Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe

A Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) foi criada em 1948 pelo Conselho Econômico e Social das Nações Unidas com o objetivo de incentivar a cooperação econômica entre os seus membros. Ela é uma das cinco comissões econômicas da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) e possui 44 estados e oito territórios não independentes como membros.

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‣ Un perfil del déficit de vivienda en Chile, 1994

Szalachman, Raquel; Ruedi, Nora
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Resumen El diseño de una política de vivienda depende, entre otros factores, de estimaciones confiables de la magnitud de la discrepancia entre cantidad de viviendas existentes y la totalidad de la población de un país (déficit cuantitativo) y de la medida en que las viviendas existentes cumplen con ciertos estándares mínimos que permitan ofrecer una calidad de vida adecuada a sus habitantes (déficit cualitativo). Este documento utiliza información de las encuestas de hogares y es el cuarto de una serie de estudios relacionados con el tema en cinco países de la región: Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Chile y Uruguay. Estos trabajos forman parte del Proyecto Conjunto CEPAL/Gobierno de Holanda 'políticas financieras para incrementar el ahorro y promover la equidad', en torno al ahorro y el acceso a la vivienda de los estratos de menores ingresos en la región.El objetivo de este estudio es realizar estimaciones de los déficit de vivienda tanto cuantitativos como cualitativos en Chile. Para ello se construyen indicadores sobre la base de conceptos nuevos y utilizando información que no se había ocupado para este propósito con anterioridad. Posteriormente, con el objeto de poder identificar el grupo de hogares en que se concentran éstos déficit...

‣ Estudio comparativo de los costos fiscales en la transición de ocho reformas de pensiones en América Latina

Mesa-Lago, Carmelo
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Resumen Este trabajo constituye el primer estudio sistemático comparativo de los costos fiscales en la transición de las reformas previsionales que han ocurrido en ocho países de América Latina, y se divide en tres partes. La primera parte provee un marco general comparativo para evaluar las responsabilidades fiscales de la reforma previsional. A ese efecto comienza con una explicación resumida de los tres modelos generales de reforma de pensiones que han tenido lugar en la región: substitutivo (Chile, Bolivia, El Salvador y México);, paralelo (Perú y Colombia); y mixto (Argentina y Uruguay);; después describe las características principales de las ocho reformas. Seguidamente se identifican y estudian los diversos factores que determinan el costo fiscal: (1); edad de la población, antigüedad del programa y cobertura poblacional; (2); responsabilidades asumidas por el Estado durante y después de la transición (tales como déficit del programa público, bono de reconocimiento, pensión mínima, pensión de asistencia social, ajuste de las pensiones, garantías estatales, y otros gastos);; (3); las condiciones de adquisición de derechos en el programa público; y (4); las cotizaciones salariales al programa público. Todos estos factores son integrados en un cuadro sinóptico que los inte-relaciona y clasifica de manera previsional su grado o peso en cada uno de los ocho países: alto...

‣ Políticas de viviendas de interés social orientadas al mercado: experiencias recientes con subsidios a la demanda en Chile, Costa Rica y Colombia

Held, Günther
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Resumen Las reformas económicas orientadas al mercado y al sector privado que se han implantado en América Latina y el Caribe en las últimas décadas han traído consigo importantes redefiniciones en las políticas de vivienda para hogares de menores ingresos. El principal objetivo de estas modificaciones ha sido ampliar el acceso de esos hogares a la vivienda y reducir sus déficit habitacionales. Las nuevas políticas de vivienda de interés social han implicado significativos cambios en los papeles de los sectores público y privado. El sector público ha asumido por lo general como regulador del sector; como gestor del sistema de subsidios directos a la demanda de viviendas, y como agente 'subsidiario' en determinados papeles que el sector privado no está en condiciones de desempeñar adecuadamente. El sector privado ha tomado la principal responsabilidad en la construcción de viviendas de interés social, y también ha proporcionado crédito hipotecario a su financiamiento en condiciones de mercado. Por su parte, los hogares de menores ingresos han aportado ahorros al financiamiento de sus viviendas y también lotes de terrenos, materiales de construcción y mano de obra. Este artículo pasa revista a las experiencias de Chile...

