Página 3 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.159 segundos

‣ Neonatal Testicular Torsion; a Review Article

Riaz-Ul-haq, Muhammad; Mahdi, Diaa Eldin Abdelhamid; Elhassan, Elbagir Uthman
Fonte: Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2012 Português
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Neonatal testicular torsion, also known as perinatal testicular torsion is a subject of debate among surgeons. Neonatal testicular torsion either intrauterine or postnatal results into extravaginal torsion which is a different entity than intravaginal type but has the same devastating consequences if not diagnosed and managed well in time. Testicular torsion results into acute ischemia with its resultant sequelae such as abnormality of testicular function and fertility. Urgent surgical exploration and fixation of the other testis are the key points in the management. General anesthesia is not a contraindication for exploration as thought before. Diagnosis and controversies on management of testicular torsion are discussed in this review.

‣ Vital pulp therapy using calcium-enriched mixture: An evidence-based review

Asgary, Saeed; Ahmadyar, Maryam
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Worldwide, casecontrol studies have revealed that the treatment outcomes of root canal therapy (RCT) are generally favorable; however, the overall epidemiological success rate of RCT in the general population is relatively low. On the other hand, vitality of dental pulp is a key factor in the long-term prognosis of permanent teeth; in recent years, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has received significant consideration as it has been revealed that the inflamed pulp has the potential to heal. In this review article, the current best evidence with regard to VPT using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement in human permanent/primary teeth is discussed. A strategy based on a search using keywords for CEM cement as well as VPT was applied.

‣ Complex Thoracoscopic Pulmonary Resections for the Treatment of Lung Cancer—A Review

Battoo, Athar; Demmy, Todd L.; Yendamuri, Sai
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Minimally invasive surgery is increasingly being used in cancer resections. Benefits attributed to minimally invasive surgery include improved functional and oncological outcomes. In keeping with this trend, thoracoscopic lung resections are gaining acceptance amongst thoracic oncologic surgeons. As surgeons become more comfortable with these approaches, more complex resections are being performed through these techniques. This review article summarizes the current state of the art with respect to complex thoracoscopic resections.

‣ A review of glass-ionomers: From conventional glass-ionomer to bioactive glass-ionomer

Khoroushi, Maryam; Keshani, Fateme
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Materials used in the body, especially the materials used in various oral cavity regions should be stable and passive without any interactions with the body tissues or fluids. Dental amalgam, composite resins and dental cements are the materials of choice with such properties. The first attempts to produce active materials, which could interact with the human body tissues and fluids were prompted by the concept that fluoride-releasing materials exert useful effects in the body. The concept of using the “smart” materials in dentistry has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Conventional glass-ionomer (GI) cements have a large number of applications in dentistry. They are biocompatible with the dental pulp to some extent. GI is predominantly used as cements in dentistry; however, they have some disadvantages, the most important of which is lack of adequate strength and toughness. In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of the conventional GI, resin-modified glass-ionomers have been marketed, with hydrophilic monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylated (HEMA). Some recent studies have evaluated GI with bioactive glass in its structure to validate the claims that such a combination will improve tooth bioactivity...

‣ Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the new AEDs: A review article

Ghaffarpour, Majid; Pakdaman, Hossein; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Omrani, Hossein-Ali Ghelichnia; Ghabaee, Mojdeh; Zamani, Babak; Bahrami, Parviz; Siroos, Bahaadin
Fonte: Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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The new-AEDs, whose developments were motivated following the discovery of the valproate and its marketing in the U.S in 1978, have presented more therapeutic options. There are approximately twenty four FDA-approved antiepileptic drugs for use in patients with epilepsy, five of which were identified and have come on to the market between 2009 and 2012. The new-AEDs are of interest, not due to their efficacy, but rather owing to better tolerance, favorable pharmacokinetic profile, fewer interactions, and in some instances, lesser protein binding. No standard AED or those in developing have all properties of an ideal antiepileptic drug, thus to achieve desirable outcome, physicians should be aware of pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of drugs. This review describes briefly the major features of the new AEDs.

‣ Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features

Mohebali, Mehdi
Fonte: Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasitological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and genotype/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ≥ 1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (≥1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized patients with DAT positive (≥1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%)...

‣ The protective effects of breastfeeding on chronic non-communicable diseases in adulthood: A review of evidence

Kelishadi, Roya; Farajian, Sanam
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/01/2014 Português
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Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, etc., are the major causes of mortality in the world, notably in low- and middle-income countries. A growing body of evidence suggests that NCDs have a complex etiology resulting from the interaction of genetic factors, gender, age, ethnicity, and the environmental factors. It is well-documented that chronic diseases in adulthood origins in early life. In recent years, much attention has been focused on primordial and primary prevention of NCD risk factors. There are many biological and epidemiological studies on beneficial effects of breastfeeding during infancy on chronic diseases in adulthood, particularly on hypertension, obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular diseases. This review article aims to summarize the current literature on the long-term effects of breastfeeding on prevention of NCDs and their risk factors.

