Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade Católica de Temuco

A Universidade Católica de Temuco é uma institução privada confessional do Chile, fundada pelo bispo Alejandro Menchaca Lira em 1959.

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‣ El método etnográfico: Origen y fundamentos de una aproximación multitécnica

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
In this article, I present a reflection on ethnography as a method composed of a variety of techniques for conducting social research. General information is given on its origin and links with anthropological research. By questioning the classical-normative notion of the ethnographic method and using the distinction between method, methodology and technique, I offer a concept which links ethnographic research to a strategic process in which the researcher acts to connect his or her experience and knowledge on methods with creativity and personal commitment. In the course of this process, ethnography achieves scientific rigor in that it permits the emergence of the principles of creativity, system, transparency, and empirical reference, which in my opinion are the key principles in the general definition of the method. © 2010 FQS.; Este artículo presenta una reflexión que revela a la etnografía como un método que integra diversas técnicas de investigación social. Se brinda información general acerca de su origen y vinculación con la investigación antropológica. Cuestionando la noción clásica-normativa del método etnográfico y estableciendo la distinción entre método, metodología y técnica, se ofrece una concepción que liga la investigación etnográfica a un proceso estratégico en el cual el investigador actúa conectando experiencia y conocimiento acerca del método...

‣ Raptor habitat management and its implication on the biological control of the Hantavirus

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Rodents have a high impact on human activities, producing economical losses and diseases. One of these diseases is Hantavirus syndrome, whose reservoir is Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Raptors are the natural biological controllers of rodents, being, therefore, our efficient and effective allies. Despite the existing legal dispositions for protection, 11 of the 33 species of raptors in Chile have conservation problems. We evaluated the effectiveness of nest boxes for Tyto alba, as a way to increase its population and propose a procedure for the biological control of O. longicaudatus. The study area was the National Reserve Lago Peñuelas, Valparaíso, Chile. The variation of population density before and after the installation of the nest boxes was established both for T. alba and rodents. The results show that the nest boxes installed dramatically increased the population and the total density of T. alba, and a significant reduction of the abundance of small mammals was stated. We propose a methodological diagram for the biological control of the reservoir of the Hantavirus, which we have been implementing since 2001. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

‣ Aquatic fauna in the driest desert on earth: First report on the crustacean fauna of the Loa River (Atacama Desert, Antofagasta Region, Chile)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The longest river in Chile, the Loa, is in fact found in the Atacama Desert in the far north of the country. Being an important resource for the dry Antofagasta region, this river experiences high anthropogenic impacts due to water use for mining, urban, and agricultural activities. Unfortunately, few biological surveys have been conducted in the Loa, and the invertebrate fauna in particular is poorly known. The aim of this study is to characterize the microcrustacean species associations at various sites of the Loa River and some of its tributaries. Unexpectedly high species richness was detected at high-altitude sites, where the amphipods Hyalella fossamanchini and H. kochi were reported. At low-altitude sites only the ostracod Heterocypris panningi was found. No significant correlation was detected between species richness and salinity, nor between richness and conductivity. Although a null model community analysis indicated that the microcrustacean species associations in the Loa are largely random, species richness and altitude were significantly and positively correlated. Potential causes of this pattern include the accumulation of nutrients and pollution along the course of the river, as well as increasing temperatures in the lower-altitude zones of the river. The biogeography of the constituent members of the Loa fauna is discussed. © 2010 Brill Academic Publishers.

