Página 28 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.124 segundos

‣ Organic and inorganic–organic thin film structures by molecular layer deposition: A review

Sundberg, Pia; Karppinen, Maarit
Fonte: Beilstein-Institut Publicador: Beilstein-Institut
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/07/2014 Português
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The possibility to deposit purely organic and hybrid inorganic–organic materials in a way parallel to the state-of-the-art gas-phase deposition method of inorganic thin films, i.e., atomic layer deposition (ALD), is currently experiencing a strongly growing interest. Like ALD in case of the inorganics, the emerging molecular layer deposition (MLD) technique for organic constituents can be employed to fabricate high-quality thin films and coatings with thickness and composition control on the molecular scale, even on complex three-dimensional structures. Moreover, by combining the two techniques, ALD and MLD, fundamentally new types of inorganic–organic hybrid materials can be produced. In this review article, we first describe the basic concepts regarding the MLD and ALD/MLD processes, followed by a comprehensive review of the various precursors and precursor pairs so far employed in these processes. Finally, we discuss the first proof-of-concept experiments in which the newly developed MLD and ALD/MLD processes are exploited to fabricate novel multilayer and nanostructure architectures by combining different inorganic, organic and hybrid material layers into on-demand designed mixtures, superlattices and nanolaminates, and employing new innovative nanotemplates or post-deposition treatments to...

‣ Review of the Socket Design and Interface Pressure Measurement for Transtibial Prosthesis

Pirouzi, Gh.; Abu Osman, N. A.; Eshraghi, A.; Ali, S.; Gholizadeh, H.; Wan Abas, W. A. B.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Socket is an important part of every prosthetic limb as an interface between the residual limb and prosthetic components. Biomechanics of socket-residual limb interface, especially the pressure and force distribution, have effect on patient satisfaction and function. This paper aimed to review and evaluate studies conducted in the last decades on the design of socket, in-socket interface pressure measurement, and socket biomechanics. Literature was searched to find related keywords with transtibial amputation, socket-residual limb interface, socket measurement, socket design, modeling, computational modeling, and suspension system. In accordance with the selection criteria, 19 articles were selected for further analysis. It was revealed that pressure and stress have been studied in the last decaeds, but quantitative evaluations remain inapplicable in clinical settings. This study also illustrates prevailing systems, which may facilitate improvements in socket design for improved quality of life for individuals ambulating with transtibial prosthesis. It is hoped that the review will better facilitate the understanding and determine the clinical relevance of quantitative evaluations.

‣ Guarding the Precious Smile: Incidence and Prevention of Injury in Sports: A Review

Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish
Fonte: Dentmedpub Research and Printing Co Publicador: Dentmedpub Research and Printing Co
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession.

‣ Maternal Circulating Concentrations of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yan Hong; Chen, Yun Ping; Yuan, Xiao Lei; Wang, Jiao; Zhu, Hui; Lu, Chun Mei
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common pregnancy complications. Inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of GDM. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether maternal serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, and adiponectin were associated with GDM. A systematic search of PubMed and Medline was undertaken. In total, 27 trials were evaluated by meta-analyses using the software Review Manager 5.0. The results showed that maternal TNF-α (P = 0.0003) and leptin (P < 0.00001) concentrations were significantly higher in GDM patients versus controls. However, maternal adiponectin (P < 0.00001) concentration was significantly lower in GDM patients compared with controls. Subgroup analysis taking in consideration the effect of obesity on maternal adipokine levels showed that circulating levels of TNF-α and leptin remained elevated in GDM patients compared to their body mass index (BMI) matched controls, and adiponectin level remained depressed in GDM individuals. Our findings strengthen the clinical evidence that GDM is accompanied by exaggerated inflammatory responses.

