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‣ Epidemiology and genetics of endemic goiter. I. Epidemiological aspects

Freire-Maia, D. V.; Freire-Maia, A.; Schull, W. J.; Morton, N. E.; Quelce-Salgado, A.; Lobo, L. C.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 11-16
Português
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This study dealt with approximately 2,000 children and their parents living in a hyperendemic goiter area in Central Brazil, which is bounded by the jungle to the north and by a large plain to the south. The determination of goiter was made according to the methods and classification adopted by WHO. Conspicuous forms of goiter were found in 41% of the children examined. Multiple linear regression analysis showed an increase with age in the frequency of goiter in both sexes. Although data from the literature show that Mulattoes and Negroes have statistically higher frequencies of goiter than do Whites, our multiple linear regression analysis revealed no evidence for an effect of race on the endemism. There was no significant association with socioeconomic level. The presence of goiter in parents was shown to be statistically associated with its occurrence in the children.

‣ Influence of soil texture in the recovery of Toxocara canis eggs by a flotation method

Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Sinhorini, Idércio Luis; Ogassawara, Saemi
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 269-274
Português
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In epidemiological surveys, the evaluation of soil contamination by Toxocara canis eggs requires a quick and easy method for the isolation of parasite eggs from soil samples. The efficiency of flotation methods is influenced by sample size, soil texture, degree of soil contamination, pretreatment, flotation solutions and time of flotation. This investigation was designed to evaluate the influence of soil texture in the recovery of T. canis eggs with the centrifugal flotation technique of Dada (Dada, B.J.O., 1979. A new technique for the recovery of Toxocara eggs from soil. J. Helminthol., 53: 141-144). Four types of soil (clay silt, sandy, silty clay and sand) were artificially contaminated with T. canis eggs (200 eggs per gram). Zinc sulphate (specific gravity 1.20) and sodium dichromate (specific gravity 1.35) were used as flotation solutions. Twenty replicated examinations were performed for each type of soil and flotation solution. There was a statistically significant difference in the results depending on soil type. The highest recovery percentages were observed in soils rich in sand (62.5% for sand and 38.0% for sandy soil). Differences were also observed with different flotation solutions. Sodium dichromate solution was more efficient for recovering T. canis eggs...

‣ Mortalidade e prognóstico específico em pacientes com insuficiência renal aguda

Balbi, André Luis; Gabriel, Daniela Ponce; Barsante, Renata Cristina; Caramori, Jacqueline Teixeira; Martin, Luis Cuadrado; Barretti, Pasqual
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 318-322
Português
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A variety of systems of risk factor stratification have been studied to predict the outcome in acute renal failure (ARF). OBJECTIVES. Assess and compare mortality and the Acute Tubular Necrosis Individual Severity Score (ATN-ISS) in patients with AFR treated in a university hospital. METHODS. A prospective analysis was made of 103 patients with a diagnosis of intrinsic ARF admitted to the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP. Patients were followed up until recovery of renal function or death. The Score ATN-ISS was recorded during the first hours of the assessment by a nephrologist. Results were reported as median or mean ± SD, with statistical significance of p<0.05. RESULTS. Fifty-one percent of patients were male with a mean age of 58 ± 36 years. Forty-four percent died in the hospital. Mortality was higher in patients from the surgical wards (52.7%) and in patients who were treated with dialysis (63.8%). The score ATN-ISS showed a good confidence level, with high discriminatory power (area under the curve of 0.95) and good accuracy. CONCLUSIONS. Mortality in this study was comparable to that found in literature. The ATN-ISS was shown to be a prognostic index with a high confidence level that could be routinely applied by nephrologists to patients with AFR.

‣ Efficacy of ultrasonic, electric and manual toothbrushes in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

Costa, Mauricio Ribeiro; Silva, Vanessa Camila; Miqui, Miriam Nakatani; Sakima, Tatsuko; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Cirelli, Joni Augusto
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 361-366
Português
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Objective: This crossover study compared the efficacy of an ultrasonic toothbrush for the reduction of plaque, gingival inflammation, and levels of Streptococcus mutans, in relation to an electric and a manual toothbrush. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with orthodontic appliances were divided into three groups. All patients were evaluated by a periodontist and samples of saliva were collected for quantification of S mutans. The patients received their first brushes with appropriate instructions. For each crossover leg, patients used each toothbrush for a period of 30 days. At the end of each washout period, participants received a periodontal evaluation and new samples of saliva were collected. After 15 days of using their own toothbrushes, patients received the next toothbrushes in the experimental sequence. Results: The ultrasonic brush group presented significant improvement in the reduction of visible plaque on the buccal surfaces (-6.36%, P = .007). The counts of S mutans decreased in the electric (2.04 × 105 to 1.36 × 105 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) and ultrasonic (2.98 × 105 to 1.84 × 105 CFU/mL) groups. There were no statistical differences among the three brushes for the clinical and microbiological parameters evaluated. Conclusions: This study did not demonstrate that the ultrasonic toothbrush was better in reducing gingival inflammation in adolescent orthodontic patients...