‣ Importance of teaching practical wisdom as a source of knowledge base for teaching anatomy

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Practical wisdom is one of the proposed base knowledge to generate best practices for teachings in the field of medicine. A methodological qualitative-comprehensive design was proposed with the purpose of describing the importance of the didactical practical wisdom as source of base knowledge for the teaching of anatomy by the faculty of the Universidad Mayor of Temuco, this was done based on the founded theory, constant comparative method and principles of triangulation and convergence. The sample was composed of the entire faculty team for the anatomy course. For the analysis of the data, open codification was considered, from which two categories surfaced: a) expert performance and b) principles of practical wisdom. The techniques for data gathering were: ethnographic observation, semi structured interview and focus groups. The processing of the verbal data was done by means of a software for qualitative analysis, Atlas-ti version 5.0. The results of the study show that didactical practical wisdom is a source of relevant knowledge in all pedagogical practice, assessing it as the principal base knowledge for the training in medicine, therefore a challenge is made to all professionals involved in teaching medicine to transition from basic professionalism into an expert one.

‣ First report of Craspedacusta sowerbii (Cnidaria) (Lankester, 1880) for Patagonian waters (38° S, Chile): A possible presence of invasive species and its potential ecological implications

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português

‣ Species assemblages of zooplanktonic crustaceans in mountain shallow ponds of Chile (Parque Cañi)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Even though the Chilean lakes are characterized by their oligotrophy, a transition from oligotrophy to mesotrophy, due human intervention, has been reported in some lakes. Nevertheless, there are still some pristine and unpolluted small lakes and ponds in mountain zones, free of human intervention and surrounded by native forests. Nine unpolluted, oligotrophic and pristine water bodies located in Cañi Park, a mountain zone with altitudes between 1000 to 1500 m a.s.l and forests where Nothofagus dombeyi, N. pumilio and Araucaria araucana predominate, were studied. For each sampled lake, zooplankton was collected and environmental parameters were obtained (conductivity, total dissolved solids, and chlorophyll concentration). A null model of species co-occurrence was applied to determine randomness in species associations. All sites revealed low species richness (< 6); the calanoid copepod Boeckella gracilis Daday, 1902 was present in all sites. The results of the null model indicated randomness or absence of regulatory factors in species associations. Only few species occur in practically all localities. Also, a significant inverse association between chlorophyll concentration with percentage of calanoid copepods and a weak direct association between chlorophyll concentration and percentages of cladocerans were found. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia.

‣ La narración en las sentencias penales

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This work develops a proposed method for the analysis of penal sentences which allows them to be understood as a practice in discourse, and to be compared with other forms of social discourse. From a specialised corpus consisting of one hundred thirty-seven sentences handed down by Temuco Oral Tribunal in the penal area, and basing our work on van Dijk and the Grounded Theory methodology, we construct and structure to describe and model the internal organization of the decisions, facilitating the process of comparison and contrast with other discourses. The research helps to make it possible to study judicial discourse, highlighting the expectations of society which the judges consider legitimate and the practices of invisible violence which construct the idea of the delinquent as an enemy.

‣ Habitat use of four terrestrial carnivores in southern Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The process of landscape transformation has been more intense and extended in the central depression of central and southern Chile than in the nearby mountain ranges. The original forest cover has almost disappeared; only small fragments persist inserted into a matrix of agroecosystems. This situation may influence the distribution of carnivorous mammals, depending on their degree of habitat specialization and home range size. The goal of this study was to evaluate, through the study of feces dsitribution, the habitat selection of the carnivore assemblage in a fragmented environment in southern Chile. We document the selective use of exotic forest plantations of Pinus radiata with a scrub understory by Puma concolor, Galictis cuja, and Lycalopex griseus. Leopardus guigna, despite not showing a statistically significant selection of the native forest, presents a greater number of records in this type of habitat. Habitat selection by the predators studied shows a variable degree of use of altered and fragmented environments. Surrounding forest plantations present an understory ofnative vegetation, which fits the requirement ofmost ofthe carnivores. The levels of spatial overlapping and the adequacy to new environments are discussed.