‣ A Review on Plants Used for Improvement of Sexual Performance and Virility

Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, V. K.; Thakur, Mayank
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The use of plant or plant-based products to stimulate sexual desire and to enhance performance and enjoyment is almost as old as the human race itself. The present paper reviews the active, natural principles, and crude extracts of plants, which have been useful in sexual disorders, have potential for improving sexual behaviour and performance, and are helpful in spermatogenesis and reproduction. Review of refereed journals and scientific literature available in electronic databases and traditional literature available in India was extensively performed. The work reviews correlation of the evidence with traditional claims, elucidation, and evaluation of a plausible concept governing the usage of plants as aphrodisiac in total. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been tabulated. Data on their pharmacological activity, mechanism of action, and toxicity are reported. The present review provides an overview of the herbs and their active molecule with claims for improvement of sexual behaviour. A number of herbal drugs have been validated for their effect on sexual behavior and fertility and can therefore serve as basis for the identification of new chemical leads useful in sexual and erectile dysfunction.

‣ Is End-Stage Ankle Arthrosis Best Managed with Total Ankle Replacement or Arthrodesis? A Systematic Review

Jordan, Robert W.; Chahal, Gurdip S.; Chapman, Anna
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Introduction. End-stage ankle osteoarthritis is a debilitating condition. Traditionally, ankle arthrodesis (AA) has been the surgical intervention of choice but the emergence of total ankle replacement (TAR) has challenged this concept. This systematic review aims to address whether TAR or AA is optimal in terms of functional outcomes. Methods. We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA checklist using the online databases Medline and EMBASE after January 1, 2005. Participants must be skeletally mature and suffering from ankle arthrosis of any cause. The intervention had to be an uncemented TAR comprising two or three modular components. The comparative group could include any type of ankle arthrodesis, either open or arthroscopic, using any implant for fixation. The study must have reported at least one functional outcome measure. Results. Of the four studies included, two reported some significant improvement in functional outcome in favour of TAR. The complication rate was higher in the TAR group. However, the quality of studies reviewed was poor and the methodological weaknesses limited any definitive conclusions being drawn. Conclusion. The available literature is insufficient to conclude which treatment is superior. Further research is indicated and should be in the form of an adequately powered randomised controlled trial.

‣ The association of PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism and CTLA-4 rs231775 polymorphism with LADA risks: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Dong, Fang; Yang, Guang; Pan, Hong-Wei; Huang, Wei-Huang; Jing, Li-Peng; Liang, Wen-Kai; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Bao-Huan; Wang, Man; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Li-Ju; Zhang, Si-Heng; Li, He; Chen, Chuan; Nie, Li-Hong; Jing, Chun-Xia
Fonte: Springer Milan Publicador: Springer Milan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Although the polymorphisms of PTPN22 and the variants of CTLA-4 have been reported to be the susceptibility genes, which increased risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), the results remained inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between the polymorphisms of two genes and LADA. We performed a systematic review by identifying relevant studies and applied meta-analysis to pool gene effects. Data from ten studies published between 2001 and 2013 were pooled for two polymorphisms: rs2476601 in the PTPN22 gene and rs231775 in the CTLA-4 gene. Data extraction and assessments for risk of bias were independently performed by two reviewers. Fixed-effect model and random-effect model were used to pool the odds ratios; meanwhile, heterogeneity test, publication bias and sensitive analysis were explored. The minor T allele at rs2476601 and the minor G at rs231775 carried estimated relative risks (odds ratio) of 1.52 (95 % CI 1.29–1.79) and 1.39 (95 % CI 1.11–1.74), respectively. These alleles contributed to an absolute lowering of the risk of all LADA by 4.88 and 14.93 % when individuals do not carry these alleles. The estimated lambdas were 0.49 and 0.63, suggesting a codominant model of effects was most likely for two genes. In summary...

‣ Computational Approaches for Microalgal Biofuel Optimization: A Review

Koussa, Joseph; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The increased demand and consumption of fossil fuels have raised interest in finding renewable energy sources throughout the globe. Much focus has been placed on optimizing microorganisms and primarily microalgae, to efficiently produce compounds that can substitute for fossil fuels. However, the path to achieving economic feasibility is likely to require strain optimization through using available tools and technologies in the fields of systems and synthetic biology. Such approaches invoke a deep understanding of the metabolic networks of the organisms and their genomic and proteomic profiles. The advent of next generation sequencing and other high throughput methods has led to a major increase in availability of biological data. Integration of such disparate data can help define the emergent metabolic system properties, which is of crucial importance in addressing biofuel production optimization. Herein, we review major computational tools and approaches developed and used in order to potentially identify target genes, pathways, and reactions of particular interest to biofuel production in algae. As the use of these tools and approaches has not been fully implemented in algal biofuel research, the aim of this review is to highlight the potential utility of these resources toward their future implementation in algal research.

