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‣ Vitamin A (Retinoid) Metabolism and Actions: What We Know and What We Need to Know About Amphibians

Clugston, Robin D.; Blaner, William S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
Vitamin A status is an important consideration in the health of both wild and captive amphibians. Data concerning whole body vitamin A homeostasis in amphibians are scarce, although these animals have been used as experimental models to study the actions of vitamin A in vision, limb regeneration and embryogenesis. The available data suggest that many aspects of vitamin A biology in amphibians are similar to the canonical characteristics of vitamin A metabolism and actions established in mammals. This is consistent with the evolutionary conservation of these important biological processes. Amphibians must obtain vitamin A in their diet, with captive animals being prone to vitamin A deficiency. There is still much to be learned about vitamin A biology in amphibians that can only be achieved through rigorous scientific research. Improved understanding of amphibian vitamin A biology will aid the conservation of endangered amphibians in the wild, as well as the successful maintenance of ex situ populations.

‣ Concise Review: Cancer Stem Cells and Minimal Residual Disease

Ghiaur, Gabriel; Gerber, Jonathan; Jones, Richard J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Publicado em /01/2012 Português
Evidence gathered over the past two decades confirms earlier reports that suggested that hematologic malignancies exhibit a hierarchical differentiation structure similar to normal hematopoiesis. There is growing evidence that some solid tumors may also exhibit a differentiation program similar to the normal tissue of origin. Many excellent reviews on the topic of cancer stem cells (CSCs) document the recent explosion of information in the field, particularly highlighting the phenotypic and functional characteristics of these putative cells in vitro. Accordingly, here we only briefly discuss these concepts, and instead primarily examine the potential clinical relevance of CSCs, arguably the major unresolved issue in the field. Although it is generally accepted that CSCs are resistant to chemotherapy in vitro, only recently have data surfaced that suggest a role for these cells in disease relapse. Importantly, cancer cells with a stem cell phenotype have been found to be enriched in minimal residual disease of several malignancies. If the role of CSCs in relapse is confirmed, targeting these cells would hold substantial potential for improving the outcome of cancer patients.

‣ Age-related changes in aortic valve hemostatic protein regulation

Balaoing, Liezl R.; Post, Allison D.; Liu, Huiwen; Minn, Kyung Taeck; Grande-Allen, K. Jane
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português

‣ Population Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Bycaught in U.S. Atlantic Coast Fisheries

Wirgin, I.; Maceda, L.; Grunwald, C.; King, T.L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
Microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA control region sequence analyses were used to determine the population and Distinct Population Segment (DPS) origin of 173 Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus encountered from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Observer Program. It was found that the Hudson River was by far the greatest contributor to this coastal bycatch, with 42.2-46.3% of specimens originating there. Generally, specimens respected the geographic province of the river in which they were spawned, but some specimens, particularly those originating in the South Atlantic DPS, moved great distances. Genetic mixed stock analyses provides an accurate approach to determine the DPS and population origin of Atlantic sturgeon bycaught in coastal waters but most informative management requires that these results be partitioned by locale, season, target fishery, and gear type.

‣ Dietary Supplementation with Specific Collagen Peptides Has a Body Mass Index-Dependent Beneficial Effect on Cellulite Morphology

Schunck, Michael; Zague, Vivian; Oesser, Steffen; Proksch, Ehrhardt
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 01/12/2015 Português
In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we investigated the efficacy of specific bioactive collagen peptides (BCP) on the cellulite treatment of normal and overweight women. In total, 105 women aged 24–50 years with moderate cellulite were randomized to orally receive a daily dosage of 2.5 g BCP or a placebo over 6 months. The degree of cellulite was evaluated before starting the treatment and after 3 and 6 months of intake. In addition, skin waviness, dermal density, and the length of subcutaneous borderline were assessed. BCP treatment led to a statistically significant decrease in the degree of cellulite and a reduced skin waviness on thighs (P < 0.05) in normal weight women. Moreover, dermal density was significantly improved (P < 0.05) compared to placebo. The subcutaneous borderline showed a significant shortening after BCP intake compared to the beginning of the study, indicating cellulite improvement, but the data failed to reach statistical significance compared to placebo. The efficacy of BCP treatment was also confirmed in overweight women, although the impact was less pronounced in comparison with women of normal body weight. The results of the study demonstrated that a regular ingestion of BCP over a period of 6 months led to a clear improvement of the skin appearance in women suffering from moderate cellulite. Based on the current data...

‣ Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler

Prime, David; de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 01/12/2015 Português
Background: Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated.