‣ Periodontal Dressing: A Review Article

Baghani, Zahra; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi
Fonte: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properties of dressings are directly related to their dimensional changes and adhesion properties. Their biocompatibility and therapeutic effect are among the other factors evaluated in the literature. Chlorhexidine is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in studies. In general, when comparing the advantages with the disadvantages, application of periodontal dressing seems to be beneficial. Numerous factors are involved in selection of an optimal dressing such as surgeon’s intention, required time for the dressing to remain on the surgery site and its dimensional changes.

‣ Physico-mechanical properties and prosthodontic applications of Co-Cr dental alloys: a review of the literature

Al Jabbari, Youssef S.
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Prosthodontics Publicador: The Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cobalt-Chromium (Co-Cr) alloys are classified as predominantly base-metal alloys and are widely known for their biomedical applications in the orthopedic and dental fields. In dentistry, Co-Cr alloys are commonly used for the fabrication of metallic frameworks of removable partial dentures and recently have been used as metallic substructures for the fabrication of porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations and implant frameworks. The increased worldwide interest in utilizing Co-Cr alloys for dental applications is related to their low cost and adequate physico-mechanical properties. Additionally, among base-metal alloys, Co-Cr alloys are used more frequently in many countries to replace Nickel-Chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys. This is mainly due to the increased concern regarding the toxic effects of Ni on the human body when alloys containing Ni are exposed to the oral cavity. This review article describes dental applications, metallurgical characterization, and physico-mechanical properties of Co-Cr alloys and also addresses their clinical and laboratory behavior in relation to those properties.

‣ Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Associated Vascular Complications: A Literature Review

Karbasi-Afshar, Reza
Fonte: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2014 Português
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Interferon (IFN)-based therapy, the cornerstone for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, is generally considered to be the single most effective treatment strategy for this infection. Although most adverse effects of IFN therapy respond very well to the cessation of this drug, there are reports of serious irreversible adverse effects. This review article evaluates the adverse effects of IFN therapy in HCV-infected patients. We have undertaken an extensive search for articles regarding IFN and pegylated-IFN (PEG-IFN) therapy and their vascular complications using multiple sources that include PubMed, publishers’ websites, and Google Scholar. The prevalence of ocular disorders in the early period (first 8 weeks) after IFN administration was high with over half of the patients experiencing these adverse effects. Several authors strongly propose screening programs for retinopathy in the early period after IFN administration. Pulmonary hypertension due to IFN therapy is a serious side effect due to its irreversible nature in most patients. Patients who develop signs of acute abdomen up to months after IFN administration should be rapidly assessed for potential adverse effects of IFN. The literature suggests a broad spectrum of vascular injuries to different organs in humans as adverse effects of IFN therapy in HCV-infected patients.

‣ Platelet Function Tests: A Review of Progresses in Clinical Application

Choi, Jae-Lim; Li, Shuhua; Han, Jin-Yeong
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The major goal of traditional platelet function tests has been to screen and diagnose patients who present with bleeding problems. However, as the central role of platelets implicated in the etiology of arterial thrombotic diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke became widely known, platelet function tests are now being promoted to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs and also to potentially identify patients at increased risk of thrombosis. Beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, an increasing number of studies indicate that platelets play an integral role in intercellular communication, are mediators of inflammation, and have immunomodulatory activity. As new potential biomarkers and technologies arrive at the horizon, platelet functions testing appears to take on a new aspect. This review article discusses currently available clinical application of platelet function tests, placing emphasis on essential characteristics.

‣ Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Using Optical Fiber Sensing Technology: A Comprehensive Review

Ye, X. W.; Su, Y. H.; Han, J. P.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In the last two decades, a significant number of innovative sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors have been exploited in the engineering community due to their inherent distinctive advantages such as small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and corrosion, and embedding capability. A lot of optical fiber sensor-based monitoring systems have been developed for continuous measurement and real-time assessment of diversified engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, pipelines, wind turbines, railway infrastructure, and geotechnical structures. The purpose of this review article is devoted to presenting a summary of the basic principles of various optical fiber sensors, innovation in sensing and computational methodologies, development of novel optical fiber sensors, and the practical application status of the optical fiber sensing technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure.

‣ A Review of Bioactive Release from Nerve Conduits as a Neurotherapeutic Strategy for Neuronal Growth in Peripheral Nerve Injury

Ramburrun, Poornima; Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E.; Bijukumar, Divya; du Toit, Lisa C.; Pillay, Viness
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Peripheral nerve regeneration strategies employ the use of polymeric engineered nerve conduits encompassed with components of a delivery system. This allows for the controlled and sustained release of neurotrophic growth factors for the enhancement of the innate regenerative capacity of the injured nerves. This review article focuses on the delivery of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) and the importance of the parameters that control release kinetics in the delivery of optimal quantities of NTFs for improved therapeutic effect and prevention of dose dumping. Studies utilizing various controlled-release strategies, in attempt to obtain ideal release kinetics, have been reviewed in this paper. Release strategies discussed include affinity-based models, crosslinking techniques, and layer-by-layer technologies. Currently available synthetic hollow nerve conduits, an alternative to the nerve autografts, have proven to be successful in the bridging and regeneration of primarily the short transected nerve gaps in several patient cases. However, current research emphasizes on the development of more advanced nerve conduits able to simulate the effectiveness of the autograft which includes, in particular, the ability to deliver growth factors.