‣ Particulate air pollution and health effects for cardiovascular and respiratory causes in Temuco, Chile: A wood-smoke-polluted urban area

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke-polluted cities in the world. Its population in 2004 was 340,000 inhabitants with 1587 annual deaths, of which 24% were due to cardiovascular and 11% to respiratory causes. For hospital admissions, cardiovascular diseases represented 6% and respiratory diseases 13%. Emergency room visits for acute respiratory infections represented 28%. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the relationship between air pollution from particulate matter less than or equal to 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10; mostly PM2.5, or particulate matter <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and health effects measured as the daily number of deaths, hospital admissions, and emergency room visits for cardiovascular, respiratory, and acute respiratory infection (ARI) diseases. The Air Pollution Health Effects European Approach (APHEA2) protocol was followed, and a multivariate Poisson regression model was fitted, controlling for trend, seasonality, and confounders for Temuco during 1998-2006. The results show that PM10 had a significant association with daily mortality and morbidity, with the elderly (population >65 yr of age) being the group that presented the greatest risk. The relative risk for respiratory causes...

‣ Chromosomes and Ag-NOR location in fluviate populations of Salmo trutta fario L. 1758 (Salmoniformes: Salmonidae) from Atacama Desert, Chile

Fonte: Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas. Publicador: Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas.
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Salmo trutta fario L. 1758, presented a chromosome number 2n = 80 and a fundamental number NF = 100. The haploid chromosome set consists of seven metacentric chromosomes, three submetacentric, one subtelocentric and 29 telocentrics. The Ag-NOR are located at conserved position in the short arm of pair 11 (st), with the presence of additional NOR on the short arm of pair 9 (sm) which is rare in others taxa previously studied.; Salmo truttafario L. 1758, presenta un número cromosómico 2n=80 y un número fundamental NF=100. El juego cromosómico haploide está constituido por siete cromosomas metacéntricos, tres submetacéntricos, un subtelocéntrico y 29 telocéntricos. Los Ag-NOR se localizan en posición conservada en el brazo corto del par 11 (st), con la existencia de NOR adicionales en el brazo corto del par 9 (sm) el que es poco frecuente en otros taxa previamente estudiados.

‣ Aproximación alanálisis de lavaloración de la prueba usando modified wigmorean analysis (MWA)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The present work shows how the analysis of the valuation of the proof, using tools of plot diagramming, can help the juridical operators to evaluate the quality of the argumentation of the juridical reasoning. There is applied the Modified Wigmorean Analysis (MWA) to a penal hypothetical case and to a real case, testing the process of analysis and diagramming and proving his utility. The conclusion outlines the advantages and weaknesses of the analysis and suggests adjustments to the process of diagramming.

‣ Emotional reactions, coping and long-term consequences of perceived discrimination among the mapuche people of Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Although a substantial body of research has now documented the negative mental and physical health impacts of discrimination on various minority/non-dominant groups, little has been reported on the impacts of such discrimination on indigenous populations. In this study, we investigated the self-reported emotional reactions, coping responses and long-term impacts of discriminatory experiences among 50 Mapuche adults in Chile. The limited literature suggests that a substantial proportion of the Chilean majority society is prejudiced and discriminatory towards the indigenous Mapuche population, and that the Mapuche experience discrimination. Interviews with participants indicated that discrimination was psychologically wounding, and aroused anger, undifferentiated bad feelings, shame and a sense of powerlessness. Participants responded with self-protective, self-controlled or confronting actions. Although negative long-term effects were reported, ethnic re-affirmation and strengthening of bonds within the Mapuche community were positive outcomes that seem to provide resilience for the participants. This does not discount however, the need for more research assessing the impacts of discrimination in Chile nor the need for anti-discrimination measures to be implemented. © 2008 John Wiley & Sons...

‣ Superior and medium water quality in traiguén river. IX region-chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The water quality in the upper and medium zone of Traiguén river in the Araucanía region was studied in the present work. Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured at six sample stations in a zone that goes from close to the origin of the river to the limits of the city of Victoria with Traiguén. The influence of the Victoria town on the water quality of Traiguen river generates as consequence low values of studied parameters that were reported in sampling stations 1 and 2 located in the surrounding of Victoria town. A different situation was reported in stations 3, 4 and 5, that show the effects of waste dispose by milky industries, leather industries and waste water respectively. The results of microbiological parameters denoted that the water of all sampled stations can not be used for human use because the parameters are upper than regulations. Also, limitations were denoted in their ecological parameters, and for their use in irrigating and recreational activities.

