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‣ Variables, variability, and variations research: implications for medical informatics.

Holzemer, W L; Reilly, C A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 Português
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Variations research is one important strategy in the quality management movement designed to improve the quality of health care and to control costs. Information systems are being utilized in variations research to provide an array of potential variables, to provide measures of the variability inherent in these variables, and to assist with the study of the linkages of patient and provider characteristics with interventions and outcomes. This article presents a systems model of inputs, processes, and outcomes with explication of factors related to client, provider, and setting as a heuristic strategy for variable specification. The implications of variable specification, the design and measurement of variability, and the key issue of control in variations research are linked with a discussion of the implications for medical informatics.

‣ The roles of race and socioeconomic factors in health services research.

Schulman, K A; Rubenstein, L E; Chesley, F D; Eisenberg, J M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1995 Português
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For decades data have been collected comparing health care in racial and ethnic groups. The use of such groups in health services research assumes that standard, reliable, and valid definitions of race and ethnicity exist and that these definitions are used consistently. In fact, race is a term often used, but ill defined. It can incorporate biological, social, and cultural characteristics of patients and can refer to both genetic and behavioral traits. Various investigators have reported differences between racial and ethnic groups in health status, disease manifestation and outcome, resource utilization, and health care access, often specifying neither a definition of race nor the measurement they used to classify their study populations. The role of race as an explanatory variable in health services research requires greater scrutiny than many researchers currently provide. Many studies use race as a proxy for other socioeconomic factors not collected in the research effort. This article explores the ambiguities about race as an explanatory variable that render such research difficult to interpret. We suggest that health services researchers focus on nonracial socioeconomic characteristics that might be both more informative and more useful in guiding policy formation.

‣ Fish bioassay and toxin induction experiments for research on Pfiesteria piscicida and other toxic dinoflagellates: workshop summary.

Rogers, H S; Backer, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 Português
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In late January 2000, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sponsored a workshop to discuss standardizing the laboratory materials and methods used for in vivo fish bioassays and toxin induction experiments. Representatives from six laboratories using these assays to conduct research on Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder, similar organisms (i.e., members of the toxic Pfiesteria complex) or their toxins were invited to attend. The workshop objectives were a) to discuss the need for uniform quality assurance for fish bioassays and toxin induction, b) to encourage publishing the relevant materials and methods in the literature, c) to foster communication among the laboratories conducting this work, and d) to respond to requests from state health and environmental protection agencies for guidance in interpreting the results from fish bioassays conducted in different laboratories. To facilitate discussion at the workshop, researchers conducting Pfiesteria research completed a detailed questionnaire in advance about fish bioassays and toxin production assays. Workshop participants discussed experimental factors that might influence the reproducibility or interpretation of fish bioassays and toxin-induction experiments. The experimental factors were categorized into physical...

‣ Indicators of ocean health and human health: developing a research and monitoring framework.

Knap, Anthony; Dewailly, Eric; Furgal, Chris; Galvin, Jennifer; Baden, Dan; Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael; Duguay, Linda; Fleming, Lora E; Ford, Tim; Moser, Fredricka; Owen, Richard; Suk, William A; Unluata, Umit
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2002 Português
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We need to critically assess the present quality of the marine ecosystem, especially the connection between ecosystem change and threats to human health. In this article we review the current state of indicators to link changes in marine organisms with eventual effects to human health, identify research opportunities in the use of indicators of ocean and human health, and discuss how to establish collaborations between national and international governmental and private sector groups. We present a synthesis of the present state of understanding of the connection between ocean health and human health, a discussion of areas where resources are required, and a discussion of critical research needs and a template for future work in this field. To understand fully the interactions between ocean health and human health, programs should be organized around a "models-based" approach focusing on critical themes and attributes of marine environmental and public health risks. Given the extent and complex nature of ocean and human health issues, a program networking across geographic and disciplinary boundaries is essential. The overall goal of this approach would be the early detection of potential marine-based contaminants, the protection of marine ecosystems...

‣ The origin, fate, and health effects of combustion by-products: a research framework.

Avakian, Maureen D; Dellinger, Barry; Fiedler, Heidelore; Gullet, Brian; Koshland, Catherine; Marklund, Stellan; Oberdörster, Günter; Safe, Stephen; Sarofim, Adel; Smith, Kirk R; Schwartz, David; Suk, William A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2002 Português
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Incomplete combustion processes can emit organic pollutants, metals, and fine particles. Combustion by-products represent global human and environmental health challenges that are relevant not only in heavily industrialized nations, but also in developing nations where up to 90% of rural households rely on unprocessed biomass fuels for cooking, warmth, and light. These issues were addressed at the Seventh International Congress on Combustion By-Products, which convened 4-6 June 2001 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. This congress included a diverse group of multidisciplinary researchers and practitioners who discussed recent developments and future goals in the control of combustion by-products and their effects of exposure on human and ecologic health. Participants recommended that interdisciplinary, coordinated research efforts should be focused to capitalize on the important potential synergisms between efforts to reduce the adverse human health effects linked to exposures to combustion by-products and broader efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save energy through efficiency. In this article we summarize the principal findings and recommendations for research focus and direction.

