by Tim E. J. Campbell.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 1980.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ROTCH.; Bibliography: leaves 216-245.
This study empirically examines the historical probability of renewal for nearly three-hundred properties across forty-one Metropolitan Statistical Areas throughout the United States. It then investigates the factors that affect the office tenant renewal decision using linear and probit regression models.Through statistical analysis, several factors emerge as influential in the renewal decision, including the size of the occupied space, the level of employment in the market, as well as location. Logical building characteristics such as the age of the space and the size of the building did not appear to have as large of an impact on renewal probability. For the more than 15,000 individual leases in this study, the overall renewal probability was lower than expected. However, the regression analysis has revealed some explanation of the difference between the actual results and the industry accepted renewal probability rate of 75%.; by Rebecca Asser.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 53).
Accessing specialty coffee markets is recognized as a way for some small-scale coffee farmers to earn higher prices, counteract unequal distributions of market power, and achieve a better quality of life. Members of CEPICAFE, a Peruvian coffee producer association that has gained access to Fair Trade and organic markets, do receive higher prices than they would by selling to local traders. However, many members consider exporting higher-quality coffee through their association (not Fair Trade) to be the reason they receive better prices than non-members. Furthermore, they often regard non-monetary benefits and collective goods (not necessarily higher prices) as the biggest advantages to membership in an association. This paper seeks to address the following questions: In what ways has CEPICAFE impacted the livelihoods of coffee farmers in Peru? What role have alternative markets played in enabling CEPICAFE to deliver benefits to members? What challenges does CEPICAFE face, and what are some strategies to confront these challenges?; by Jean Marie Walsh.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 81-84).
Social networks in the Vietnamese nail salon industry were studied for their utility in addressing occupational health risks. Major findings include heavy reliance on family networks for fundamental needs, an extensive industry network effective in spreading information, and a sparse community network. Practitioners hoping to work with this population are directed to the opportunities and challenges to taking action, particularly the potential for greater cooperation and the lack of weak-bridging ties.; by Tam Minh-Thi Doan.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 73-75).
by Kellyn E. Roth.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, Technology and Policy Program; and, Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2003.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 121-131).
In September 2001 the Japanese real estate industry marked a new era of real estate investments by issuing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange the first Japan Real Estate Investment Trust (JREIT). The initial JREIT performance was not so impressive. Now, as the Japanese economy continues to recover and more investors are looking to real estate securitization as a means of limiting balance sheet liability and increase real estate investment liquidity, the JREIT is becoming a popular investment vehicle. On the surface the public securitization of real estate seems a great opportunity for the average investor to participate in real estate investment while keeping liquidity. What is the real story behind the JREIT: Are the assets in the JREIT overpriced? Is the race to issue new JREITs forming a price bubble in the Tokyo central business district? Is the JREIT a safe investment, or it just a way for real estate firms to pass off the associated risks of overpriced real estate? This paper will consider the status of the Japanese economy, the real estate industry, and the JREIT market from its beginnings to current levels.; by Michael M. Pierce.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2005.; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 79-81).
Using primary data from an innovative water project in Tirupur, India with findings from two well-documented water projects in Latin America, this thesis asks: How might greater equity participation and decision-making authority among a broad base of users insulate against key political risks that have beset water sector private sector participation (PSP) in the past? I utilize concepts from the political risk literature, which have mainly been applied to the extractive and manufacturing industries, and extend this consideration to the water sector. I present preliminary findings, based on field research in India, that suggest increased local participation in water sector PSPs can mitigate against key political risks that have created problems elsewhere. These early findings challenge the conventional wisdom about water privatization and suggest a means to improve the design of future PSPs to reduce some of the risks and controversy that have characterized the sector.; by Michael D. Brown.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 91-99).
This paper analyzes the process of civic environmentalism in brownfield redevelopment. A single "best case" scenario, the Empire Laundry project in Lynn, Massachusetts, illustrates key features of a citizen-led cleanup and redevelopment effort. The in-depth analysis traces key events and milestones of the community-based process and evaluates the important decisions that led to a successful result: the development of five single-family houses. This research revealed two main factors that were important in creating a successful outcome: strong civic leaders and neighborhood stability. These two factors were pivotal in fostering community involvement, but raise important questions regarding the balancing of community desires with environmental protection.; by Abigail Harrison Emison.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references.
