Página 29 dos resultados de 885602 itens digitais encontrados em 0.191 segundos

‣ Research in leprosy. A report of a committee set up by the medical research council to study future prospects.

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1979 Português
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Recommendations for future research in leprosy include (i) cultivation of M. leprae in vitro; (ii) genetic control of susceptibility, including twin studies and HLA typing; (iii) precise antigenic analysis of M. leprae; (iv) mechanisms involved in the macrophage response to mycobacterial infections; (v) more use of experimental models such as normal mice infected with M. lepraemurium; (vi) reassessment of the protection afforded by BCG; (vii) assessment of protection afforded by killed (armadillo) M. leprae vaccine; (viii) pathogenesis of erythema nodosum leprosum including a study of the effect of thalidomide; and (ix) development of in vitro systems for drug sensitivity testing.

‣ Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.

Matthews, H B; Lucier, G W; Fisher, K D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1999 Português
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Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have been synthesized as a result of knowledge gained from studies of mechanisms of actions of chemicals first isolated from medicinal herbs. Thus, medicinal herbs have played a major role in the development of modern medicine and continue to be widely used in their original form. Whereas it is generally agreed that most medicinal herbs are safe under the conditions used, some are toxic and should be avoided even though they are readily available, and others have significant adverse side effects when misused. Also, little has been done to investigate potential adverse effects that may be associated with extended or high-dose use of medicinal herbs. Thus, concern has been expressed that the lack of quality control used in the preparation of medicinal herbs...

‣ Needs for public health intervention and needs for new research on vinyl halides and their polymers: a public policy perspective.

Hattis, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1981 Português
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Consideration of needs for public health interventions and new research requires comparative assessments of the health benefits that are likely to result from alternative uses of limited regulatory and technical resources. This paper briefly examines regulatory and research priorities in the light of recent information on the carcinogenic hazards of vinyl chloride and alkyl and vinyl halides related to vinyl chloride, the respiratory-system hazards of poly (vinyl chloride), and the reproductive hazards of vinyl chloride. Specific suggestions are made for relatively promising types of efforts in these areas.

‣ Role of mathematics in cancer research: attitudes and training of Japanese mathematicians.

Kudô, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1979 Português
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An extensive survey of attitude towards scientific information of scientists in Japan was conducted in Japan. It was published in a technical report, and this survey is reviewed in this paper, with the hope that this will furnish findings important in working out the plan for promoting exploitation of mathematical talent in biomedical research. Findings are concordant with the impression of foreign visitors: (1) pure mathematicians tend to concentrate on mathematics only; (2) applied mathematics and statistics are heavily oriented toward industry; (3) mathematicians and pharmacologists are very different in their attitudes to scientific information. Based on the personal experience of the author, difficulties to be circumvented in utilizing aptitudes for mathematics and/or statistics in biomedical research are discussed.

‣ Analysis of serial measurements in medical research.

Matthews, J N; Altman, D G; Campbell, M J; Royston, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/01/1990 Português
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In medical research data are often collected serially on subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is often inadequate in two ways: it may fail to settle clinically relevant questions and it may be statistically invalid. A commonly used method which compares groups at a series of time points, possibly with t tests, is flawed on both counts. There may, however, be a remedy, which takes the form of a two stage method that uses summary measures. In the first stage a suitable summary of the response in an individual, such as a rate of change or an area under a curve, is identified and calculated for each subject. In the second stage these summary measures are analysed by simple statistical techniques as though they were raw data. The method is statistically valid and likely to be more relevant to the study questions. If this method is borne in mind when the experiment is being planned it should promote studies with enough subjects and sufficient observations at critical times to enable useful conclusions to be drawn. Use of summary measures to analyse serial measurements, though not new, is potentially a useful and simple tool in medical research.

‣ Research samples from families with genetic diseases: a proposed code of conduct.

Harper, P S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/05/1993 Português
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Research on samples from families with genetic disease underlies many of the major advances that are occurring in medical genetics. But ethical and practical problems may arise when samples from relatives who are healthy but at risk are included in such studies. In particular, new molecular tests for specific gene mutations may result in the detection of a genetic defect in relatives who had neither expected this possibility nor given specific consent to such testing. Family members at risk should not be included in such studies unless strictly necessary, and in such cases specific consent should be obtained and information should be given about the implications of an abnormal result of a test. This is particularly important when stored samples from previous studies without such implications are being reused and is also relevant to the genetic testing of samples taken primarily for epidemiological studies of disorders when only a small proportion of cases is thought to be genetic in origin. There is a need for guidelines to protect both subjects and investigators in a field which is spreading rapidly and involving many clinical and laboratory research workers previously unfamiliar with genetic testing.

