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‣ Iron-sulfur cluster disassembly in the FNR protein of Escherichia coli by O2: [4Fe-4S] to [2Fe-2S] conversion with loss of biological activity

Khoroshilova, Natalia; Popescu, Codrina; Münck, Eckard; Beinert, Helmut; Kiley, Patricia J.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/06/1997 Português
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The transcription factor FNR (fumarate nitrate reduction) requires the presence of an iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster for its function as a global transcription regulator in Escherichia coli when oxygen becomes scarce. To define the oxidation state and type of Fe-S cluster present in the active form of FNR, we have studied anaerobically purified FNR with Mössbauer spectroscopy. Our data showed that this form of FNR contained a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster (δ = 0.45 mm/s; ΔEQ = 1.22 mm/s) and that the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster was rapidly destroyed on exposure of FNR to air. Under these conditions, the yellow–green active form of FNR turned deep red; analysis of sulfide indicated that 70% of the labile sulfide was still present, suggesting that the Fe-S cluster had been converted into a different form. Little [3Fe-4S] cluster was, however, detected by EPR. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy, the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster was converted in about 60% yield to a [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster (δ = 0.28 mm/s; ΔEQ = 0.58 mm/s) following 17 min of exposure to air. The [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster form of FNR was much more stable to oxygen, but was unable to sustain biological activity (e.g., DNA binding). However, DNA binding and the absorption spectrum characteristic of the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster could be largely restored from the [2Fe-2S]2+ form when Cys...

‣ Control of time-dependent biological processes by temporally patterned input

Brezina, Vladimir; Orekhova, Irina V.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/09/1997 Português
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Temporal patterning of biological variables, in the form of oscillations and rhythms on many time scales, is ubiquitous. Altering the temporal pattern of an input variable greatly affects the output of many biological processes. We develop here a conceptual framework for a quantitative understanding of such pattern dependence, focusing particularly on nonlinear, saturable, time-dependent processes that abound in biophysics, biochemistry, and physiology. We show theoretically that pattern dependence is governed by the nonlinearity of the input–output transformation as well as its time constant. As a result, only patterns on certain time scales permit the expression of pattern dependence, and processes with different time constants can respond preferentially to different patterns. This has implications for temporal coding and decoding, and allows differential control of processes through pattern. We show how pattern dependence can be quantitatively predicted using only information from steady, unpatterned input. To apply our ideas, we analyze, in an experimental example, how muscle contraction depends on the pattern of motorneuron firing.