Background. Although the clinical effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease is established, there has been less examination of its social aspects. Methods and Results. Building on qualitative comments provided by healthcare providers, we present four different social and relational issues (need for social support, changes in relationships (with self and partner) and challenges with regards to occupation and the social system). We review the literature from multiple disciplines on each issue. We comment on their ethical implications and conclude by establishing the future prospects for research with the possible expansion of DBS for psychiatric indications. Conclusions. Our review demonstrates that there are varied social issues involved in DBS. These issues may have significant impacts on the perceived outcome of DBS by patients. Moreover, the fact that the social impact of DBS is still not well understood in emerging psychiatric indications presents an important area for future examination.
Synovial tissue can display an inflammatory response in the presence of OA. There is increasing interest to better understand the role of inflammation in OA, particularly with regard to those who require joint replacement. A systematic review of inflammatory synovitis in OA of literature databases was undertaken from their inception until October 14, 2014. Independent critical appraisal of each study was undertaken using the CASP appraisal tool. From a total of sixty-six identified citations, twenty-three studies were deemed eligible for review. The studies presented moderate to strong methodological quality. Strong correlation was identified between histological and imaging synovitis severity. Correlation was weaker between clinical symptoms and imaging and/or histological synovitis severity. There was little consensus, with regard to expressed cytokines and chemokines at the different stages of OA disease progression. Few studies investigated the influence of inflammatory synovitis on the outcome of major joint replacement. Research into inflammatory synovitis in OA is an emerging field. Longitudinal studies applying proven imaging modalities, histological analysis, and longer follow-up are required in order to further define our understanding of the role of synovitis in the pathogenesis of OA and its effects on outcomes following major joint replacement.
Since time immemorial homo sapiens are subjected to both health and diseases states and seek treatment for succor and assuagement in compromised health states. Since last two decades the progressive rise in the alternative form of treatment cannot be ignored and population seems to be dissatisfied with the conventional treatment modalities and therefore, resort to other forms of treatment, mainly complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of CAM is predominantly more popular in older adults and therefore, numerous research studies and clinical trials have been carried out to investigate the effectiveness of CAM in the management of both communicable and non-communicable disease. In this current mini review, we attempt to encompass the use of CAM in chronic non-communicable diseases that are most likely seen in geriatrics. The current review focuses not only on the reassurance of good health practices, emphasizing on the holistic development and strengthening the body's defense mechanisms, but also attempts to construct a pattern of self-care and patient empowerment in geriatrics. The issues of safety with CAM use cannot be sidelined and consultation with a health care professional is always advocated to the patient. Likewise...
The aim of this qualitative systematic review was to report a synthesis of older persons' perceptions of health, ill health, and their community health care needs. The review questions were what characterizes older persons' perceptions of health and ill health? and what are their community health care needs? Ten studies were identified in a systematic search for relevant qualitative papers published between January 2000 and January 2013 in the following electronic databases: PubMed, EBSCOhost/Academic Search Premier, and CINAHL. Publications were evaluated for quality, and a thematic analysis was performed. Two main themes were interpreted on a higher level: reconciliation with how life has become: and desire to regain their identity and sense of self-worth despite disability. Two themes emerged: creating meaning led to the experience of being valued in health care and society and a mental struggle to regain independence with the help of caregivers. Of special interest is the finding of perceptions related to the fear of becoming dependent on caregivers as well as the sorrow and pain caused by encountering caregivers who did not understand their desire to create meaning in their lives or their struggle for autonomy and independency.
The purpose was to systematically review the published reports for the clinical utility
of quantitative objective tests commonly used for diagnosing musculoskeletal disorders in
hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Two reviewers independently conducted a computerized
literature search in PubMed and Scopus using predefined criteria, and relevant papers were
identified. The articles were screened in several stages and considered for final
inclusion. Quality of the selected papers was evaluated by a modified QUADAS tool.