‣ Publishing the findings of clinical research.

Munro, A J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/11/1993 Português
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Current regulations and practice may not prevent a sponsor of clinical research from delaying or preventing the dissemination of findings that do not support his or her commercial, professional, or managerial interests. Pharmaceutical trials are particularly subject to this concern, but the issue of non-publication has a wider significance. Patients participate in research on the understanding that it will be of public benefit. To be fair to these patients we must confirm that data will be analysed without bias and that findings will be regarded as being in the public domain and hence available to interested reviewers even if the results do not justify publication. Clinical investigators and ethics committees have the power and the duty to enforce this outcome.

‣ Segregation analysis of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the collaborative Lipid Research Clinics Program Family Study.

Bucher, K D; Kaplan, E B; Namboodiri, K K; Glueck, C J; Laskarzewski, P; Rifkind, B M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1987 Português
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Complex segregation analysis with the unified mixed model in white families from nine lipid research clinics was carried out to delineate the mode of familial transmission of plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Three groups of families from the collaborative Lipid Research Clinics Program Family Study were assessed: 1,146 selected at random, 483 obtained through hypercholesterolemic probands, and 177 selected from the random sample because a number had low HDL-C, the sample sizes being 4,279, 1,807 and 735, respectively. The data were first transformed and adjusted for effects of covariates. Analyses were performed within clinic and selection strata and also pooled across clinics within strata. The results were consistent across strata and identified two major HDL-C clusters with means separated by approximately 3 SD. There was significant evidence of transmission of a major factor for low HDL-C, but transmission did not conform to Mendelian segregation expectations. There was also evidence of significant multifactorial transmission. Since low HDL-C levels are a major independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, the association of a major factor with familial aggregation of low HDL-C emphasizes the importance of detailed within-family sampling for low HDL-C after identifying a proband whose predominant dyslipoproteinemia is low HDL-C.

‣ Opportunities for research in rural practice.

Johnson, G. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/05/1979 Português
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The contributions of Denis Burkitt, William Budd, Sir James MacKenzie and Will Pickles, among others, are examples of the research that can be accomplished by busy doctors in a general practice or a rural setting with a minimum of equipment. It is still possible to undertake worthwhile research in rural areas of Canada. This contention is supported by many examples of published work from northern Newfoundland and Labrador. The studies have dealt with conditions that are particularly frequent in each region, including those due to nutritional deficiency, infection, extremes of climate and genetic factors. Epidemiologic studies have compared the occurrence of disease in different geographic regions and in different races. The content of general practice and methods of health care delivery have also been investigated. It is suggested that some of these observations could have been made only in the context of rural medical practice.

‣ The use of randomly bred and genetically defined animals in biomedical research.

Gill, T. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1980 Português
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The rational selection of animals for experimental purposes is a very important part of the experimental design. The information obtained is neither as accurate and precise as it could be nor is it generally applicable to the body of knowledge in its field unless it utilizes the proper animal model. There are four major types of animals available for use in biomedical research, and each has its specific applicability. First, randomly bred animals can be derived either from colonies or from wild populations. They are particularly useful for first-level chemical screening, as a source of mutants, and as the starting material for developing inbred lines. Randomly bred animals from wild populations are also useful for studying the dynamics of genes in natural populations. Second, specifically structured outbred populations provide a stabilized gene pool that is useful for first- and second-level screening procedures. Third, inbred strains and F1 hybrids are useful for studying individual traits in a population, for answering specific experimental questions, for comparing results over a long period of time, and for detailed genetic analyses. Fourth, congenic strains are useful for studying the effects of specific genes and their alleles against a common inbred background. Detailed knowledge of the properties of these different types of animals and of the cost-effectiveness of their use provides an important basis for the appropriate choice of animal models for biomedical research.

‣ Mortality pattern among biological research laboratory workers.

