Página 3 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.053 segundos

‣ Social impact management through planning and development : Hedonic Psychology and a new approach to tourism in Zanzibar

Metzger, A. Tell (Adam Tell), 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 130 p.; 6998621 bytes; 6998430 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This study proposes a new approach to tourism planning and development based on three threads in the literature on social impact management: (1) the current approach to tourism studies; (2) the writings and activities of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture; and, (3) the emerging field of Hedonic Psychology. Combining the best efforts of each of these fields -- respectively, understanding the tensions that arise in tourist areas, developing real-world projects, and understanding the psychological drivers of wellbeing -- creates this new approach, which I call the "Hedonic Psychology Approach." To illustrate the application or this approach and to expose the process of planning and development according to this approach, salient features of the Stone Town of Zanzibar are presented, including brief descriptions of the spatial, social, political, and economic conditions of the historic area. Several recommendations are proposed, from improving open space design to maximize interactions among people, to increasing the coordination new development to institutionalize the potential benefits of the new approach.; by A. Tell Metzger.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 127-130).

‣ The urban economic development impacts of ethnic entrepreneurship : a case study of Dominican entrepreneurs in Lawrence, Massachusetts

Cheigh, Brian Chaneung
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 114 p.; 8860147 bytes; 8867419 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines the process through which ethnic entrepreneurship impacts urban economic development. In many urban places across the United States, demographic change has led to the rise of ethnic communities and the rise of ethnic entrepreneurs. In cities with sustained economic decline, the rise of ethnic entrepreneurship has been viewed with two perspectives: they are seen as symbols of continued economic decline or they are perceived as the new source of economic opportunity. Economic development practice has generally assumed the former, and in this thesis I focus on how ethnic entrepreneurship represents the latter. The thesis thus provides a strong criticism of contemporary economic development practice, and presents the case that economic development practice must embrace the role that ethnic entrepreneurship and the process of ethnic community formation plays in urban economic development. I present my arguments by first establishing a series of conceptual frameworks that show the ways in which ethnic entrepreneurship and the process of ethnic community formation influence economic activity and lead to urban economic development. I then apply the conceptual framework to a case study of Dominican entrepreneurs in the city of Lawrence...

‣ Toward a more deliberative port planning : the "vision and daring" of environmental NGOs in negotiations on the Second Maasvlakte, Port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Kelly, Sarah D. (Sarah Driscoll)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 p.; 5090378 bytes; 5094172 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines the planning process for a major expansion project in the Port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Maasvlakte 2), as a case study of mutual gains-oriented consensus building and interactive problem solving. After years of formal negotiations between a broad range of local, regional, and national stakeholders, the project planning came to an impasse when environmental organizations and port expansion proponents could not reconcile their positions on if and under what conditions the port should be extended. I posit that at this critical juncture certain environmental organizations took an uncharacteristically proactive role in altering the relationships between stakeholders in a way that was crucial to the ultimate achievement of a consensus among them. The case demonstrates how actors other than those who are formally responsible for structuring negotiations can profoundly influence them so as to promote a sense of interdependence and shared vision among even the seemingly most oppositional factions. This conclusion supports the assertion by network theorists that in the modern era effective planning and policy formulation cannot be achieved solely through government decision-making.; (cont.) Instead, they must rely upon more deliberative processes that incorporate a wider range of actors. Based upon this analysis...

‣ Standard values : change in urban arterial street design; Change in urban arterial street design

Shaw, Jeremy A. (Jeremy Andrew)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 91 p.
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The highway-building industry and highway governance was born in the minds of progressive engineers bent on ushering in a new era of efficiency, progress and modern transport. Governance and standards in California heavily influenced other state highway organizations. This research traces the evolution of values in urban arterial street design and standards in the United States and California. For nearly 100 years, the design criteria of geometric street standards have been based on increasing automobility, as if without end. Since the 1960s, liability concerns have guided significant changes in design standards, mostly based on passive driver safety design. Since then, legal action has given rise to bicycle and ADA-based design standards. Right-of-way constraints have lowered minimum widths and "flexibility" has impacted design philosophy and process. However, these latter forces are not driving fundamental or enforceable change to design standards. Change to mandatory standards remains driven by automobility and liability concerns. Despite conventional standards, unconventional values manifest in the design and planning of streets.; (cont.) Using the case of El Camino Real in Palo Alto, this research explores the difficulty of implementing unconventional street design through the process of changing standards. It then draws on the case of Santa Monica Boulevard in Los Angeles to demonstrate that individual projects under local jurisdiction are more likely to impact the design of streets. Further research is warranted on state highway relinquishment...