‣ Ethical issues in environmental health research.

Sharp, Richard R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2003 Português
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Environmental health research encompasses a wide range of investigational topics, study designs, and empirical methodologies. As that arm of public health research concerned with understanding the health effects of the many environments in which humans live and work, the field is intimately connected with social concerns about environmental quality and disparities of power and privilege that place differential burdens upon members of underserved communities. Environmental health researchers thus engage many ethical and social issues in the work they do. These issues relate to the choice of research topics to study, the methods employed to examine these topics, the communication of research findings to the public, and the involvement of scientific experts in the shaping of environmental policy and governmental regulation. These and other topics are reviewed in this article. These ethical, legal, and social issues are becoming increasingly more complex as new genetic and molecular techniques are used to study environmental toxicants and their potential influence on human and ecologic health.

‣ ArrayTrack--supporting toxicogenomic research at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration National Center for Toxicological Research.

Tong, Weida; Cao, Xiaoxi; Harris, Stephen; Sun, Hongmei; Fang, Hong; Fuscoe, James; Harris, Angela; Hong, Huixiao; Xie, Qian; Perkins, Roger; Shi, Leming; Casciano, Dan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2003 Português
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The mapping of the human genome and the determination of corresponding gene functions, pathways, and biological mechanisms are driving the emergence of the new research fields of toxicogenomics and systems toxicology. Many technological advances such as microarrays are enabling this paradigm shift that indicates an unprecedented advancement in the methods of understanding the expression of toxicity at the molecular level. At the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, core facilities for genomic, proteomic, and metabonomic technologies have been established that use standardized experimental procedures to support centerwide toxicogenomic research. Collectively, these facilities are continuously producing an unprecedented volume of data. NCTR plans to develop a toxicoinformatics integrated system (TIS) for the purpose of fully integrating genomic, proteomic, and metabonomic data with the data in public repositories as well as conventional (Italic)in vitro(/Italic) and (Italic)in vivo(/Italic) toxicology data. The TIS will enable data curation in accordance with standard ontology and provide or interface a rich collection of tools for data analysis and knowledge mining. In this article the design...

‣ Implications of the genetics revolution for health services research: pharmacogenomics and improvements in drug therapy.

Phillips, K A; Veenstra, D L; Sadee, W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To review the societal and economic implications of the use of genetic information to individualize drug therapies. Although studies have begun to address the ethical issues raised by the use of genetic information , few have examined the implications of pharmacogenomics f rom the perspective of health services research. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We propose a research agenda for health services research in three areas: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics; (2) to evaluate the effect of pharmacogenomics from the perspective of patients, providers, insurers, industry, and government ; and (3) to evaluate the ethical and societal implications of pharmacogenomics. Throughout the article we use the example of HIV genotyping as an illustration of how genetic technology is disseminated and used. CONCLUSION: More research is needed on the societal and economic implications of pharmacogenomics to inform the clinical and policy decisions about its use that will be increasingly urgent in the future.

‣ Problems and priorities in epidemiologic research on human health effects related to wiring code and electric and magnetic fields.

Siemiatycki, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1993 Português
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Because of a reported excess of cancers among children living near power lines, there is some concern that electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) induced by electric power sources may affect human health, and this possibility has provoked considerable controversy. The scientific question of whether there are such health effects is far from resolved. Building upon a set of detailed reviews of the available evidence, this paper proposes research priorities and places particular emphasis on epidemiologic research. The most pressing need is to verify the validity of the claim that childhood cancer risk is affected by the type of wiring code in the vicinity of the household. More useful work can be done to verify this in the areas in which such studies have already been carried out, and additional studies should be done elsewhere. Methodological investigation of the interrelationships among different measures and proxies for EMF is needed, and this could feed back to influence the type of EMF measures used in epidemiologic studies. Studies of cancer among adults in relation to EMFs in the work place are needed. Of lower priority are studies of adverse reproductive outcomes in relation to parental EMF exposure and studies of the neurobehavioral impact of chronic EMF exposure. This article also discusses the structural impediments of conducting environmental epidemiology research and argues that bold...

‣ Research for health: principles, perspectives and strategies. Advisory Committee on Health Research.

Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1994 Português
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This article describes the development of a health research strategy for the control of diseases associated with poverty, tropical diseases (infectious as well as noncommunicable), diseases associated with affluence, the treatment and care of the sick, and the delivery of health service. Since socioeconomic, technological and behavioural changes determine the process of health development, the severe constraints in financial, material and human resources must be addressed by promoting better methods of policy analysis, planning and research. Countries with very limited resources should give higher priority to research and services in nutrition, immunization and sanitation.