‣ Response of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cv."Cacho de Cabra" to the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The aim of this work was to study, in glasshouse conditions, the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on plant growth and fruit quality of chili pepper cv. Cacho de Cabra when plants were transplanted to a sterile (SS) and unsterile substrate (NSS) composed by a mixture of soil-sand- vermiculite. Inocula were Glomus claroideum and a mixture of native HMA strains which were compared with a control. Twice a month, height and flower number and nutritional and chemical fruit characteristics were measured. In SS both HMA inocula increased shoot and root weight and diameter and weight of fruits. Maturation period was also reduced. Under the studied conditions the strains used showed compatibility with host plant which suggests that an effective inoculation of this vegetable could greatly improve its usefulness in industrial processes.

‣ Ovarian response and embryo production in llamas treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin alone or with a progestin-releasing vaginal sponge at the time of follicular wave emergence

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The objective of the study was to compare the ovulatory response and embryo production in llamas (Lama glama) treated with a single dose of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) alone or combined with intravaginal medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) at the time of follicular wave emergence. Llamas with a growing follicle ≥7 mm in diameter were assigned to one of the following groups: (1) Control (n = 28): Nonstimulated llamas were mated and embryos were collected 7 d after mating. (2) eCG (n = 32): Llamas were given 5 mg luteinizing hormone (LH) (Day 0) to induce ovulation, 1000 IU eCG on Day 2, a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin F2α on Day 6, mating on Day 7, and embryo collection on Day 14. (3) eCG+MPA (n = 34): Llamas were treated as those in the eCG group, but a sponge containing 60 mg MPA was placed intravaginally from Days 2 to 6. Llamas that did not respond to synchronization or superstimulation were excluded, leaving data from n = 26, 26, and 27 in the control, eCG, and eCG+MPA groups, respectively, for statistical analysis. The mean (±SD) number of follicles > 7 mm at the time of mating was greatest in the eCG group, intermediate in the eCG+MPA group, and lowest in the control group (16.6 ± 5.3, 12.9 ± 3.7, and 1.0 ± 0.0...

‣ Challenges to the didactic transposition and knowledge of the content in teaching of anatomy: Obstacles and projections

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Teaching undergraduate level anatomy classes demands a "formation" based in competences that provides learning results, where both "saberes sabios" and "saberes didacticos" converge. For that purpose, a qualitative design of research was proposed with the intent of describing requirements and characteristics of the teaching of anatomy courses in the medical school at the Universidad Mayor in Temuco, based on "grounded theory", "Constant Comparative Method" and "Methodological Triangulation". The sampling was composed of the entire teaching staff for the anatomy courses. As a result of open coding five categories were identified, and for this article the most representative one has been chosen: "requirements and characteristics of the teaching of anatomy". The techniques used for gathering information were "ethnographic observation", "structured interview" and focus groups. Data"reduction" was done with help of software for qualitative data analysis called "Atlas-ti" v5.0. The results of the study reveal incoherencies of "epistemic" character in the "didactic performance" of the teaching staff, who base their practice from the experimental logic, staying away of methods "dialogicos dialecticos" needed in the current sociocultural "cartography" shown by undergraduate level students.

