Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe

A Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) foi criada em 1948 pelo Conselho Econômico e Social das Nações Unidas com o objetivo de incentivar a cooperação econômica entre os seus membros. Ela é uma das cinco comissões econômicas da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) e possui 44 estados e oito territórios não independentes como membros.

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‣ Nota de la Secretaría acerca de las actividades de la Comisión en materia de integración económica = Note by the Secretariat on the Commission's activities in the field of economic integration

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português

‣ L'enfance et la jeunesse dans le développement national en Haiti = Summary of the Report Prepared by Haiti

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português

‣ The tourist cruise industry and its impact on South America

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
The global tourist cruise industry has been experiencing sustained growth for quite some time; the industry's future prospects are promising, due to good profitability and a reduction in costs achieved thanks to use of ever larger ships, which are making this new form of tourism accessible to more and more people.South American destinations have been visited by a wide range of cruise operators, reflecting the expansion of this industry worldwide; it is necessary that players in the industry take advantage of this opportunity to provide services that employ substantial numbers of people and develop port facilities in order to meet the requirements of ships and tourists alike, thereby heading off competition from other routes.

‣ Road safety: a priority issue for the United Nations

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
This issue of the Bulletin deals with road safety, which has become an urgent worldwide problem. Given the fact that road accidents are increasing, that they affect the planet's most vulnerable population (namely the lowest income groups in developing countries) and that this is becoming a genuine public health crisis, the United Nations has decided that it is urgent to address the matter. The World Health Organization (WHO) has therefore dedicated the World Health Day 2004 to road safety.Given the urgent need for action, the Chiefs of Transport of the five Regional Economic Commissions of the United Nations held a meeting in Geneva (September 2004), where they agreed to reinforce the studies and projects carried out in this area.Below is a summary of various information sources and initiatives adopted to assess and tackle this modern epidemic and offers a pessimistic outlook for 2020, when road traffic crashes will constitute the third cause of death unless serious action is taken from today.

‣ New approaches by highway agencies in dealing with road users

Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
The context in which society develops has changed. The principles of democracy and human rights, in addition to the explosive development of communications, have encouraged citizens' desire for involvement in many areas which formerly had been the preserve of the State. This is also reflected in the attitudes of public utility customers, who are no longer prepared to accept mediocre service from the bodies responsible; on the contrary, they are increasingly putting pressure on those bodies, demanding better service in return for the charges they pay. Road agencies are no exception. They can no longer maintain their traditional isolation from the public and from users in areas such as decision-making or accountability for results achieved. Furthermore, it is no longer enough to provide road networks; these must be managed in such a way as to ensure improved levels of service, acceptable to users who are more and more demanding. This is why conventional styles of highway management have become unsatisfactory and new approaches are developing. There is a gradual increase in openness to the interests and views of users, who are increasingly considered as partners and participants in management. There are numerous examples in various countries...

‣ Trade Facilitation as Part of Creating the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)

Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
The content of this article is the natural continuation of both FAL Bulletin No. 167 and FAL Bulletin No. 171. FAL Bulletin No. 167 advanced conceptually in the definition of the term trade facilitation and a general explanation of how some international bodies and the FTAA process itself deal with this issue. This month's article expands on the information regarding trade facilitation within the FTAA, which brings together the sizeable number of 34 countries from the Western Hemisphere.Similarly, taking into account that FAL Bulletin No. 171 reported on some progress toward trade facilitation regulations within the framework of the Southern Common Market (Mercosur), the current article takes a complementary approach, reporting on developments favourable to trade facilitation in another agreement for economic integration, which basically proposes the creation of a free trade area. For more information or comments, please contact the author of this article: Miguel Izam (mizam@eclac.cl), ECLAC International Trade Unit.

‣ Buses or trams for Latin America's cities?

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
There was a time when tram services were critical to public transport in many of the largest cities of Latin America; however, trams disappeared about fifty years ago, for a number of reasons. They are back now, especially in the cities of the more developed world, in a modern version usually known as light rail transit. Latin America has developed its own concept of urban mass transit, namely, high-capacity buses operating in special lanes as an integral component of the overall mass transit system. As a general rule, this Latin American solution seems to be the best suited to the needs of the region, given its flexibility, cost and capacity. Each situation must be assessed separately, however, and in some cases, a modernized version of the tramway may be the best solution.

‣ Electronic data interchange in port management: the experience of the port of Barcelona

Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Every port is unique. Although all ports exist for the same basic purpose (to act as an interface in the transfer from one mode of transport to another), no two are ever organized in the same way.Ports may be classified according to: Physical conditions: location (geographical position, man-made or natural harbour, estuary location, difficult weather conditions, tides, etc.) and size (large, small or medium-sized). Use: commercial (general cargo, bulk solids, bulk liquids, oil, break bulk, mixed), passenger, sport and leisure, fishing, mixed, etc. Ownership: private, municipal, regional or State-owned. The Port Authority's role in management of the port: Overall control, i.e. the Port Authority plans, sets up and operates the whole range of services. Facilitator, i.e. the Port Authority plans and sets up the infrastructure and the superstructure, but services are provided by private companies. Landlord, i.e. the Port Authority allows private companies to be responsible for the superstructure and provide port services. Different combinations of port types will therefore give rise to different kinds of organization and different information flows, which means that the associated information systems may differ significantly from port to port. Since this paper relates to the port of Barcelona...