‣ Rethinking urban streams : opportunities for the Nhieu Loc -- Thi Nghe River

Le, Tran N. (Tran Ngoc)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 114 p.
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In the process of rapid expansion, many cities have turned their backs on the rivers that helped form and nurture them. Due to the perceived low cost of their existing infrastructure, many rivers have become open or enclosed sewerage and drainage channels. In the past few decades, better scientific understanding and improved management practices have spurred a global river restoration and conservation movement. This thesis studies the paradigm shift from controlling urban streams as landscape features and liabilities to managing whole watersheds as ecosystems and assets. It examines examples of successful river restoration and conservation projects, and uses the lessons learned from these examples to suggest improvements to the management of the Nhieu Loc - Thi Nghe River in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The Ho Chi Minh City River Environmental Sanitation project of the late 1990s in the Nhieu Loc - Thi Nghe Basin was the first of its kind in Ho Chi Minh City. The project has been hailed as a successful urban regeneration project which exemplifies good practice. This thesis analyses the merits and missed opportunities of these projects and suggests ways to incorporate other ecological and cultural functions into the Nhieu Loc Thi Nghe River...

‣ Wildfire and development : why stronger links to land-use planning are needed to save lives, protect property, and minimize economic risk; Why stronger links to land-use planning are needed to save lives, protect property, and minimize economic risk

Mowery, Molly Anne
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 56 p.
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Exploding growth along the Colorado Front Range has expanded the wildland-urban interface-the area where homes and vegetation mix. This area, known as the WUI, is at high risk of wildfires. Wildfire risk is based on both natural conditions, such as invasive species and climate change, and human development decisions that allow continued growth in fire-prone areas. This thesis examines the approaches to wildfire risk mitigation taken by six counties along the Front Range. I argue that these mitigation approaches are effective but do not tackle important aspects of the wildfire problem, including who pays and how risks continue to increase. Counties should minimize development in the WUI by adopting strong policies that incorporate the full costs of fire protection into local jurisdictional budgets and address growth management in the WUI. This requires a greater incorporation of the land-use planning process into decisions that put people and property at risk to wildfire.; by Molly Anne Mowery.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 47-50).

‣ Between hot opposition and lukewarm support : innovation and community in land planning and development; Innovation and community in land planning and development

Mammen, Taylor G
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.
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Research on two innovative developments in the Mountain West region of the United States validates an argument by Donald Schon that effective "coordination of conflicting frames" represents a "more promising line of attack" on the numerous issues that challenge land planners and developers. This process, which Lester and Piore call "interpretation," moves beyond mere "problem setting and solving" to make space for the occurrence of novelty, or innovation. These innovative responses to problems may not guarantee ideal solutions, but stand the chance of allowing for important improvements. Specifically, the case histories suggest that the interpretive process arises because the developments' proponents, either out of necessity or by design, embraced a more open-ended planning process and commitment to broader collaboration than typically seen in land planning and development. Not surprisingly, these points confirm that novel ideas in land planning and development come about for largely the same reasons that they do in any endeavor.; (cont.) However, because of significant constraints on alternative land use patterns from both the supply and demand sides of the market, as well as from the government, the implementation of innovation in land planning and development depends upon the advocacy of a community devoted to it. Such communities are born from Lester and Piore's process of interpretation...

‣ From form to function : an evaluation of the effectiveness and potential of form-based zoning codes

Kohr, R. Todd (Robert Todd), 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 149 p.; 7012543 bytes; 12375090 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis analyzes the effectiveness and potential of form-based zoning codes, focusing on three research questions: (1) Are form-based codes a fundamentally-different alternative to Euclidean zoning, or are they simply a re-packaged version of design guidelines? (2) Do form-based codes spur better development (defined in New Urbanist terms) than traditional zoning ordinances? (3) Are form-based codes appropriate for use across the entire range of development environments (i.e., urban, suburban, and rural areas)? The thesis answers these questions through an evaluation of case studies of two notable municipal form-based codes: the Columbia Pike Special Revitalization District Form Based Code in Arlington County, Virginia, and the Form Districts incorporated within the new Land Development Code for Jefferson County, Kentucky. For each case study, the thesis analyzes the political and regulatory frameworks, socio-economic makeup, and existing development patterns of the surrounding community. It then examines and evaluates the recently-implemented form-based code, considering the ordinance's intent, composition, and development consequences. After considering both case studies, the thesis formulates conclusions and broader implications regarding the current effectiveness and future potential of form-based zoning codes. The author's research yields certain generalizable conclusions. While form-based codes are not a new idea...