‣ Heterogeneity of glucagonomas due to differential processing of proglucagon-derived peptides

Challis, Benjamin G; Albrechtsen, Nicolai J Wewer; Bansiya, Vishakha; Burling, Keith; Barker, Peter; Hartmann, Bolette; Gribble, Fiona; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Holst, Jens J; Simpson, Helen L
Fonte: Bioscientifica Ltd Publicador: Bioscientifica Ltd
Tipo: Text
Português
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) secreting proglucagon are associated with phenotypic heterogeneity. Here, we describe two patients with pNETs and varied clinical phenotypes due to differential processing and secretion of proglucagon-derived peptides (PGDPs). Case 1, a 57-year-old woman presented with necrolytic migratory erythema, anorexia, constipation and hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. She was found to have a grade 1 pNET, small bowel mucosal thickening and hyperglucagonaemia. Somatostatin analogue (SSA) therapy improved appetite, abolished hypoglycaemia and improved the rash. Case 2, a 48-year-old male presented with diabetes mellitus, diarrhoea, weight loss, nausea, vomiting and perineal rash due to a grade 1 metastatic pNET and hyperglucagonaemia. In both cases, plasma levels of all measured PGDPs were elevated and attenuated following SSA therapy. In case 1, there was increased production of intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2, similar to that of the enteroendocrine L cell. In case 2, pancreatic glucagon was elevated due to a pancreatic α-cell-like proglucagon processing profile. In summary, we describe two patients with pNETs and heterogeneous clinical phenotypes due to differential processing and secretion of PGDPs. This is the first description of a patient with symptomatic hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and marked gastrointestinal dysfunction due to...

‣ Lung Transplantation in Cystic Fibrosis: Trends and Controversies

Blatter, Joshua; Sweet, Stuart
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 01/12/2015 Português
This article is not an overview of all facets of lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis (CF), but rather it is intended as a review of current allocation controversies, as well as of trends in diagnostics and management in lung transplant recipients and in patients with end-stage lung disease. Despite changes in donor and recipient selection, long-term survival in pediatric lung transplant has continued to be limited by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Due to, in part, this short survival benefit, transplant continues to be an appropriate option for only a subset of pediatric patients with CF. The feasibility of transplant as a therapeutic option is also affected by the limited pediatric organ supply, which has moreover contributed to controversy over lung allocation. Debates over the allocation of this scarce resource, however, may also help to drive innovation in the field of lung transplant. Longer pretransplant survival—as aided by new lung bypass technologies, for example—could help to alleviate organ shortages, as well as facilitate the transport of organs to suitable pediatric recipients. Improved diagnosis and treatment for CLAD and for antibody-mediated rejection have the potential to extend survival in pediatric lung transplant. Regardless...

‣ Therapeutic Opportunities in Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern-Driven Metabolic Diseases

Garcia-Martinez, Irma; Shaker, Mohamed E.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 10/12/2015 Português
Significance: Sterile inflammation is a common finding present in various metabolic disorders. This type of inflammation is mediated by damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are released upon cellular injury to activate pattern recognition receptors on innate immune cells and amplify organ damage. Recent Advances: In the last decade, DAMPs, such as high-mobility group protein B1, nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), adenosine triphosphate, and other metabolites, were found to contribute to the inflammatory response in diabetes, gout, obesity, steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. Varied receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the purinergic P2X7 receptors, and nucleotide-binding domain, and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome sense DAMPs and DAMP-like molecules and release the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Critical Issues: Available therapeutic approaches that interfered with the signaling of TLRs, P2X7, NLRP3-inflammasome, and IL-1β showed encouraging results in metabolic diseases, which will be also highlighted in this review. Future Directions: It is important to understand the origination of DAMPs and how they contribute to the inflammatory response in metabolic disorders to develop selective and efficient therapeutics for intervention. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23...

‣ In Vitro Dosing Performance of the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler Using Asthma and COPD Patient Inhalation Profiles Replicated with the Electronic Lung (eLung™)

Hamilton, Melanie; Leggett, Richard; Pang, Cheng; Charles, Stephen; Gillett, Ben; Prime, David
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 01/12/2015 Português
Background: To evaluate the in vitro dose delivery characteristics of approved asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA® dry powder inhaler across inhalation endpoints representative of the target patient population, using the Electronic Lung (eLung™) to replicate inhaler-specific patient inhalation profiles that were previously recorded in vivo.

‣ The ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler: Design, Functionality, In Vitro Dosing Performance and Critical Task Compliance by Patients and Caregivers

Grant, Andrew C.; Walker, Richard; Hamilton, Melanie; Garrill, Karl
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 01/12/2015 Português
Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used for the delivery of inhaled medications, and should provide consistent, efficient dosing, be easy to use correctly, and be liked by patients; these attributes can all affect patient compliance and therefore treatment efficacy. The ELLIPTA® DPI was developed for the delivery of once-daily therapies for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has moderate resistance to airflow and can hold one or two blister strips, with each blister containing a sealed single dose of medication. Monotherapies can be delivered by the single-strip configuration and, in the two-strip configuration, one dose from each strip can be aerosolized simultaneously to allow combination therapies to be delivered, which enables the formulations for each product to be developed individually, since they are stored separately until the point of administration. There are three principal operating steps to administer a dose: open, inhale, close. This article summarizes the design, functionality, and in vitro dose-delivery characteristics of the ELLIPTA inhaler, and describes the results of human factors validation tests, designed to assess the performance of critical tasks required to use the inhaler. Results from the in vitro studies indicate that the ELLIPTA inhaler performs consistently with respect to in vitro dose delivery characteristics at a range of flow rates that can be achieved by the target population (≥30 L/min) and over its 30-day in-use life. Data from the human factors validation tests demonstrated that almost all participants (≥97%) were able to complete each of the steps required to prepare a dose for inhalation without error. Overall...