Brown, T. P.; Paulson, J.; Pannett, B.; Coupland, C.; Coggon, D.; Chilvers, C. E.; Sasco, A. J.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1996 Português
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A cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality of individuals employed by biological research institutes in the UK. The inclusion criteria were met by 12,703 individuals, of whom 95% were traced (11,502 alive, 395 deaths, 246 embarkations). All-cause mortality was significantly reduced in men (standardised) mortality ratio (SMR) 55 and women (SMR 52). Mortality was also significantly reduced for circulatory and respiratory diseases, and overall there was low mortality from malignant neoplasms. SMRs exceeded 100, but were not statistically significant, for infective and parasitic diseases. There were no statistically significant raised SMRs for any cancer site. Workers were categorised as ever worked in a laboratory (laboratory workers) and never worked in a laboratory (non-laboratory workers). The all-cause SMR was significantly reduced in both groups, as was mortality from circulatory and respiratory diseases. The SMR for malignant neoplams was also significantly reduced in laboratory workers. On the basis of follow-up to 31 December 1994, there is no evidence of any overall increased risk of mortality in biological research laboratory workers. However, the power of the analysis is limited by the young age of many cohort members and short duration of follow-up. Follow-up is continuing and the data will be reanalysed once more deaths have accumulated.

‣ Primary care--opportunities and threats. Developing professional knowledge: making primary care education and research more relevant.

Pearson, P.; Jones, K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/03/1997 Português
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The trio of recent government white papers heralds a new world for primary care. Many changes in the education of future primary health care professionals and in the research ethos of the discipline will be needed to realise this vision. New skills and attitudes, not least in multidisciplinary working; lifelong learning; and greater understanding of and participation in primary care research will have to emerge from educational efforts in the next few years.

‣ Health effects of obstructive sleep apnoea and the effectiveness of continuous positive airways pressure: a systematic review of the research evidence.

Wright, J.; Johns, R.; Watt, I.; Melville, A.; Sheldon, T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/03/1997 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the research evidence for the health consequences of obstructive sleep apnoea and the effectiveness of continuous positive airways pressure. DESIGN: A systematic review of published research, studies being identified by searching Medline (1966-96), Embase (1974-96), and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) (1982-95); scanning citations; and consulting experts. Studies in all languages were considered which either investigated the association between obstructive sleep apnoea in adults and key health outcomes or evaluated the effectiveness of treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea with continuous positive airways pressure in adults. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality, systematic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, ischaemic heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, vehicle accidents, measures of daytime sleepiness, and quality of life. RESULTS: 54 epidemiological studies examined the association between sleep apnoea and health related outcomes. Most were poorly designed and only weak or contradictory evidence was found of an association with cardiac arrhythmias, ischaemic heart disease, cardiac failure, systemic or pulmonary hypertension, and stroke. Evidence of a link with sleepiness and road traffic accidents was stronger but inconclusive. Only one small randomised controlled trial evaluated continuous positive airways pressure. Five non-randomised controlled trials and 38 uncontrolled trials were identified. Small changes in objectively measured daytime sleepiness were consistently found...

‣ Dental fear among university students: implications for pharmacological research.

Kaakko, T.; Milgrom, P.; Coldwell, S. E.; Getz, T.; Weinstein, P.; Ramsay, D. S.
Fonte: American Dental Society of Anesthesiology Publicador: American Dental Society of Anesthesiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 Português
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University students are often subjects in randomized clinical trials involving anxiolytic and analgesic medications used during clinical dental and medical procedures. The purpose of this study was to describe a typical university student population available for research by using data from a mail survey. Subjects were 350 students chosen randomly from all enrolled, full-time, traditional students on the main campus at the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. The aim was to determine the extent and nature of dental anxiety in this population. In addition, the relationships between subject willingness to receive dental injections and general and mental health and medical avoidance and medical fears were examined. The Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) was used to measure dental anxiety. Dental anxiety was prevalent in this population; 19% of students reported high rates of dental fear. Thirteen percent of students had never had a dental injection. Students with no experience with dental injections were more reluctant than those with experience to receive an injection if one were needed. DAS scores were correlated with injection reluctance. Students who were reluctant to go ahead with a dental injection also reported poorer general and mental health than those who were less reluctant. These students also reported higher medical avoidance and medical anxiety scores. University students provide a rich source of potential subjects for clinical research. The student population...