‣ Casinos in context : the impacts of stand-alone casino development on urban neighborhoods

Schray, Luke J. (Luke Joseph)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 176 p.
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As the stigma of gambling fades and governments seek more sources of revenue the urban casino is becoming more common. Many of these are legalized to operate with limited competition in their state, standing alone in their respective city. while the general, diffuse impacts of casinos have been well studied, the paucity of casinos in urban settings has left a gap in the understanding of how stand-alone casinos affect their urban context. This thesis seeks to fill this gap by analyzing three of the oldest stand-alone urban casinos in the United States: Harrah's Casino in Joliet, Harrah's Casino in New Orleans, and Greektown Casino in Detroit. The thesis analyzes the impact of each of these casinos through the lens of five categories of impact: urban design of the neighborhood, city investment, real estate development, street-level commerce, and the residential community. The resulting analysis finds that casinos tend to be insular entities that do not impact much outside their own footprint. Their greatest potential for external impacts is an ability to act as an anchor for street-level commerce in a neighborhood if designed properly, a trend that has been observed for some time in resort communities with fake interior streets. The essay concludes with recommendations on how a city might engender a similar phenomenon.; by Luke J. Schray.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Rediscovering the River Bièvre : the feasibility of restoring ecological functions in an urban stream

Simpson, Jacob T., 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 100 p.; 7149567 bytes; 7161325 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The Bièvre's 36-kilometer course stretches from the southwest of Paris near Satin-Quentin-en- Yvelines through numerous towns before disappearing into the urban hydraulic network upon its approach to Paris's dense urban core. Recent plans to restore the stream and uncover its buried sections outside of the core have lead to current plans to reintroduce the stream within Paris proper. Analysis of the environmental history and recent restoration efforts leading up to current plans helps to understand the motivation for such an impressive project. Despite the omnipresence of stream restoration practice in the world today, very few projects are comparable in scope and ambition to the restoration of the Bièvre stream in Paris, France. This thesis explores the extent to which a city fixated for centuries on its domination of nature through architecture and civil engineering is prepared to go to assimilate natural processes into the urban sphere. Through analysis of comparable projects in other cities, the degree to which all urban streams are capable of becoming ecologically-functional will be examined.; by Jacob T. Simpson.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, February 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 97-100).

‣ Sustainable urban mobility : exploring the role of the built environment

Zegras, Pericles Christopher, 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 265 p.
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This dissertation examines the concept of sustainable mobility within an urban context. In essence, the research aims to answer the question, "What role does a city's built environment play, if any, in the sustainability of its mobility system?" To answer this question, I first derive an operational definition of sustainable mobility: maintaining the capability to provide non-declining accessibility in time. Providing non-declining accessibility depends on our ability to maintain net capital (natural, human-made, social) stocks, or, at least, the capability of these stocks to provide current levels of accessibility to future generations. In other words, we can think of a more sustainable mobility system as one that provides more welfare per unit of throughput, with welfare measured by accessibility and throughput measured by mobility. This is a normative framework. It can only indicate relative levels of sustainable mobility. Within a specific city, this framework can allow us to measure which parts of the city produce more sustainable mobility patterns. To employ this framework, I utilize a utility-derived accessibility measure.; (cont.) The attractiveness of a utility-based accessibility metric comes from its basis in welfare economics...

‣ The strategic use of small scale water providers : an analysis of private-sector participation in peri-urban Maputo

Bhatt, Jigar D. (Jigar Dinker)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 134 p.
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During Portuguese colonial rule biased service provision throughout the 20th century resulted in a city that today has spatially segregated water services distinguishable along racial lines. In 1975, a newly independent Mozambique lacked the financial and human resources necessary to extend its utility network to peri-urban residents. Water coverage rates and service levels could not keep up with population growth. Donor agencies and policymakers gave a great deal of attention to large scale-private sector participation but it was unable to overcome Maputo's infrastructure challenges. Today, less than 40 percent of Maputo residents have access to the utility network. Maputo's 'other private sector' - small, informal private-sector providers (SPSP) - serve over 150,000 residents with reliable standpipes and private connections and have contributed significantly to coverage goals. Sector planners knew less, however, about how they could contribute to future sector goals. This study aims to answer that question through a detailed analysis of their cost and price structures, investment profiles, and operating environment.; (cont.) We find that Maputo's SPSPs already contribute significantly to the sector's coverage, service, and financial sustainability goals. They should be viewed as an integral part of Maputo's water delivery system and not 'a problem' like much of the literature brands them. Their operations can be made more efficient...