Relevant data were extracted as necessary. For this review, only 4 relevant studies could
be identified for detailed examination. Grip strength, pinch strength, and Purdue pegboard
tests were commonly used with their reported sensitivity and specificity ranging between
1.7 to 65.7% and 65.2 to 100%, 1.7 to 40% and 94 to 100%, and 44.8 to 85% and 78 to 95%,
respectively. A considerable difference across the studies was observed with respect to
patient and control populations, diagnostic performance and cut-off values of different
tests. Overall, currently available English-language limited literature do not provide
enough evidence in favour of the application of grip strength and pinch strength tests for
diagnosing musculoskeletal injuries in HAVS; Purdue pegboard test seems to have some
diagnostic value in evaluating impaired dexterity in HAVS.
The understanding and management of Peyronie's disease (PD)
has improved but elucidating the exact etiology of the disease has yet to be achieved.
In this paper, we review the historical and clinical aspects of PD. We focus on the evolution
of surgical management for PD and review recent published articles that compare popular
surgical techniques such as plication and plaque incision with vein graft. These two techniques
have been reported to be equivalent with respect to patient satisfaction; however, each technique
has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of pain is essential to effectively manage painful symptoms in patients attending palliative care. The objective of this review is to provide a detailed review of mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of patients with cancer pain. Cancer pain can be classified based upon pain symptoms, pain mechanisms and pain syndromes. Classification based upon mechanisms not only addresses the underlying pathophysiology but also provides us with an understanding behind patient's symptoms and treatment responses. Existing evidence suggests that the five mechanisms – central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, sympathetically maintained pain, nociceptive and cognitive-affective – operate in patients with cancer pain. Summary of studies showing evidence for physical therapy treatment methods for cancer pain follows with suggested therapeutic implications. Effective palliative physical therapy care using a mechanism-based classification model should be tailored to suit each patient's findings, using a biopsychosocial model of pain.
To review advancements of fluoride in dentistry, a search of 21 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Fluoride has become an important tool in preventive dentistry. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. Fluoride therapy in the form of varnish, gel, mouth rinse, or toothpaste has been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention for over three decades. The purpose of this review is to inform the reader about new research related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries.
Aims. The introduction of laser Doppler (LD) techniques to assess burn depth has revolutionized the treatment of burns of indeterminate depth. This paper will systematically review studies related to these two techniques and trace their evolution. At the same time we hope to highlight current controversies and areas where further research is necessary with regard to LD imaging (LDI) techniques. Methods. A systematic search for relevant literature was carried out on PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Key search terms included the following: “Laser Doppler imaging,” “laser Doppler flow,” and “burn depth.” Results. A total of 53 studies were identified. Twenty-six studies which met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included in the review. Conclusions. The numerous advantages of LDI over those of LD flowmetry have resulted in the former technique superseding the latter one. Despite the presence of alternative burn depth assessment techniques, LDI remains the most favoured. Various newer LDI machines with increasingly sophisticated methods of assessing burn depth have been introduced throughout the years. However, factors such as cost effectiveness, scanning of topographically inconsistent areas of the body, and skewing of results due to tattoos...
Orofacial pain can arise from different regions and etiologies. Some of the most debilitating pain conditions arise from the structures innervated by the trigeminal system (head, face, masticatory musculature, temporomandibular joint and associated structures). The problem with referred pain is the misdiagnosis and unnecessary therapy directed to the pain location instead of its origin. When craniofacial pain is the sole sign of myocardial ischemia, failure to recognize its cardiac source can endanger the patient. In particular, apart from unnecessary dental treatments, patients with acute myocardial infarction who do not experience chest pain run a very high risk of misdiagnosis and death. As endodontists, each of us may face many patients complaining of pain sensation in the teeth with the main source being other craniofacial/visceral organs. This review plots a diagnostically challenging case paving the way for further literature presentation in this regard. The aim of this compendious review was to gain knowledge about the prevalence, clinical characteristics and possible mechanisms of craniofacial pain of cardiac origin, in order to improve the clinician’s ability to make a correct diagnosis.
