes Monod-Haldane kinetic and hyphal elongation and ramification. A specific surface area of transport (SSAT) of 1.91 × 105 m2 m-3 and a maximum elimination capacity (EC) of 248 g m-3 h-1 were obtained by the mathematical model simulation, with a 10% of error with respect to the experimental EC.

‣ Comparison of the diameter of the frontal knobs in Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899 (Anostraca)

Fonte: Crustacean Society Publicador: Crustacean Society
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
In four samples of Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899 from Urmia Lake, Iran, the following parameters were compared: the diameter of the frontal knobs (right and left), and the respective ratios of that diameter with total body length and head width. The results do not denote significant differences in frontal knob diameter that would agree with similar results observed in frontal knob diameter in populations of A. franciscana Kellogg, 1906 and A. persimilis Piccinelli & Prosdocimi, 1968. However, we report differences in the other parameters studied for each of the populations studied, that could be explained by the environmental heterogeneity of the studied site. Ecological, biogeographical, and systematic issues related with the results are discussed.

‣ Interaction of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii and mycorrhizal fungi in an Andisol at different levels of aluminium saturation

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Aluminium phytotoxicity is a serious limitation of the productivity of prairies growing on volcanic soil by affecting nodulation and effectiveness of Rhizobium. The aim of this study was to select Rhizobium strains to determine the effect as inoculant on Trifolium repens cropped in an Andisol with different aluminium saturation levels. Acidity tolerance (pH 4.5 and 6.0) of twelve Rhizobium strains of collection at three Al levels (100, 200, 300 μM) was evaluated in mineral nutritive medium vitro. Simultaneously, in a greenhouse trial, strains effectivity were tested by inoculation of Trifolium pratense growing in an acidic Andisol and compared with dry matter accumulation produced by native strains. According to the results of this two trials, three Rhizobium strains (R-109, R-113 and R-115) were selected to study the effect of their inoculation on Trifolium repens growth cropped in an Andisol at four Al saturation levels (SAl1 to SAl4). In addition, the effect on arbuscular mycorrhizal propagules was also studied. Plants showed different capacity for association with the inoculated strains giving the best response R-113 at SAl1 level with positive synergism expressed by microbiological parameters such as high nodulation (16 nodules pot-1)...

‣ Morfología y dinámica dunaria en el borde costero de la región de la araucanía en chile : Antecedentes para la conservación y gestión territorial

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
An evaluation was made of the dynamics of the dune systems of the coastal strip of the Araucanía region between 1994 and 2004, based on its morphological classification and degree of stabilization as evaluated from cartographic material, aerial photographs and investigation in the field. Eight fields of dunes were defined with a total surface area of 4,597 ha being stated a total expansion of 314 ha in the period; active dunes represented 35% of the total area, while semi-stabilized and stabilized dunes represented 31% and 15% respectively. The most common type of morphology was transverse dunes and the most frequent plant species were Pinus radiata and Ammophila arenaria. Finally, the localization and the determination of the stabilization grades and dunaries shapes allow to recognize the action of the natural and anthropic factors, these integrally require to be tackle as a frame for an integrated management of this coastal zone.; Se evaluó la dinámica de los campos dunarios del borde costero de La Araucanía entre los años 1994 y 2004, usando para ello la clasificación morfológica y grado de estabilización, evaluado a partir de material cartográfico, fotografías aéreas y reconocimiento en terreno. Se delimitaron 8 campos de dunas distribuidos en una superficie de 4.597 ha...

‣ Effect of the host and non host crops on arbuscular mycorrhizal propagules

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Recent field studies have shown that fungal spores decrease when non host plants are used as a pre-culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate how host plant like oats (Avena sativa L.), and non host, as lupine (Lupinus albus L.), and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) can influence on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) propagules diversity and phosphatase activity when growing in an Andisol and an Inceptisol. The trial was conducted from September 2006 through March 2007 in greenhouse conditions using 5 kg pots with in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The number of AMF spores was higher in the Andisol than the Inceptisol and highest when using oats than lupine or raps as plant host. Oats also showed a large enrichment of morphotypes, whereas lupine and raps were poor. The phosphatase activity (P-ase) in Inceptisol was lower than in Andisol and between crops increased in the order oats < rapeseed < lupine; while significant differences between lupines with other crops were registred. Again, our results reinforce the hypothesis that the mycorrhizae and phosphatase activity are complementary mechanisms developed by plants for a better P acquisition.; Estudios recientes en campo han demostrado que las esporas fúngicas disminuyen cuando se utilizan como pre-cultivo no hospederos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la influencia de un cultivo hospedero...

‣ Induction of rooting in cuttings of Berberidopsis corallina with indol butyric acid

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Berheridopsis corallina is an endemic species from Chile, presenting conservation problems and being catalogued as "endangered" species. Its persistent diminution is associated to cutting and competition with Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus radiata. The objective of the present work was to contribute in the management for the recovery of this species through the evaluation of its reproductive capacity by means of propagation by cuttings. For vegetative propagation, semi-woody cuttings were collected during March of 2007 in Villa Las Araucarias, Region of La Araucanía. The collected cuttings were treated with Indolbutyric acid (IBA) at different concentrations (0, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mgL-1) as rooting stimulator. After five months of maintenance of cuttings in a bottom heating, an 87% of total rooting was obtained. The best result concerning the process of rizogenesis was shown by 1,000 mg L-1 IBA with a 90% of rooting. Besides, the highest average of root length was found in this same treatment with an average of 13.6 cm. The greatest number of roots was obtained in 1,500 mgL-1 treatment with a value average of 38.1 roots by cuttings. It is concludes that B. corallina can be vegetatively reproduced through the rizogenesis of cuttings treated with IBA...

‣ The (IM) possibility of building a cientific concept for constitution

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This work analyzes a number of concepts for Constitution, that intend to answer what is a Constitution, question that was asked by Lassalle at the XIX century. It is possible to observe that the concept does show an evolution through time, but that it is not possible to elaborate a neutral and scientific valid concept.; El presente trabajo analiza diversos conceptos de Constitución entregados por la doctrina, intentando responder ¿qué es una Constitución?, pregunta formulada en el siglo XIX por Lassalle. Se advierte que hay una evolución del concepto a lo largo del tiempo, pero que no es posible la elaboración de un concepto neutro y científicamente válido.