‣ Reforma previsional en Brasil: la nueva regla para el cálculo de los beneficios

Pinheiro, Vinícius Carvalho; Vieira, Solange Paiva
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Resumen Brasil no escapa a la necesidad de reformar su sistema de pensiones. Diversos estudios resaltan los desequilibrios financieros de su actual sistema, pero también la enorme deuda previsional implícita con que opera. Esta deuda se traduciría en importantes responsabilidades fiscales si la reforma en Brasil optara por sustituir su actual sistema de reparto por uno de capitalización individual. Sin embargo, gran parte de las obligaciones del sistema antiguo surgen por las debilidades de su regla de cálculo de beneficios, los cuales terminan siendo extremadamente generosos y privilegian en especial a los sectores cuyos ingresos se incrementan al final de la vida laboral de los afiliados. La actual reforma al sistema contempla en forma importante la corrección de ese factor de desequilibrio financiero del sistema. Para ello se ha reformado el Régimen General de Previsión Social (RGPS), el cual cubre a los trabajadores del sector privado. La reforma introduce una serie de aspectos deseables de los regímenes de capitalización en cuentas individuales. En particular, estrecha la relación entre el valor presente de las contribuciones y beneficios, al nivel de cada afiliado. Se pretende con ello eliminar subsidios implícitos...

‣ Trade, direct investment and production policies

Vera, Cecilia; Machinea, José Luis
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; During the 1990s, the economies of Latin America and the Caribbean implemented a series of far-reaching structural reforms and took a new direction in terms of economic policy. At first, these liberalization measures were primarily focused on national financial markets and the initial opening-up of trade, but they were soon extended to include the swift liberalization of external capital flows, and some countries embarked upon intensive privatization programmes. This set of reforms generated increases in foreign trade (particularly exports) and higher foreign direct investment. However, the growth path of the region's countries is a far cry from one of intensive, steady expansion -and this document analyses possible reasons for this. This paper posits that there is no unequivocally positive link between trade openness and economic growth, given the importance of the context and how the process of liberalization is carried out. The way in which changes are processed within economies is crucial if the productive fabric is to be strengthened rather than destroyed. The link between increased exports and growth is not necessarily positive either, as it depends on the types of exports and their potential to generate linkages that boost the rest of the productive structure. Similarly...

‣ Tax structure and tax evasion in Latin America

Gómez Sabaini, Juan Carlos; Jiménez, Juan Pablo
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Incluye bibliografia; Trabalho preparado como background paper para o Estudio Económico de América Latina, 2011, da CEPAL.; When studying tax issues in Latin America, along with any regional perspective, individual country differences must be taken into account. Despite this regional diversity, the tax systems of the vast majority of Latin America's countries share certain key characteristics: the composition of their tax structures; the technical, economic, political and administrative constraints they face; current trends in tax policy and administration; and a high estimated level of tax evasion. Today's globalized world calls for the need to align tax policies and administrations with those used in other countries more advanced in the subject. A task not exempt of profound changes, in the process of improving tax administration to eradicate some of the restrictions mentioned above, it is essential to institute tax reforms that promote convergence, among the region's countries, towards a tax structure system that facilitates increased tax collections. The purpose of this paper was to study the evolution and major features of the typical level and structure of the tax burden in the region over the last 20 years, identifying important differences between the countries and highlighting the principal obstacles and constraints that most of the countries have encountered in attempting to increase their tax revenues and modify their tax structures.

‣ Revenue sharing: The case of Brazil's ICMS

Mussi, Carlos; Arroyo, José Manuel; Jiménez, Juan Pablo
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; This paper has been prepared at the request of the Dubai Economic Council, and formed part of a monograph on Revenue-Sharing Experiences around the World, edited by Ehtisham Ahmad.; The ICMS represents the most important source of revenue for the Brazilian states and one of the most important taxes in Brazil. Unlike other VATs in the world, the ICMS is not collected by the central government. The ICMS is collected by the states (the intermediate level of government), which are able to fix the internal rates; a situation that reflects the fiscal autonomy of the different levels of government in Brazil. Similarly, the direct and unconditional transfers of 25% of the ICMS collection to the municipalities (the local level) show the high degree of autonomy at the sub–national level. However, fiscal autonomy is also a source of problems, particularly the “fiscal wars” that result from the different tax rates fixed by the states and its corresponding effects on transfers. To solve this and other problems related to Brazil’s tax system various proposals have been made, but none of them has actually materialized. The objective of this paper is to characterize Brazil’s fiscal federalism and tax system, with an emphasis in the ICMS and its revenue–sharing rules. We also provide some concluding remarks regarding ICMS and its revenue sharing.