This thesis examines the governance of the minority at the micro-level in late colonial India. While the colonial production of micro-level state authority was inescapably conditioned by numerous political struggles between colonial subjects, the centrality of the minority in this story of state formation and citizen making is missing from most conventional descriptions of colonial governmental rationality. This study argues that the specifically colonial formulation of the minority as a figure to be both protected and inserted on to the path to modern citizenship shaped the regulation of customary modes of charity and inheritance as well as the regulation of local government power itself. Indeed, the dual commitment to protecting and modernizing of the minority constituted the micro-level state as arbiter: absolute in its judgment in cases of conflict between subjects, even though this authority was predicated on the principles of non-interference and deliberation.; by Shiben Banerji.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 65-68).
This dissertation addresses the issue of industrialization in the WTO regime, focusing on the role of asymmetric free trade agreements. It proposes a framework where free trade agreements offer payoffs that countries have not been able to achieve through their WTO commitments. To evaluate these payoffs, I explore the mechanisms through which selected features of free trade agreements are translated into commercial outcomes. The central conclusion of this thesis is that free trade agreements provide developing countries with additional policy flexibility that is often not used to its fullest potential. Existing work on individual features of free trade agreements has focused primarily on those features that further constrain domestic policy options; the proposal that they may also expand policy options has been largely overlooked. It is a fact that in the WTO regime, the trade policy options available to developing countries have been restricted relative to the set that was available to their predecessors. Developing countries actively agreed to these restrictions with the expectation that growth and development would result from their participation in the WTO regime.; (cont.) This unfulfilled expectation, in combination with a multilateral negotiation structure that is characterized by collective action problems...
This thesis aims to inform the decision-making process for growing an asset-building program through strategic partnerships with other community-based organizations (CBOs). The impetus for this paper came from Lawrence CommunityWorks, a CBO in Lawrence, Massachusetts that is interested in substantially expanding the number of Individual Development Account (IDA) program participants in Lawrence by at least 75 accounts, or a 400% increase. The expectation is that this increase in IDAs will contribute to a place-based asset-building strategy that gives Lawrence residents the financial, human and social capital to revitalize this historic mill city. Asset-building, through IDAs, has emerged as a tool by which individuals and families in Lawrence have been able to overcome challenges of divestment and immigration, to invest in assets that provide financial security. This thesis identifies metrics of success in the IDA program at CommunityWorks through the perspective of graduates of the program in an effort to identify and understand the elements of the program which must be preserved as the program grows. This thesis also presents a conceptual map for CommunityWorks to consider as they make strategic decisions about partnering with other CBOs to expand their IDA program.; by Cindy C. Wu.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
It has been expected that the option valuation theory will play a much more significant role in the real estate analysis. However, potentially because of the need for understanding the advanced financial theories, the real options analysis has not been fully used in the real world. In order to attack this problem, it is highly desired to create a more practical and easily understandable calculation model for valuing flexibility. With the increasing computational power of today, an interesting approach to valuing flexibility arises from the field of engineering systems. This approach does not require the understanding of advanced financial theories, and aims to assess the value of flexibility built into the project design. Although the perspective of this approach may be slightly different from that of traditional real options valuation approach, this approach might be an alternative method as a simpler model for valuing flexibility. The comparative study of the economics-based approach and the engineering-based approach revealed that the latter approach has one critical problem in estimating the value of flexibility; the usage of a single risk-adjusted discount rate leads to either underestimation or overestimation of the real options value. Based on the results of a case study...
In 1996, the Brazilian Government implemented the Child Labor Eradication Program - PETI, a conditional cash transfer program aimed at reducing child labor by paying a stipend to families who send their working children to an extended day program. After 12 years, PETI has had its most successful implementation in a poor semi-arid region of Brazil, the Sisal Region. The existence of an associational structure in which the federal, state and local government joined efforts with local civil society institutions, mainly a NGO and local rural labor unions, enabled each institution to contribute to the project in the best way possible. As a result the Sisal Region considerably reduced child labor, provided high quality extended day programs and assisted the families involved in PETI with projects aimed at their economic independence.; by Marilia Castelo Magalhães.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 64-67).
Communities often object to the siting of controversial social service agencies in their neighborhoods. Traditional NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) literature outlines not only the forces at work in NIMBY dynamics, but also proven strategies that social service agencies have used in order to overcome such opposition. There is little research, however, on the "flip side" of this scenario - what happens when an established social service agency begins to see gentrification, and as a result, community opposition, in its back yard? This thesis looks at two such cases in Boston's South End and examines their responses to gentrification in the context of traditional NIMBY literature. What it uncovers is that the dynamics involved in the "flip side" of NIMBY have an additional dimension not explored in traditional NIMBY literature - namely, the force of neighborhood change itself. When social service agencies are "there first," and gentrification follows, community opposition to the facility varies based on the speed and scale of neighborhood change, and how the real estate market alters the community landscape.; by Caitlin Gallagher.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 78-79).