‣ Contribution of Case Reports to Brain Metastases Research: Systematic Review and Analysis of Pattern of Citation

Nieder, Carsten; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/03/2012 Português
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Research activity related to different aspects of prevention, prediction, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases has increased during recent years. One of the major databases (Scopus) contains 942 scientific articles that were published during the 5-year time period 2006–2010. Of these, 195 (21%) reported on single patient cases and 12 (1%) were reports of 2 cases. Little is known about their influence on advancement of the field or scientific merits. Do brain metastases case reports attract attention and provide stimuli for further research or do they go largely unrecognized? Different measures of impact, visibility and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For the present evaluation, article citation rate was chosen. The median number of citations overall and stratified by year of publication was 0, except for the year 2006 when it was 2. As compared to other articles, case reports remained more often without citation (p<0.05 except for 2006 data). All case reports with 10 or more citations (n = 6) reported on newly introduced anticancer drugs, which commonly are prescribed to treat extracranial metastases, and the responses observed in single patients with brain metastases. Average annual numbers of citations were also calculated. The articles with most citations per year were the same six case reports mentioned above (the only ones that obtained more than 2.0 citations per year). Citations appeared to gradually increase during the first two years after publication but remained on a generally low or modest level. It cannot be excluded that case reports without citation provide interesting information to some clinicians or researchers. Apparently...

‣ Trends in Ecological Research during the Last Three Decades – A Systematic Review

Carmel, Yohay; Kent, Rafi; Bar-Massada, Avi; Blank, Lior; Liberzon, Jonathan; Nezer, Oded; Sapir, Gill; Federman, Roy
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/04/2013 Português
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It is thought that the science of ecology has experienced conceptual shifts in recent decades, chiefly from viewing nature as static and balanced to a conception of constantly changing, unpredictable, complex ecosystems. Here, we ask if these changes are reflected in actual ecological research over the last 30 years. We surveyed 750 articles from the entire pool of ecological literature and 750 articles from eight leading journals. Each article was characterized according to its type, ecological domain, and applicability, and major topics. We found that, in contrast to its common image, ecology is still mostly a study of single species (70% of the studies); while ecosystem and community studies together comprise only a quarter of ecological research. Ecological science is somewhat conservative in its topics of research (about a third of all topics changed significantly through time), as well as in its basic methodologies and approaches. However, the growing proportion of problem-solving studies (from 9% in the 1980s to 20% in the 2000 s) may represent a major transition in ecological science in the long run.

‣ Social Media Release Increases Dissemination of Original Articles in the Clinical Pain Sciences

Allen, Heidi G.; Stanton, Tasha R.; Di Pietro, Flavia; Moseley, G. Lorimer
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/07/2013 Português
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A barrier to dissemination of research is that it depends on the end-user searching for or ‘pulling’ relevant knowledge from the literature base. Social media instead ‘pushes’ relevant knowledge straight to the end-user, via blogs and sites such as Facebook and Twitter. That social media is very effective at improving dissemination seems well accepted, but, remarkably, there is no evidence to support this claim. We aimed to quantify the impact of social media release on views and downloads of articles in the clinical pain sciences. Sixteen PLOS ONE articles were blogged and released via Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and ResearchBlogging.org on one of two randomly selected dates. The other date served as a control. The primary outcomes were the rate of HTML views and PDF downloads of the article, over a seven-day period. The critical result was an increase in both outcome variables in the week after the blog post and social media release. The mean ± SD rate of HTML views in the week after the social media release was 18±18 per day, whereas the rate during the other three weeks was no more than 6±3 per day. The mean ± SD rate of PDF downloads in the week after the social media release was 4±4 per day, whereas the rate during the other three weeks was less than 1±1 per day (p<0.05 for all comparisons). However...

‣ The Invisible Prevalence of Citizen Science in Global Research: Migratory Birds and Climate Change

Cooper, Caren B.; Shirk, Jennifer; Zuckerberg, Benjamin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/09/2014 Português
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Citizen science is a research practice that relies on public contributions of data. The strong recognition of its educational value combined with the need for novel methods to handle subsequent large and complex data sets raises the question: Is citizen science effective at science? A quantitative assessment of the contributions of citizen science for its core purpose – scientific research – is lacking. We examined the contribution of citizen science to a review paper by ornithologists in which they formulated ten central claims about the impact of climate change on avian migration. Citizen science was never explicitly mentioned in the review article. For each of the claims, these ornithologists scored their opinions about the amount of research effort invested in each claim and how strongly the claim was supported by evidence. This allowed us to also determine whether their trust in claims was, unwittingly or not, related to the degree to which the claims relied primarily on data generated by citizen scientists. We found that papers based on citizen science constituted between 24 and 77% of the references backing each claim, with no evidence of a mistrust of claims that relied heavily on citizen-science data. We reveal that many of these papers may not easily be recognized as drawing upon volunteer contributions...