‣ Regional integration and the issue of choosing an appropriate exchange-rate regime in Latin America

Escaith, Hubert; Ghymers, Christian; Studart, Rogério
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Abstract Behind the discussion on optimal exchange-rate regimes lies the need to achieve external and internal equilibrium, and thus create an appropriate macroeconomic climate for sustained growth and development. The optimality and feasibility of exchange-rate regimes in individual Latin American and Caribbean countries must take into consideration several parameters linked to microeconomics, open macroeconomics, and political economy aspects. More recently, the discussion has incorporated the regional dimension and the possibility of joining monetary unions to the set of feasible national strategies. According to the optimal currency area criteria, the region still does not fit all the traditional conditions, but the empirical evidence presented in the document shows a more promising picture at subregional level. It is also argued that joining a monetary union or an exchange rate coordination mechanism could improve the policy-making process and foster better macroeconomic governance at both national and regional levels. In the authors' view, the optimal exchange-rate regime should be one that truly supports and is supported by the achievement and sustainability of sound and balanced domestic macroeconomic policies in a credible institutional framework. The present inclination in favour of non-cooperative corner solutions...

‣ Development cycles, political regimes and international migration: Argentina in the 20th century

Solimano, Andrés
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Versión anterior en otra fuente, ingresada en Biblioteca (94275); At the turn, of the twentieth century, a large number of Europeans -mainly Italians and Spaniards- left their homelands and headed to the distant southern shores of Argentina responding to the good economic opportunities, fertile land and a better future that were to be found in this country, at the time one of the most vibrant world economies. Around 7 million people migrated from Europe to Argentina between 1870 and 1930, although near 3 million returned back at different point in time during those years. Also foreign capital responded to the opportunities opened in Argentina and British financial institutions funded an important part of the construction of national infrastructure needed to support growth. In contrast, since the 1950s, European migration to Argentina virtually stopped and the country become in the next 30 years or so a net exporter of professionals, scientists, intellectuals that were flying economic decline, poor opportunities and authoritarian regimes. Moreover, during this period, financial capital steadily left Argentina looking for safer places. Nowadays, and in the reversed direction of a century ago, Argentineans are leaving in large numbers to Spain...

‣ Le fossé en matière d'équité: deuxième évaluation: résumé

Fonte: CEPALC Publicador: CEPALC
Português

‣ Regional interdependencies and macroeconomic crises: notes on MERCOSUR

Heymann, Daniel
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Abstract In the relatively short history of Mercosur, the countries of the region have gone through wide macroeconomic fluctuations. Macroeconomic turbulence is not a novelty for Argentina, Brazil and their partners, but it has shown different features in recent years, particularly concerning the strength and nature of regional spillovers. Despite the asymmetries in size among the economies of the area and the low starting levels of trade, the rapid growth of intra-regional commerce until the last few years, and the feeling that there was a 'mercosur component' in the international demand for each country's assets, increased the visibility of regional macroeconomic interdependencies. However, there was little movement in establishing concrete forms of macroeconomic cooperation. These notes contain brief comments about the experience of Mercosur in macroeconomic matters, and some reflections about the possibilities for concerted regional actions. The paper quickly reviews aspects of the recent behavior of the economies of the area (focusing on Argentina and Brazil) and comments on the characteristics of macroeconomic interdependencies, and analyzes circumstances that have conditioned macroeconomic coordination within the region. Finally...

‣ Trade, investment and fragmentation of the global market: is Latin America lagging behind?

Kosacoff, Bernardo; López, Andrés; Pedrazzoli, Mara
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Includes bibliography; This document has the purpose of contributing to the analysis of trends and prospects of Latin America's insertion into the new global scenario, characterized by a growing integration of national economies – through trade, investment, finance, etc. – and the increasing internationalization of the so-called global value chains (GVCs).The opportunities and challenges presented by this GVC phenomenon are different and their effects not always homogeneous. In this paper, we study their impact on the developing economies, focusing particularly on Latin America. The insertion into the GVCs may help diversify exports, create new jobs and acquire new technological capabilities in keeping with the best international practices, which will strengthen the competitiveness of lagging countries. However, distributive effects and spillovers to domestic economies – and therefore, in more general terms – their impact on development – are less clear. Admitting that we are speaking of a heterogeneous reality, the present situation proves to be “unsatisfactory”, taking into account that some countries play a minor role in the GVCs, while others, more inserted into them, show, in general terms, relatively small spillovers. Factors behind these trends are evaluated and some political lessons that help improve the region's positioning in today's global scenario are drawn. The document is structured as follows: in the second section...