Federal and state programs designed to address nonpoint agricultural nutrient pollution rely almost exclusively on voluntary programs and financial incentives to encourage farmers to adopt nutrient management plans and other best management practices. In 1998, after highly publicized fish kills highlighted shortcomings in the voluntary approach, Maryland adopted the nation's strictest and most comprehensive nutrient management regulations. Seven years later, a majority of farmers are not in compliance with the law. This thesis examines the Maryland Department of Agriculture's implementation of the Water Quality Improvement Act. I find the department has continued to adhere to a voluntary approach to nutrient management. As a result, farmer practices are largely unchanged and the efficacy of a mandatory approach remains untested.; by Annemarie H. Herbst.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 66-76).
As the nation's fastest growing minority group, Latinos are expected to be the main engine of household growth over the next decade. This demographic trend is most apparent in Southern California. While much attention has been paid to making homeownership more accessible to Latinos, no serious considerations have been given as to how or if the housing product should be adapted. I contend that because Latinos have distinct household formation and commuting patterns, the preferences for the housing they occupy are also different. This thesis investigated how home builders have responded to the Latino consumer. I found that the innovators of culturally competent housing for Latinos were non-profit developers. These organizations were best suited to understand their Latino client population and so the housing they developed took into account more than the provision of shelter; they considered supportive services, culturally-specific uses of space, and a Latino aesthetic. Because they were driven by motivation other than profit, these developers- New Economics for Women and Casa Familiar- have proven t be more innovative than private developers.; (cont.) They have met the ethno-specific needs of Latino consumers of housing, through the use of "Latino Housing Design" methods. I examined the role of the public...
Although state and federal financial incentives have made solar energy more cost effective in California, there still are real or perceived barriers to developing large scale, wide spread solar deployment. The City of San Francisco is looking to overcome these barriers in order to attract and support the solar industry, both as an economic development and an environmental goal. This report will analyze the economic, institutional and policy issues that impact San Francisco 's opportunity to achieve its solar development goals, and assess the barriers that have limited the City's success to date. The report examines how these barriers may be overcome by three new proposed initiatives that would use public/private partnerships to deploy large scale solar projects. It will then consider what economic development opportunity they might stimulate for the solar industry. Finally, it will offer recommendations to the City of San Francisco on using these public/private partnerships to implement local, renewable power on a large scale.; by Dina Mackin.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 74-76).
It's surprising to learn that the water-rich state of Massachusetts experiences incidences of water stress, where rivers go dry for stretches of the year and where municipalities struggle to meet water demand. Water conservation and demand management is one important part of reducing pressures on water supplies and alleviating ecosystem stress. Although the state has recently revisited water management policies and has promoted revised measures to increase conservation, the actual measures taken are implemented on the scale of the municipality. This thesis examines three affluent suburban municipalities located in stressed river basins in eastern Massachusetts that have taken different degrees of conservation and demand management efforts. The stories reveal that the decisions to curb water demand have been influenced by the degree to which towns have experienced a perceptible limit to their supply. These towns also show us how a crisis, or an event of water shortage, can bring focus to the limits of water, providing an opportunity for town managers to redefine the problem in such a way that conservation is the solution.; (cont.) As towns continue to face increasing pressure on water supplies, some municipalities would like to turn to regional water. Although these regional systems can help offset some ecological pressures as well as promote economy of scales...
This dissertation examines the validity of what Prof. Noam Chomsky has referred to as the central role of the dynamic, entrepreneurial state sector in economic development. Through an examination of the role that government at three levels-local, state, and federal-has played in the locational decisions of firms in Cambridge's biotechnology industry, the impact of the state sector in the evolution of a critically important knowledge-intensive industry is explored. Interviews, surveys, and geographical analysis were conducted to evaluate the author's hypothesis. The answer demonstrated by the evidence presented herein is that the success of the Cambridge biotechnology cluster is indeed the outcome of a distinct set of local, state and federal government policy choices.; by Michael Sankofa Sable ...; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2007.; "September 2007."; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 224-229).
In July of 2002, the California State Legislature passed the "California Clean Cars Bill," the first law in the United States to regulate carbon dioxide as a vehicular pollutant. California's vehicular standards have implications across the country; at least eight other states have committed to adopt them. The passage of the legislation was as controversial as it was groundbreaking. Over the course of the year and a half that the bill was in the state legislature, environmentalists and the auto industry fought for the public's support of their positions. Although the auto industry had the benefit of a multi-million dollar advertising budget, environmentalists adopted tactics that proved more effective in the battle for Californians' support. This thesis describes the environmentalists' coalition-building and problem-definition tactics and how they enabled the environmentalists to gain public support.; by Carli Paine.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 52-55).