‣ CollaborationViz: Interactive Visual Exploration of Biomedical Research Collaboration Networks

Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Hudson, Teresa J.; Eswaran, Hari; Brochhausen, Mathias; Hanna, Josh; Hogan, William R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/11/2014 Português
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Social network analysis (SNA) helps us understand patterns of interaction between social entities. A number of SNA studies have shed light on the characteristics of research collaboration networks (RCNs). Especially, in the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) community, SNA provides us a set of effective tools to quantitatively assess research collaborations and the impact of CTSA. However, descriptive network statistics are difficult for non-experts to understand. In this article, we present our experiences of building meaningful network visualizations to facilitate a series of visual analysis tasks. The basis of our design is multidimensional, visual aggregation of network dynamics. The resulting visualizations can help uncover hidden structures in the networks, elicit new observations of the network dynamics, compare different investigators and investigator groups, determine critical factors to the network evolution, and help direct further analyses. We applied our visualization techniques to explore the biomedical RCNs at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences – a CTSA institution. And, we created CollaborationViz, an open-source visual analytical tool to help network researchers and administration apprehend the network dynamics of research collaborations through interactive visualization.

‣ Does Interdisciplinary Research Lead to Higher Citation Impact? The Different Effect of Proximal and Distal Interdisciplinarity

Yegros-Yegros, Alfredo; Rafols, Ismael; D’Este, Pablo
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2015 Português
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This article analyses the effect of degree of interdisciplinarity on the citation impact of individual publications for four different scientific fields. We operationalise interdisciplinarity as disciplinary diversity in the references of a publication, and rather than treating interdisciplinarity as a monodimensional property, we investigate the separate effect of different aspects of diversity on citation impact: i.e. variety, balance and disparity. We use a Tobit regression model to examine the effect of these properties of interdisciplinarity on citation impact, controlling for a range of variables associated with the characteristics of publications. We find that variety has a positive effect on impact, whereas balance and disparity have a negative effect. Our results further qualify the separate effect of these three aspects of diversity by pointing out that all three dimensions of interdisciplinarity display a curvilinear (inverted U-shape) relationship with citation impact. These findings can be interpreted in two different ways. On the one hand, they are consistent with the view that, while combining multiple fields has a positive effect in knowledge creation, successful research is better achieved through research efforts that draw on a relatively proximal range of fields...

‣ Primary Care Research Team Assessment (PCRTA): development and evaluation.

Carter, Yvonne H.; Shaw, Sara; Macfarlane, Fraser
Fonte: Royal College of General Practitioners Publicador: Royal College of General Practitioners
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 Português
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BACKGROUND: Since the early 1990s the United Kingdom (UK) Department of Health has explicitly promoted a research and development (R&D) strategy for the National Health Service (NHS). General practitioners (GPs) and other members of the primary care team are in a unique position to undertake research activity that will complement and inform the research undertaken by basic scientists and hospital-based colleagues and lead directly to a better evidence base for decision making by primary care professionals. Opportunities to engage in R&D in primary care are growing and the scope for those wishing to become involved is finally widening. Infrastructure funding for research-active practices and the establishment of a range of support networks have helped to improve the research capacity and blur some of the boundaries between academic departments and clinical practice. This is leading to a supportive environment for primary care research. There is thus a need to develop and validate nationally accepted quality standards and accreditation of performance to ensure that funders, collaborators and primary care professionals can deliver high quality primary care research. Several strategies have been described in national policy documents in order to achieve an improvement in teaching and clinical care...

‣ Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles

Liu, Rey-Long
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/10/2015 Português
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Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling) that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references) in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no) articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations.

‣ Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

Brown, Phil
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2003 Português
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Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices.

‣ Delivering HIV services to vulnerable populations: an evaluation and research agenda.

McKinney, Martha M.; Marconi, Katherine M.; Cleary, Paul D.; Kates, Jennifer; Young, Steven R.; O'Neill, Joseph F.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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In May 2000, the HIV/AIDS Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration convened HIV experts from throughout the country to identify new and emerging areas of research needed to guide policy and programmatic decisions on HIV service delivery to vulnerable populations. This article describes the process used to develop an evaluation/research agenda, discusses key findings and recommendations of the conference, and proposes a set of principles to guide the design and conduct of future investigations. Conference participants identified nine major evaluation/research themes that span the continuum of HIV behavioral prevention services and treatment. They recommended focusing future research on questions relevant to populations experiencing rapid rates of increase in HIV infection (for example, women, people of color, and adolescents and young adults) and considering explanatory factors at multiple levels of analysis (individual, clinician, organization, service delivery system, and environment).