‣ Development of technological capabilities in an extremely volatile economy. The industrial sector in Argentina

Kosacoff, Bernardo
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Includes bibliography; The goal of this paper is to analyse the main characteristics of Argentine manufacturing industry and the development phases (going back more than a century);, especially, to concentrate on its structural features during the 1980s and on the changes that have occurred since the Convertibility Plan was introduced – between 1991 and 2001 -, the most recent transformations between 2002 and 2006 and, finally, in the last section we analyze the possibilities of strengthening the development of competitiveness and the ways to industrial development.Argentina's industrialization started off in the late 19th century and developed alongside the dynamic agro-export model which dominated the economy until the beginning of the 1930s. At that time, industry began to occupy a favoured position in the Argentine economy through the process known as import substituting industrialization (ISI);. In fact during the second phase of ISI, which began in 1958, industrial activities became the country's engine of economic growth and job creation, and its base for capital accumulation. At the same time, industry was developing technological capabilities which were remarkable for the Latin American context at that time. However...

‣ Foreign investment in Mexico after economic reform

Máttar, Jorge; Moreno Brid, Juan Carlos; Peres Núñez, Wilson
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Introduction Since the mid-1980s the Mexican economy has undergone a process of deep economic reform designed to shift away from the more inward-oriented development model that Mexico had followed until then. The main purpose of these reforms was to privilege market mechanisms in economic activities, which meant reducing the state's direct and indirect involvement in the economy. Some of these economic reforms have been completed, some are still in process, and still others - those that encountered opposition - have not yet, or have only just, been implemented. Economic liberalization had varying effects on the behavior of economic actors and therefore on the evolution of various economic sectors and the Mexican economy as a whole. Liberalizing reforms were intended to have a strong impact on the investment process. Under the previous development model - import-substitution industrialization (ISI); the state played a fundamental role in directing investment; the reforms sought to shift that role by placing greater emphasis on domestic and foreign private investment, while at the same time orienting investment more toward exports and tradable activities and less toward non-tradable sectors. The expectation was that...

‣ México: impacto de la educación en la pobreza rural

Ordaz, Juan Luis
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Además de presentar resultados para la población nacional, en su conjunto, en este estudio se evalúa el impacto de la educación primaria y de la secundaria en el sector rural de México sobre tres niveles de pobreza oficialmente aceptados: pobreza alimentaria, de capacidades, y de patrimonio. Con base en la metodología del Propensity Score Matching, se descubre un impacto positivo de la educación en la reducción de la pobreza, con mayor alcance cuando se llega a la secundaria que sólo a la primaria.  Para el sector rural, se concluyó que cuando una persona promedio cuenta con la primaria terminada reduce su probabilidad de encontrarse en pobreza alimentaria en 7,3 puntos porcentuales, en pobreza de capacidades en 8,3, y en pobreza de patrimonio en 6,1, lo que representa una disminución en las tasas de pobreza de quienes han concluido la primaria de 16%, 15% y 8%, respectivamente. Por su parte, con la educación secundaria, se reduce la probabilidad de encontrarse en pobreza alimentaria en aproximadamente 10,1 puntos porcentuales, en pobreza de capacidades en 11,2 y en pobreza de patrimonio en 9,6. Por todo lo anterior, se observa que el efecto de la educación para los individuos que han estudiado la secundaria disminuye las tasas de pobreza aproximadamente 25% en pobreza alimentaria...

‣ The Mexican maquila industry and the environment: an overview of the issues

Strömberg, Per
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; The Mexico-United States border region comprises one of the most dynamic and complex industrial areas in the world. The region is characterized by high population growth and increasing urbanization and industrialization, all of which is taking place in a context of rapid political and economic change (Rincón, 2000). The Mexico-located maquila in-bond industry is a key player in this development. In the 1993-98 period, the maquilas accounted for 41.5% of the average Mexican export value (Dussel, 2000), and in the 1994-2000 period its share of foreign direct investment grew from 6% to 21.4%. However, while industrial development is desirable as a generator of material wealth (e.g. provision of employment and tax base), it also causes negative effects such as depletion of natural capital (e.g. consumption of environmental goods like water, and services such as the assimilation of emissions). In particular, the location choice and the rapid growth of the maquila industry constitute true challenges for the policy maker. This is accentuated by the fragility imposed by climatic conditions in the Border States and topographical disadvantages as illustrated by the Tijuana region that is vulnerable to erosion...