‣ A Review of Current Analgesic Techniques in Cardiac Surgery. Is Epidural Worth it?

Ziyaeifard, Mohsen; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Golzari, Samad EJ
Fonte: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In this review we addressed the various analgesic techniques in cardiac surgery, especially regional methods such as thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA). There are many techniques available for management of postoperative pain after cardiac operation including intravenous administration of analgesic drugs, infiltration of local anesthetics, nerve blocks, and neuroaxial techniques. Although there are many evidences declaring the benefits of neuroaxial blockade in improving postoperative well-being and quality of care in these patients, some studies have revealed limited effect of TEA on overall morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. On the other hand, some investigators have raised the concern about epidural hematoma in altered coagulation and risks of infection and local anesthetics toxicity during and after cardiac procedures. In present review, we tried to discuss the most recent arguments in the field of this controversial issue. The final conclusion about either using regional anesthesia in cardiac surgery or not has been assigned to the readers.

‣ A Systematic Review of the Liaison Nurse Role on Patient’s Outcomes after Intensive Care Unit Discharge

Tabanejad, Zeinab; Pazokian, Marzieh; Ebadi, Abbas
Fonte: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2014 Português
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Background: This review focuses on the impact of liaison nurse in nursing care of patient after ICU discharge on patient’s outcomes, compared with patients that are not taken care of by liaison nurses. The role of the ICU liaison nurse has transpired to solve the gap between intensive care unit and wards. Therefore, we aimed to review the outcomes of all studies in this field.

‣ Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Ram, Rachna; Singh, Jasprit; McCaig, Eddie
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients with positive sentinel node as the study sample were included in the meta-analysis using the reported hazard ratios with a fixed effect model. Results. Three randomised controlled trials and five retrospective studies were identified. The pooled effect for overall survival was HR 0.94, 95% CI [0.79, 1.19], and for disease free survival was HR 0.83, 95% CI [0.60, 1.14]. The reported rates for locoregional recurrence were similar in both groups. The surgical morbidity was found to be significantly more in patients who had underwent axillary dissection. Conclusion. Amongst patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel node, no further axillary dissection is necessary. For patients with macrometastasis in the sentinel node, it is reasonable to consider omitting axillary dissection to avoid the morbidity of the procedure.

‣ A Review of the Various Surface Treatments of NiTi Instruments

Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan; Asgary, Saeed
Fonte: Iranian Center for Endodontic Research Publicador: Iranian Center for Endodontic Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Since the introduction of engine-driven nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments, attempts have been made to minimize or eliminate their inherent defects, increase their surface hardness/flexibility and also improve their resistance to cyclic fatigue and cutting efficiency. The various strategies of enhancing instrument surface include ion implantation, thermal nitridation, cryogenic treatment and electropolishing. The purpose of this paper was to review the metallurgy and crystal characteristics of NiTi alloy and to present a general over review of the published articles on surface treatment of NiTi endodontic instruments.

‣ Antibiotic prophylaxis and reflux: critical review and assessment

Baquerizo, Bernarda Viteri; Peters, Craig A.
Fonte: Faculty of 1000 Ltd Publicador: Faculty of 1000 Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/11/2014 Português
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The use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) was critical in the evolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) from a condition in which surgery was the standard of treatment to its becoming a medically managed condition. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in the management of VUR has been challenged in recent years, and significant confusion exists as to its clinical value. This review summarizes the critical factors in the history, use, and investigation of antibiotic prophylaxis in VUR. This review provides suggestions for assessing the potential clinical utility of prophylaxis.

‣ PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines

Undavalli, Chaitanya; Das, Piyush; Dutt, Taru; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kashyap, Rahul
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA) can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED) immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL) and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term ‘PTSD or post-traumatic stress’ and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma...

