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‣ Heat loss by the Earth, geothermal energy and geothermal Heat pumps

Duque, Maria Rosa
Fonte: 4th International Congress on Energy and Environment Engineering and Management Publicador: 4th International Congress on Energy and Environment Engineering and Management
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
425.07195%
Geothermal energy is often labeled as renewable and sustainable. It is listed together with solar, wind and biomass as alternative energy options in governmental R& D programs. The temperature in the Earth’s interior increases with depth. This fact is responsible for the heat flow, from the interior to the surface. Heat loss through the Earth was calculated using heat flow density values obtained in continents and oceans. The result obtained [1] for the total heat loss is 46± 2 TW. Heat loss through continents is 14 TW. The direct use of geothermal energy dates back thousands of years when people began using hot springs for bathing and cooking. Today, geothermal energy can be used to generate electricity or directly in many applications. Worldwide direct utilizations of geothermal energy in 2005 was [2] 273372TJ/year, of which 32% were obtained through geothermal heat pumps. At this time, the equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels and 24 million tons in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Since 2005, the use of geothermal heat pumps has been wide in both residential and commercial buildings, due to the attractive advantages of high efficiency and environmental friendliness. Geothermal heat pumps are similar to ordinary heat pumps...