‣ Propensity to Succeed: Prioritizing Individuals Most Likely to Benefit from Care Coordination

Hawkins, Kevin; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; Mujahid, Asif; Wells, Timothy S.; Bhattarai, Gandhi R.; Wang, Sara; Hommer, Cynthia E.; Huang, Jinghua; Migliori, Richard J.; Yeh, Charlotte S.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 01/12/2015 Português
The objective was to develop a propensity to succeed (PTS) process for prioritizing outreach to individuals with Medicare Supplement (ie, Medigap) plans who qualified for a high-risk case management (HRCM) program. Demographic, socioeconomic, health status, and local health care supply data from previous HRCM program participants and nonparticipants were obtained from Medigap membership and health care claims data and public data sources. Three logistic regression models were estimated to find members with higher probabilities of engaging in the HRCM program, receiving high quality of care once engaged, and incurring enough monetary savings related to program participation to more than offset program costs. The logistic regression model intercepts and coefficients yielded the information required to build predictive models that were then applied to generate predicted probabilities of program engagement, high quality of care, and cost savings a priori for different members who later qualified for the HRCM program. Predicted probabilities from the engagement and cost models were then standardized and combined to obtain an overall PTS score, which was sorted from highest to lowest and used to prioritize outreach efforts to those newly eligible for the HRCM program. The validity of the predictive models also was estimated. The PTS models for engagement and financial savings were statistically valid. The combined PTS score based on those 2 components helped prioritize outreach to individuals who qualified for the HRCM program. Using PTS models may help increase program engagement and financial success of care coordination programs. (Population Health Management 2015;18:402–411)

‣ Aerosol Performance and Stability of Liposomes Containing Ciprofloxacin Nanocrystals

Cipolla, David; Wu, Huiying; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 01/12/2015 Português
Background: Previously we showed that the release properties of a liposomal ciprofloxacin (CFI) formulation could be attenuated by incorporation of drug nanocrystals within the vesicles. Rather than forming these drug nanocrystals during drug loading, they were created post manufacture simply by freezing and thawing the formulation. The addition of surfactant to CFI, either polysorbate 20 or Brij 30, provided an additional means to modify the release profile or incorporate an immediate-release or ‘burst’ component as well. The goal of this study was to develop a CFI formulation that retained its nanocrystalline morphology and attenuated release profile after delivery as an inhaled aerosol.

‣ Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial (phase IIa) on diindolylmethane’s efficacy and safety in the treatment of CIN: implications for cervical cancer prevention

Ashrafian, Levon; Sukhikh, Gennady; Kiselev, Vsevolod; Paltsev, Mikhail; Drukh, Vadim; Kuznetsov, Igor; Muyzhnek, Ekaterina; Apolikhina, Inna; Andrianova, Evgeniya
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 21/12/2015 Português

‣ Potential association of vacuum cleaning frequency with an altered gut microbiota in pregnant women and their 2-year-old children

Avershina, Ekaterina; Ravi, Anuradha; Storrø, Ola; Øien, Torbjørn; Johnsen, Roar; Rudi, Knut
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 21/12/2015 Português

‣ One year results of intravitreal ranibizumab monotherapy for retinal angiomatous proliferation: a comparative analysis based on disease stages

Park, Young Gun; Roh, Young-Jung
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 21/12/2015 Português

‣ Prognostic significance of diabetes mellitus in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

Imai, Hisao; Kaira, Kyoichi; Mori, Keita; Ono, Akira; Akamatsu, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Shunichi; Taira, Tetsuhiko; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Harada, Hideyuki; Naito, Tateaki; Murakami, Haruyasu; Endo, Masahiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Yamada, Masanobu; Takahashi, Tosh
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 21/12/2015 Português

‣ Female unmarried adolescents’ knowledge on selected reproductive health issues in two low performing areas of Bangladesh: an evaluation study

Kabir, Humayun; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Gazi, Rukhsana
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 21/12/2015 Português

‣ Identification of epistatic interactions through genome-wide association studies in sporadic medullary and juvenile papillary thyroid carcinomas

Luzón-Toro, Berta; Bleda, Marta; Navarro, Elena; García-Alonso, Luz; Ruiz-Ferrer, Macarena; Medina, Ignacio; Martín-Sánchez, Marta; Gonzalez, Cristina Y.; Fernández, Raquel M.; Torroglosa, Ana; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Dopazo, Joaquin; Borrego, Salud
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 21/12/2015 Português

‣ Rotational landmarks of the distal femur in Indian population: A MRI-based study

Raju, Sivashanmugam; Chinnakkannu, Karthikeyan; Sunderayan, Ramanivas; Puttaswamy, Mohan K.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 21/12/2015 Português