‣ Mini review on tricyclic compounds as an inhibitor of trypanothione reductase

Kumar, Suresh; Ali, Md. Rahmat; Bawa, Sandhya
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are two most ruinous parasitic infectious diseases caused by Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. The disease affects millions of people all over the world and associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The review discuss briefly on current treatment of these parasitic diseases and trypanothione reductase (TryR) as potential targets for rational drug design. The enzyme trypanothione reductase (TryR) has been identified as unique among these parasites and has been proposed to be an effective target against for developing new drugs. The researchers have selected this enzyme as target is due to its substrate specificity in contrast to human analogous glutathione reductase and its absence from the host cell which makes this enzyme an ideal target for drug discovery. In this review we have tried to present an overview of the different tricyclic compounds which are potent inhibitors of TryR with their inhibitory activities against the parasites are briefly discussed.

‣ Individual and Team Performance in Team-Handball: A Review

Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P.
Fonte: Uludag University Publicador: Uludag University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
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Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors.

‣ Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice

Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.
Fonte: Uludag University Publicador: Uludag University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
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Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define...

‣ Efficacy of Acupuncture for Psychological Symptoms Associated with Opioid Addiction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Boyuan, Zhang; Yang, Chen; Ke, Cheng; Xueyong, Shen; Sheng, Liu
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This review systematically assessed the clinical evidence for and against acupuncture as a treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The database was accessed from MEDLINE and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. We included all randomized clinical trials published in Chinese and English regardless of their controls. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan software, version 5.2. We conducted a literature search of 16 databases from their inception to January 2014. Four studies from Western countries did not report any clinical gains in the treatment of psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. 10 of 12 studies from China have reported positive findings regarding the use of acupuncture to treat the psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The methodological quality of the included studies was poor. The meta-analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between the treatment group and the control group for anxiety and depression associated with opioid addiction, although groups did not differ on opioid craving. This review and meta-analysis could not confirm that acupuncture was an effective treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. However...

‣ A Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on the Efficacy of Herbal Medicines for Primary Dysmenorrhea

Park, Kyoung-Sun; Park, Kang-In; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Lee, Jin-Moo; Jang, Jun-Bock; Lee, Chang-Hoon
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Purpose. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological complaint among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. This study aims to review the findings of published articles on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of herbal medicines for PD. Methods. In vitro and in vivo studies of herbal compounds, individual herbal extracts, or herbal formula decoctions published from their inception to April 2014 were included in this review. Results. A total of 18 studies involving herbal medicines exhibited their inhibitory effect on PD. The majority of in vitro studies investigated the inhibition of uterine contractions. In vivo studies suggest that herbal medicines exert a peripheral analgesic effect and a possible anti-inflammatory activity via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The mechanisms of herbal medicines for PD are associated with PG level reduction, suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, superoxide dismutase activation and malondialdehyde reduction, nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-kappa B reduction, stimulation of somatostatin receptor, intracellular Ca2+ reduction, and recovery of phospholipid metabolism. Conclusions. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective therapeutic agents for PD. Further investigations on the appropriate herbal formula and their constituents are recommended.

‣ Primary Leiomyoma of the Liver: A Review of a Rare Tumour

Omiyale, Ayodeji Oluwarotimi
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Context. Primary leiomyoma of the liver is a rare tumour with uncertain pathogenesis with similar presentation with other tumours of the liver. Little is known about its clinical course. Objectives. To review the literature for case reports of primary leiomyoma of the liver. Methods. Extensive literature search was carried out for case reports of primary leiomyoma of the liver. Results. A total of 36 cases of primary leiomyoma of the liver were reviewed. The mean age of presentation is 43 years with slight female sex affectation; females accounted for 55.6% of the cases reported in the literature. The average size of the tumour is 8.7 cm. 34.4% of the cases reviewed were incidental finding with the mean follow-up time of 33 months with most cases reporting no evidence of disease. Conclusions. Primary leiomyoma of the liver is very rare tumour with complex pathogenesis which remains largely unknown. Imaging of the tumour does not allow for a tissue specific diagnosis; hence histological review of the tissue specimen and immunohistochemical stains are imperative for diagnosis. Surgical resection is both diagnostic and curative. The diagnosis of primary leiomyoma of the liver should be considered as a differential in the management of liver tumours.