‣ It takes a ballpark village : stadiums, coalitions, and growth in two cities

Bentley, Anna O
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 85 p.
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The typical stadium development story features a City interested in investing in its future. The City looks to a new ballpark to spark revitalization, provide new jobs and industry, and increase civic pride. Yet, academic research suggests that the City is looking in the wrong place. Economic and even social benefits rarely materialize in quantities sufficient to compensate the City's investment of money, time, and opportunities forgone. Assuming that stadium proponents and local governments behave rationally in their choice to support these projects and that academic research is accurate, a different motive may cause the continued support and interest in new stadium projects. I suggest that what motivates the local governments, interest groups, and private individuals that actively support stadium construction is a central interest in growth. This belief in growth and general development as the desired outcome, rather than specific new jobs or civic pride, may guide the stadium process. Using case study data from San Diego and St. Louis, I examine the stadium planning process, groups involved; motives for participation, and outcomes produced.; (cont.) I then compare the two cases, paying particular attention to evidence of a motivating growth agenda and a new element in these stadium projects - the 'ballpark village' development. My core analysis is prefaced by a review of relevant planning literature...

‣ The planning and analysis implications of automated data collection systems : rail transit OD matrix inference and path choice modeling examples

Zhao, Jinhua, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 124 leaves; 6267605 bytes; 6281675 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) by presenting two case studies both in the context of the Chicago Transit Authority. One study proposes an enhanced method of inferring the rail trip OD matrix from an origin-only AFC system to replace the routine passenger survey. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the pattern of a person's consecutive transit trip segments. In particular the study examines the rail-to-bus case (which is ignored by prior studies) by integrating AFC and AVL data and utilizing GIS and DBMS technologies. A software tool is developed to facilitate the implementation of the algorithm. The other study is of rail path choice, which employs the Logit and Mixed Logit models to examine revealed public transit riders' travel behavior based on the inferred OD matrix and the transit network attributes. This study is based on two data sources: the rail trip OD matrix inferred in the first case study and the attributes of alternative paths calculated from a network representation in Trans CAD. This study demonstrates that a rigorous traveler behavior analysis can be performed based on the data source from ADC systems. Both cases illustrate the potential as well as the difficulty of utilizing these systems and more importantly demonstrate that at relatively low marginal cost...

‣ Conspiracy, exile, & resistance : planning & narrative in Chelsea, Massachusetts; Conspiracy, exile, and resistance : planning & narrative in Chelsea, Massachusetts

Riesman, Jean A. (Jean Ann)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 387, [8] p.; 28662893 bytes; 28662649 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In contemporary American cities, urban planners ordinarily work amid conflict in complex institutional environments alive with rival interests, distinct identities, disparate resources, and competing claims. For planners who have responsibility for crafting a consensus out of participatory processes, interpreting these discrete voices is a critical professional task. Accurate interpretation, however, is an enormous challenge, particularly under the joint pressures of time and controversy. This dissertation identifies a methodology for examining variant strands of narrative encountered in zones of conflict and for using narrative details to inspect participants' institutional analyses of the precipitating crisis and its proposed resolution. The proposed interpretative method directs attention to narrators' figurative language for a series of interpretive cues found in the rhetorical patterns collectively known as tropes, hypothesizing that three specific tropes reflect the institutional dimensions of the conflict at hand: *the trope of conspiracy (causality and motive), *the trope of exile (invisibility and exclusion), and *the trope of resistance (authority and defiance). The three tropes correspond to aspects of power relationships: the concerted and motivated use of power...

‣ Movin' on up : mainstreaming under-serviced urban communities in Colombo, Sri Lanka; Moving on up

Wickrema, Marinne Dhakshike
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 105 leaves; 6806999 bytes; 6812900 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis offers an early look at a radical shift in Sri Lankan urban housing policy regarding slums in the capital city of Colombo. During the 1980s, the Sri Lankan government achieved widespread urban improvements by mobilizing community-led on-site slum upgrading. However, since the late 1990s, the government has attempted to persuade urban slum dwellers to relocate to nearby high-rise apartments and, thus, reclaim public land inhabited by low-income settlements in central Colombo city. This policy shift is surprising because: (1) Sri Lanka's previous 10-year slum upgrading program was described as "best practice" by donor agencies, and (2) most other countries have rejected the notion of high-rise for low-income city dwellers. Concurrent shifts in donor agency ideology and preconditions as well as overcrowded physical conditions in previously upgraded under-served settlements drove the government to seek new approaches to improve the lives of the urban poor. Moreover, beginning in the 1990s, there was a renewed perception that cities like Colombo needed to capitalize on its comparative advantages vis-à-vis the rest of the region in order to spur economic growth in the nation. The Sustainable Townships Programme (STP) and its pilot project...