‣ Methodology and assessment in clinical anti-emetic research: a meta-analysis of outcome parameters.

Morrow, G. R.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1992 Português
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There have been major clinical advances in the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis. These advances were achieved partly by the introduction of new anti-emetic agents but important improvement came from the use of existing agents in ways developed from the results of studies based on new approaches and methods in anti-emetic research. By developing basic research tools, improving methodology and applying psychometrically sound assessments better management or chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting has been achieved. The goals of anti-emetic assessment are discussed here along with data and examples of assessment techniques for emesis and nausea. Examination of 153 separate anti-emetic studies between the years of 1975 and 1988 showed that emesis was the most common outcome measure used and that approximately 1 out of five studies measured some other type of outcome usually in the context of nausea and emesis. The frequency of outcome events was most commonly the dimension assessed. Examination of size of the effect of an anti-emetic regimen for these anti-emetic studies showed it to be independent of the type of outcome measured, but to be quite dependent on how the outcome was quantified. For instance, differences in the frequency or incidence of either nausea or emesis were generally larger than measurements made of the duration of either of these.

‣ Clinical research: a tale of two studies.

Nathan, David G.
Fonte: American Clinical and Climatological Association Publicador: American Clinical and Climatological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
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Threats to the status of clinical research have been well documented in the past three decades, and the National Institutes of Health and the Congress have done much to alleviate them. But the relationships of academic investigators and pharmaceutical companies remain a treacherous area. This vital nexus, on which so much progress depends, must be carefully maintained. In this paper I present two examples of academic/pharmaceutical company collaborations, both in search of a similar drug. The cases illustrate both some important hazards and accomplishments of clinical research.

‣ Cancer: the interface between basic and applied research: American Association for Cancer Research Conference, Baltimore, WA; November 5-8, 1995.

Fonte: The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research Publicador: The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1996 Português
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‣ Information needs research in the era of the digital medical library.

Lomax, E. C.; Lowe, H. J.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 Português
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The rapid adoption of Internet-accessible information resources by the clinical community, has resulted in an exponential growth in the variety and type of clinical information resources along with an increasing diversity of information technologies to deliver clinical information. To date, little formal work has been done to investigate the significance of new information technologies such as Internet-based digital libraries and multimedia record systems on clinical information need or information seeking behavior. In the work described in this paper, we highlight some results from our recent multimethod research design and investigation of the information-seeking behavior of Pittsburgh area medical oncologists to argue for the use of a multimethod research design as an essential component of any investigation of clinical information need and information-seeking behavior in the era of the digital medical library.

‣ Security architecture for multi-site patient records research.

Behlen, F. M.; Johnson, S. B.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 Português
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A security system was developed as part of a patient records research database project intended for both local and multi-site studies. A comprehensive review of ethical foundations and legal environment was undertaken, and a security system comprising both administrative policies and computer tools was developed. For multi-site studies, Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval is required for each study, at each participating site. A sponsoring Principal Investigator (PI) is required at each site, and each PI needs automated enforcement tools. Systems fitting this model were implemented at two academic medical centers. Security features of commercial database systems were found to be adequate for basic enforcement of approved research protocols.

‣ Implementing the Bayesian paradigm: reporting research results over the World-Wide Web.

Lehmann, H. P.; Wachter, M. R.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 Português
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For decades, statisticians, philosophers, medical investigators and others interested in data analysis have argued that the Bayesian paradigm is the proper approach for reporting the results of scientific analyses for use by clients and readers. To date, the methods have been too complicated for non-statisticians to use. In this paper we argue that the World-Wide Web provides the perfect environment to put the Bayesian paradigm into practice: the likelihood function of the data is parsimoniously represented on the server side, the reader uses the client to represent her prior belief, and a downloaded program (a Java applet) performs the combination. In our approach, a different applet can be used for each likelihood function, prior belief can be assessed graphically, and calculation results can be reported in a variety of ways. We present a prototype implementation, BayesApplet, for two-arm clinical trials with normally-distributed outcomes, a prominent model for clinical trials. The primary implication of this work is that publishing medical research results on the Web can take a form beyond or different from that currently used on paper, and can have a profound impact on the publication and use of research results.