‣ Prevention and Management of Mucositis in Patients with Cancer: a Review Article

Owlia, Fatemeh; Kazemeini, Seid kazem; Gholami, Neda
Fonte: Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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After chemo/radiation therapy, mucositis is one of the most common side effects, so timely nursing care and instructed home care, significantly could decrease cost of medical care, and then increase quality of life. This review summarizes preventive and therapeutic intervention of mucositis (localized or systemic), between some of patients with cancer.

‣ Mast cells and oral pathologies: A Review

Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the oral mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various oral pathological conditions such as oral pyogenic granuloma, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological conditions.

‣ Crisis Management Aspects of Bam Catastrophic Earthquake: Review Article

Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Ziapour, Behrad
Fonte: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/03/2015 Português
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Background: Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis management during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran.

‣ Bupivacaine versus lignocaine as the choice of locall anesthetic agent for impacted third molar surgery a review

Balakrishnan, K.; Ebenezer, Vijay; Dakir, Abu; Kumar, Saravana; Prakash, D.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2015 Português
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One of the most important goal in minor surgical procedures is to achieve proper and sufficient anesthesia and analgesia preoperatively, intraoperatively and in the immediate postoperative period. Several local anesthetic agents have been cited in the literature and studied. Bupivacaine is one of the most common long-acting anesthetic agents being used for surgical removal of impacted third molars. Lignocaine is one of the commonest short-acting anesthetic agents being used for the same procedure. In this review article, the analgesic and anesthetic abilities of the bupivacaine versus lignocaine have been reviewed while surgical removal of impacted third molars.

‣ Happiness & Health: The Biological Factors- Systematic Review Article

DFARHUD, Dariush; MALMIR, Maryam; KHANAHMADI, Mohammad
Fonte: Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2014 Português
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Happiness underlying factors are considerable from two dimensions: endogenic factors (biological, cognitive, personality and ethical sub-factors) and exogenic factors (behavioral, socialcultural, economical, geographical, life events and aesthetics sub-factors). Among all endogenic factors, biological sub-factors are the significant predictors of happiness. Existence of significant differences in temperament and happiness of infants is an indicator of biological influences. Therefore, this study aimed to consider biological factors that underlie happiness. At the first, all of the biological factors in relation with happiness were searched from following websites: PubMed, Wiley& Sons, Science direct (1990–2014). Then, the articles divided into five sub-groups (genetic, brain and neurotransmitters, endocrinology and hormones, physical health, morphology and physical attractiveness). Finally, a systematic review performed based on existing information. Results of studies on genetic factors indicated an average effectiveness of genetic about 35 -50 percent on happiness. In spite of difficulties in finding special genes, several genes distributed to emotion and mood. Neuroscience studies showed that some part of brain (e.g. amygdala...

‣ A Comprehensive Review on Cyclodextrin-Based Carriers for Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Cytotoxic Anticancer Drugs

Gidwani, Bina; Vyas, Amber
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Most of the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents have poor aqueous solubility. These molecules are associated with poor physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which makes the formulation difficult. An important approach in this regard is the use of combination of cyclodextrin and nanotechnology in delivery system. This paper provides an overview of limitations associated with anticancer drugs, their complexation with cyclodextrins, loading/encapsulating the complexed drugs into carriers, and various approaches used for the delivery. The present review article aims to assess the utility of cyclodextrin-based carriers like liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticles, micelles, millirods, and siRNA for delivery of antineoplastic agents. These systems based on cyclodextrin complexation and nanotechnology will camouflage the undesirable properties of drug and lead to synergistic or additive effect. Cyclodextrin-based nanotechnology seems to provide better therapeutic effect and sustain long life of healthy and recovered cells. Still, considerable study on delivery system and administration routes of cyclodextrin-based carriers is necessary with respect to their pharmacokinetics and toxicology to substantiate their safety and efficiency. In future...

‣ Gambling Disorder during Dopamine Replacement Treatment in Parkinson's Disease: A Comprehensive Review

Pirritano, Domenico; Plastino, Massimiliano; Bosco, Domenico; Gallelli, Luca; Siniscalchi, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by “the failure to resist gambling impulses despite severe personal, family or occupational consequences”. In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), GD replaces the DSM-IV diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG). GD estimated prevalence ranges between 0.4% and 3.4% within the adult population and it seems to be more common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this population, GD recently has become more widely recognized as a possible complication of dopamine agonist (DA) therapy. This association has aroused great interest for the dramatic impact GD has on patients' quality of life. Management of PG in patients with PD could be demanding. It is based on patient and caregiver education, modification of dopamine replacement therapy, and in some cases psychoactive drug administration. In this review article, the authors provide an overview of GD pathogenesis during DA therapy as well as a summary of available treatment options.