‣ Nature in practice : the Olmsted firm and the rise of landscape architecture an planning, 1880-1920

Brown, Amy S., 1949-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 206 leaves; 33441521 bytes; 33441278 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This dissertation examines the development of the fields of landscape architecture and planning during the career of John Charles Olmsted. It attributes to him much of what happened in that period to standardize landscape architecture and planning practice. After Frederick Law Olmsted's retirement in 1895, the Olmsted Firm, under John Charles Olmsted, pioneered and led the development of landscape architecture and planning, working at both the large scale of national practice and at the smaller scale of office practice. The Olmsted firm is well-recognized for contributions to the profession of landscape architecture and to the development of American cities, especially in the form of innovative and influential projects in cities and towns across the United States. With the burgeoning cities and suburbs across the United States and increased opportunities for work, Olmsted Brothers grew into the largest landscape architecture and planning firm in the country. In the office, the firm's attempts to manage an often unwieldy amount of production material led to the development of an office system that forms the basis of modern design practice. On the road, John Charles Olmsted expanded the firm's national practice and became the most sought-after expert called in to help plan cities and towns across the country.; by Amy S. Brown.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Preserving Beijing's Old City : the vision and reality of historic conservation planning

Chen, Beatrice B. (Beatrice Bee Fang), 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 73 leaves; 3879747 bytes; 3879554 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In 2000, the Beijing Municipal Planning Commission drew up a conservation plan for the 25 historic areas in Beijing's Old City. The main principles for the conservation plan were as follows: 1) To preserve the traditional cityscape and hutongs, 2) To ensure the authenticity of the preserved heritage, 3) To implement preservation using a gradual and measured method, 4) To improve the infrastructure and living conditions of the local residents, and 5) To encourage public participation. The residential district of Nanchizi was one of the 25 designated historic areas. In 2001, the area became the pilot site for the implementation of the conservation plan. In June 2002, demolition crews arrived at Nanchizi ready to destroy the courtyard homes. The resulting transformation of Nanchizi reveals that the plan did not succeed in preserving the historic area. This thesis explains why this initial implementation of the historic conservation plan failed to achieve the principles of the plan and examines the causes of this disparity between the vision and the reality of conservation planning in Beijing. It argues that the cause of the disparity between vision and reality lies in the competing visions of those involved in the planning process and that certain visions are valued over others. This cause stems from the inability of planning institutions and processes to respond to the political and economic transitions of China in the past decade. The thesis concludes that in order to succeed in conservation...

‣ Conservation on the edge : landscape scale conservation at Colorado's urban-rural interface

Ericson, Peter, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 145 p.; 6754346 bytes; 6754155 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Landscape scale conservation is an emerging framework that refers to the ability to conceive, plan, finance and manage projects with significant natural conservation value while incorporating the cultural and economic activities of people situated in those landscapes. This framework is examined within the context of shifting conceptions of the mechanisms, scale, purpose and rationale behind land conservation, as well as in consideration of the concurrently evolving thought and practice of sustainable development. The goals of this exercise are twofold. First, drawing upon a literature review and three case studies this thesis seeks to introduce landscape scale conservation as an emerging field of expertise with relevance to issues of community growth and character, economic opportunity and environmental quality in Colorado. Second, this thesis seeks to glean insights, both positive and negative, from three case studies that may in turn lead to policy and/or programmatic recommendations for how landscape scale conservation efforts can achieve their ambitious goals. The central assertion of this thesis is that innovative projects consistent with landscape scale conservation are being undertaken in Colorado at the urban- rural interface. However...

‣ Effects of housing policies on intra-urban inequality in transitioning China

Xu, Yi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 leaves; 4076262 bytes; 4079323 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In the People's Republic of China, housing reform was launched in the 1980s as a component of the overall economic reform. In the 1990s, housing policies, privatization and subsidies combined, were found to contribute to over one-third of the overall inequality in urban income distribution in China. My hypothesis is that housing inequalities are reinforced in the reform years. In the first half, I discuss three types of general mechanisms: the income-regressive nature of the Housing Provident Fund, the exclusion of rural migrants from urban housing welfare, and the strengthened work-unit-based inequality in reform years. In the second half, to offer some empirical support, I conduct a case study of housing relocation in a large-scale urban redevelopment project-the Xintiandi redevelopment project in Shanghai. My main findings are that the government formed a pro-growth coalition with the private business, and middle-to-low income residents were excluded from the negotiation process. Families in difficulties and families with strong negotiation power received preferential treatment to facilitate the relocation process. In summary, market reform has preserved some features of socialism, particularly the advantages of certain urban population groups with political implications.; (cont.) At the same time...