‣ Trade Facilitation: Promoting Trade as an Engine of Growth Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTS)

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Three factors define the main difficulties faced by developing countries in the area of trade facilitation: (i) limited understanding and use by governments and business (especially SMEs) of trade facilitation and of ICT tools and techniques; (ii) developing countries' limited capacity for policy analysis and inadequate policy instruments for the implementation of trade facilitation, and (iii) inadequate policy coordination for negotiation on trade facilitation. These obstacles tend to reduce countries' development opportunities and to increase the costs of general economic development and social welfare.The United Nations, through its five regional commissions, is launching a project that seeks to disseminate the benefits of trade facilitation and the standards, tools and requirements for its successful implementation. The project will focus on trade facilitation promoted by: (a) enhanced knowledge and understanding of governments and business regarding trade facilitation and the role of ICT; (b) enhanced use of ICT by SMEs in trade facilitation, and (c) national capacity-building for trade facilitation negotiations.

‣ Convergence and Asymmetry in Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in the Region's Trade Agreements

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Sanitary and phytosanitary matters have acquired greater significance in the region's trade, as reflected in the significant number of complaints brought before the various dispute settlement mechanisms pertaining to the regional integration schemes. This may be attributed to the importance of the Latin American countries in world agricultural trade and to different phytosanitary and zoosanitary standards required by each. Given the multiplication of bilateral and plurilateral agreements in Latin America and the Caribbean, convergence on the sanitary standards required under such accords is crucial for the trade integration of a region that is an agro-exporter par excellence. Convergence is essential to facilitate market access and expedite trade flows. This bulletin assesses convergence of standards in the bilateral and plurilateral trade agreements signed by the countries of the region, the treatment afforded to the principles contained in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and the progress the region has made relative to that Agreement.

‣ Shipping costs: a rising challenge to the region's competitive development

Durán Lima, José Elías; Alvarez, Mariano
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
This issue of the FAL Bulletin examines the impact of shipping costs on the exports of five Latin American and Caribbean countries by analysing the difference between the unit value of goods at the port of origin and at the port of destination, in three of the region's main external markets.

‣ Maritime Cabotage Services: Prospects and Challenges

Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
This edition of the FAL Bulletin is based on the document entitled 'Serie de la CEPAL, RNI, 32: Transporte marítimo regional y de cabotaje en América Latina y el Caribe: el caso de Chile', which is available on the Internet at www.eclac.cl/transporte/perfil/cap3tranmar.asp. Information is also included on other subregions based on studies that are currently being prepared. For more information, contact Mr Jan Hoffmann, an expert on maritime transport and ports with the Transport Unit, JHoffmann@ECLAC.cl.

‣ Implications of the Termination of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) for Latin America and the Caribbean

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Available [in Spanish] at: http://www.cepal.org/cgi-bin/getProd.asp?xml=/publicaciones/xml/0/23120/P23120.xml&xsl=/comercio/tpl/p9f.xsl&base=/tpl/top-bottom.xslt; The impacts of quota elimination under the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) applicable since 1 January 2005 are already becoming apparent on Latin American and Caribbean countries' exports to the United States ; despite vastly different performances from country to country, the region as a whole experienced a reduction in market share, in contrast to a marked increase by China . In theory, if this rhythm of growth were to be sustained, the market share of United States imports from China in this sector could increase or even surpass the 50% mark in the next three years. The present issue of this Bulletin is based on the research paper "Implicancias del término del Acuerdo sobre los Textiles y el Vestuario (ATV) para América Latina y el Caribe" [Implications of the termination of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) for Latin America and the Caribbean], LC/L.2399-P of the series Comercio Internacional [International Trade], No 53, October 2005.

‣ Tracking and Perspectives on WTO Negotiations: from Geneva to Hong Kong , July-December 2005

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
This month's issue of the FAL Bulletin takes a panoramic view of the present World Trade Organization (WTO) trade negotiations, soon to embark on the Sixth Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ). Reduced expectations on the outcomes of this meeting due to the scant progress on critical issues - such as the liberalization of the agricultural sector - increase the challenge to conclude the Doha Round by the end of 2006. The governments of the region have a role to play in the direction this process may take. Additional details on the progress of these objectives can be obtained in chapter II of Latin America and the Caribbean in the World Economy, 2004 Trends 2005.

‣ CEFACT: an international private/public sector partnership

Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
The Centre for the Facilitation of Procedures and Practices in Administration, Commerce and Transport (CEFACT) constitutes a partnership between the public and private sectors for their mutual benefit. For the private sector, working with governments to improve commerce is critical to improving international competitiveness. For governments, working with the private sector to reduce procedural barriers to trade is critical to improving both their own administrative effectiveness and the economic well-being of their countries. This issue of the Bulletin presents an exposition (TRADE/CEFACT/1998/CRP.19) by the Chairman of the CEFACT, Mr. Henri Martre, at the Trade Facilitation Seminar, carried out between 9 and 10 March of 1998, at the Headquarters of the World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Its main purpose is to explain the importance of CEFACT's partnership between the public and private sectors; how this partnership works, and the trade facilitation instruments it has created.

‣ Informe final de la Conferencia Regional Latinoamericana y del Caribe sobre Población y Desarrollo = Final report of the Latin American and Caribbean Regional Conference on Population and Development = Rapport de la Conférence Régionale de l'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes sur la Population et le Développement

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português

‣ Small economies' tariff and subsidy policies in the face of trade liberalization of the Americas

Escaith, Hubert; Inoue, Keiji
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português

‣ Latin America's path to equitable growth: rocky road or wrong way?

Vos, Rob
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português

‣ The return of vulnerability and Raúl Prebisch's early thinking on "El ciclo económico argentino"

O'Connell, Arturo
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português

‣ Globalization and technology: you can't put the genie back in the bottle again

Braga, Carlos Alberto Primo, et al
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português