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‣ Functional Consequences of PRODH Missense Mutations

Bender, Hans-Ulrich ; Almashanu, Shlomo ; Steel, Gary ; Hu, Chien-An ; Lin, Wei-Wen ; Willis, Alecia ; Pulver, Ann ; Valle, David 
Fonte: American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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PRODH maps to 22q11 in the region deleted in the velocardiofacial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS) and encodes proline oxidase (POX), a mitochondrial inner-membrane enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the proline degradation pathway. At least 16 PRODH missense mutations have been identified in studies of type I hyperprolinemia (HPI) and schizophrenia, 10 of which are present at polymorphic frequencies. The functional consequences of these missense mutations have been inferred by evolutionary conservation, but none have been tested directly. Here, we report the effects of these mutations on POX activity. We find that four alleles (R185Q, L289M, A455S, and A472T) result in mild (<30%), six (Q19P, A167V, R185W, D426N, V427M, and R431H) in moderate (30%–70%), and five (P406L, L441P, R453C, T466M, and Q521E) in severe (>70%) reduction in POX activity, whereas one (Q521R) increases POX activity. The POX encoded by one severe allele (T466M) shows in vitro responsiveness to high cofactor (flavin adenine dinucleotide) concentrations. Although there is limited information on plasma proline levels in individuals of known PRODH genotype, extant data suggest that severe hyperprolinemia (>800 μM) occurs in individuals with large deletions and/or PRODH missense mutations with the most-severe effect on function (L441P and R453C)...

‣ Predicted Effects of Missense Mutations on Native-State Stability Account for Phenotypic Outcome in Phenylketonuria, a Paradigm of Misfolding Diseases

Pey, Angel L. ; Stricher, François ; Serrano, Luis ; Martinez, Aurora 
Fonte: American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
493.78414%
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Most missense mutations result in misfolding of PAH, increased protein turnover, and a loss of enzymatic function. We studied the prediction of the energetic impact on PAH native-state stability of 318 PKU-associated missense mutations, using the protein-design algorithm FoldX. For the 80 mutations for which expression analyses have been performed in eukaryote systems, in most cases we found substantial overall correlations between the mutational energetic impact and both in vitro residual activities and patient metabolic phenotype. This finding confirmed that the decrease in protein stability is the main molecular pathogenic mechanism in PKU and the determinant for phenotypic outcome. Metabolic phenotypes have been shown to be better predicted than in vitro residual activities, probably because of greater stringency in the phenotyping process. Finally, all the remaining 238 PKU missense mutations compiled at the PAH locus knowledgebase (PAHdb) were analyzed, and their phenotypic outcomes were predicted on the basis of the energetic impact provided by FoldX. Residues in exons 7–9 and in interdomain regions within the subunit appear to play an important structural role and constitute hotspots for destabilization. FoldX analysis will be useful for predicting the phenotype associated with rare or new mutations detected in patients with PKU. However...