‣ Cytologie broncheoalveolar lavage findings and humoral immune response against Aspergillus fumigatus in Chilote horses with recurrent airway obstructions "heaves"

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
In this study, the presence and characteristics of the recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), in Chilote horses were investigated. The Chilote horse is a breed of small and very rustic horses, descendent from, the horses that were brought by the Spaniards during the colony and remained isolated in. the Chiloe island, south of Chile, for a long time. Twenty two animals, all from the same farm and living under similar conditions, were physically examined. In all cases broncheoalveolar lavage (BALF) was performed and the recovered resident cells from the respiratory tract were studied in smears stained with May Grewald - Giemsa; the level of antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus was determined by ELISA. The results indicate that out of the total population of animals under investigation, 13 showed clinical signs compatible with RAO and 9 were normal. In all cases, the animals that were considered RAO positive showed a higher percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the BALF: furthermore, a clear positive correlation between the relative amount of neutrophilic cells present in the airways and the severity of the signs observed during the physical examination exists. All of the animals, healthy and RAO positive horses, showed high titres of antibodies against A. fumigatus...

‣ Sources and distribution of different types of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central-South Chile (38-44°s)

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Thirty-five samples of obsidian from two coastal sites (Chan Chan-18 north of Valdivia and Puente Quilo in Chiloé) and six inland terrestrial-hunter gatherer sites (Alero Cabeza de Indio-1, Fundo Tres Arroyos-1, Flor del Lago-1, Los Riscos-1, Quillen-1 and Granaderos-2) in south-central Chile were analyzed, by ICP-MS techniques, to determine their trace-element chemistry for comparison with obsidian from know source in the area. The obsidian samples differ in color and include black (23 samples), grey (3 samples), translucent (5 samples) and red (4 samples) types. For the 23 black samples, 3 have chemistry that does not correspond to any know source, while the other 20, including 2 samples from Chan Chan-18 and all 3 from Puente Quilo, are chemically similar to black obsidian (MEL) from a source in the Nevados de Sollipulli. Three grey samples from Chan Chan-18 are similar to obsidian from Chaitén volcano (CH). The 5 translucent and 4 red samples are all similar to each other and to type PC1 obsidian that occurs as uvial transported cobbles along Arroyo Covunco east of the Andean Cordillera in central Neuquén, Argentina. However, this obsidian may have its primary source closer to the Andean drainage divide in the volcanic belt that extend southwest from Copahue caldera through Pino Hachado to Palao Mahuida caldera and Queli Mahuida cone just north of Paso de Icalma. This is the lowest elevation pass (1...

‣ Biotechnology applied to salmoniculture

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This work presents a conceptual analysis of the main biotechnologies used in Chilean salmoniculture, which is based on the production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, 356.407t), silver salmon or coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch, 116.481 t), (O. tshawytscha, 2.062 t) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss, 189.178 t). These activities are focused on the photoperiod artificial manipulation to obtain out-of-season spawning, in the use of hormonal therapies which allow synchronizing the final oocyte maturation (FOM) and sexual maturity acceleration or the increase in milt volume produced by males. Such actions are carried out using GnRHa in doses close to 10 μg/kg of fish. Once sexual maturity is reached, in vitro manipulation of gamets must often be done due to either the prolonged storage (particularly milt) they have to undergo in order to transport them where fertilization takes place, or awaiting for the ichtiopathological results, usually taken to broodstock. The production of "all female" populations is also common. Frequently, these populations in rainbow trout are triploided (through shock temperature close to 28° C or pressure close to 8.000 psi) to obtain sterile species which improve productive perfomance of cultured populations without sexual maturity signs. Besides...

‣ Chitosan metal complexes and chitosan-cuesr studies

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Properties of the polymer metal complexes can be explained up to certain extent by the molecular structure of the complexes, but this área has not been well studied in the case of the chitosan metal complexes. In this work, we are proposing that chitosan is bonded through the 4 nitrogen to copper by means of square planar geometry. The polymer requires some structural modifications in order to be arranged in that geometry. Two sites in the chitin were detected, one similar to chitosan and the other in a square planar tetrahedrically distorted arrangement, with three atoms of nitrogen and one of oxygen or two atoms of nitrogen and two of oxygen. ESR studies of the copper complexes by means of chlorine and nitrate as ion counter were carried out. Nitrate exhibits one type of retention site and, on the other hand, chlorine presents two types of retention sites. © 2009 Sociedad Chilena de Química.