‣ Medición del impacto de los acuerdos de libre comercio en América Latina: el caso de México

Romero, José Luis
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; El propósito de este estudio es proponer una metodología para evaluar el impacto de los acuerdos comerciales sobre el comercio y el resto de la economía en países de América Latina. La metodología se ilustra mediante datos sobre México, y se analiza la evolución del comercio exterior mexicano por medio de varios indicadores, así como el posible traslado de factores que el comercio pudo haber provocado. También se investigan los rubros en los que México tiene ventaja comparativa, y cómo ésta ha evolucionado. Además se examina la evolución de la competitividad de los productos mexicanos en el mercado de los Estados Unidos frente a los productos chinos. Asimismo, se estudia la evolución de la productividad para conocer si la expansión del comercio se explica por aumentos en la misma, o si tuvo algún efecto sobre ella. Finalmente, se utilizan indicadores de convergencia para comprobar si la apertura comercial y los acuerdos comerciales aceleraron la expansión económica de México con relación a las economías desarrolladas. Measuring the impact of free trade agreements in Latin America: the case of Mexico Abstract: The objective of this report is to propose a methodology for evaluating the impact of free trade agreements on the economies of Latin America. The methodology is illustrated by an analysis over Mexico's external trade flows...

‣ Trade and economic growth: a Latin American perspective on rhetoric and reality

Moreno Brid, Juan Carlos; Pérez Caldentey, Esteban
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; There is a longstanding tradition of analyzing trade and growth in economics, going back to the discipline's founders. But for Latin America, the debate on the significance of this relationship has had much more than academic relevance. It has been one of the central components of the different approaches to development that have shaped the region's economic history, the other (closely related) component being the roles of the State and of the market in economic development. In Latin America, the dominant understanding of the relationship between trade and growth has evolved radically over time. Starting from the position that foreign trade should be managed with the objective of promoting industrialization and domestic development, around the mid 1980s it changed to an opposing view based on the notion that free trade and privatization are the fundamental guarantors of sustainable economic growth. In the last ten years, however, the consensus view has shifted again, to a more critical, skeptical view of the benefits of trade as an automatic and dynamic engine of economic growth.More precisely, analysis of the trade-growth relationship in Latin America since World War II has passed through various stages. The first...

‣ Economic impact of disasters: evidence from DALA assessments by ECLAC in Latin America and the Caribbean

Zapata Martí, Ricardo; Madrigal, Benjamín
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Over the last 35 years the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) has assessed major disasters in the Latin American region. Based on those exercises, which that have been conducted in a systematic manner using an evolving but comparable methodology over the years1, there is now historical evidence of the economic consequences these events have on the region's economies. This evidence-based approach sheds light on the link between economic performance, development dynamics and how disasters, as external shocks, generate lingering effects of different relative importance. The effect of disasters are most severe or visible in smaller, less developed, vulnerable, non diversified economies which are highly dependent on natural resources or on environmental services, interpreted in a broad sense to include services such as supporting tourism. It could be argued that this evidence is neither statistically fully representative (assessments are conducted as demand driven exercises at the request of ECLAC's member governments), nor comprehensive, as only major events have been assessed and there is a yearly cumulative recurrence of minor events that have not been fully assessed. It could also be argued that improvements in the quality of both baseline data and data on disaster impacts as well as methodological improvements may lead cause disaster impact to appear to grow more over time than they actually did. In addition to the case by case quantifications that constitute the historical record of disasters that will be the basis for this document...

‣ Understanding the business cycle in Latin America: Prebisch's contributions

Pérez Caldentey, Esteban; Vernengo, Matías
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; This paper analyzes Raúl Prebisch's less familiar contributions to economic theory, related to the business cycle, and heavily informed by the Argentinean experience. His views of the cycle emphasize the common nature of the cycle in the center and the Latin American periphery as one unified phenomenon. While his rejection of orthodoxy is less than complete, some elements of what would become a more Keynesian position are developed. In particular, a preoccupation with the management of the balance of payments and the need for capital controls as a macroeconomic management tool, considerably before Keynes and White's plans led to the Bretton Woods agreement. In the process it is clear that Prebisch developed several ideas that are still relevant to understand cyclical fluctuations in Latin America and the periphery in general, and became more concerned with the capacity of taking advantage of cyclical booms to maintain sustained economic growth