Caregivers are healthcare assets because they care for patients at home; however, when clinicians focus solely on patients, caregivers' needs may not be recognized. The purpose of this scoping literature review is to identify the burdens on caregivers of people with Parkinson's disease. CINAHL and PubMed databases were searched to locate thirteen original articles, one systematic review, and one meta-analysis within the last five years that highlighted caregivers' burdens. Results indicate the need to identify practical interventions that decrease caregivers' physical, psychological, and socioeconomic burdens. Correlates of Parkinson's caregiver burdens are not clearly available. Caregivers' contextual demographic information is missing, as is an understanding of how caregivers negotiate day-to-day caregiving activities. Gaps exist about how caregivers reconcile multiple medications and manage rehabilitation needs of the patient at home. A recommendation for practice is a systematic evaluation of the caregivers' capacity at the time of clinic visit.
Luminal gastrointestinal (GI) metastases from breast cancer are rare, reports are fragmentary and poor. The purposes of this study are to assess the gastrointestinal involvement from breast cancer in a retrospective study at a single institution and reviewing the related literature. Between January 2007 and December 2011 a total of 980 patients with breast cancer were treated at our institution, patients' records and report database were analysed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. A search of the literature using PubMed, CancerLit, Embase, was performed. Selected for the present review were papers published in English before June 2012. Five of 980 patients (0.5%) showed gastrointestinal metastases from breast cancer, 3 patients had gastric involvement, 1 jejunum, and 1 rectum. Reviewing the literature, 206 patients affected by gastrointestinal metastasis from breast cancer were identified: the most frequent site of metastasis was the stomach (60%). The majority of the patients underwent chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, someone surgery and radiotherapy. GI metastases from breast cancer are rare, but possible, and a very late recurrence can also occur. Cyto-histological diagnosis is mandatory, to differentiate GI metastases from breast cancer to other diseases and to allow an adequate treatment.
Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common injury in runners and other long distance athletes with the best management options not clearly established. This review outlines both the conservative and surgical options for the treatment of iliotibial band syndrome in the athletic population. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria by focusing on the athletic population in their discussion of the treatment for iliotibial band syndrome, both conservative and surgical. Conservative management consisting of a combination of rest (2–6 weeks), stretching, pain management, and modification of running habits produced a 44% complete cure rate, with return to sport at 8 weeks and a 91.7% cure rate with return to sport at 6 months after injury. Surgical therapy, often only used for refractory cases, consisted of excision or release of the pathologic distal portion of the iliotibial band or bursectomy. Those studies focusing on the excision or release of the pathologic distal portion of the iliotibial band showed a 100% return to sport rate at both 7 weeks and 3 months after injury. Despite many options for both surgical and conservative treatment, there has yet to be consensus on one standard of care. Certain treatments, both conservative and surgical...
The literature shows that delayed admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and discharge delays from the ICU are associated with increased adverse events and higher costs. Identifying factors related to delays will provide information to practice improvements, which contribute to better patient outcomes. The aim of this integrative review was to explore the incidence of patients' admission and discharge delays in critical care and to identify organisational factors associated with these delays. Seven studies were included. The major findings are as follows: (1) explanatory research about discharge delays is scarce and one study on admission delays was found, (2) delays are a common problem mostly due to organisational factors, occurring in 38% of admissions and 22–67% of discharges, and (3) redesigning care processes by improving information management and coordination between units and interdisciplinary teams could reduce discharge delays. In conclusion, patient outcomes can be improved through efficient and safe care processes. More exploratory research is needed to identify factors that contribute to admission and discharge delays to provide evidence for clinical practice improvements. Shortening delays requires an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the whole patient flow process. Conclusions should be made with caution due to the limited number of articles included in this review.
Periodontal disease is a major public health issue and the development of effective therapies to treat the disease and regenerate periodontal tissue is an important goal of today's medicine. Regeneration of periodontal tissue is perhaps one of the most complex process to occur in the body. Langer and colleagues proposed tissue engineering as a possible technique for regenerating the lost periodontal tissues. Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field, which involves the application of the principles and methods of engineering and life sciences to help in the development of biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve the function of damaged tissues and organs. A Google/Medline search was conducted and relevant literature evaluating the potential role of the tissue engineering in periodontal regeneration, which included histological studies and controlled clinical trials, was reviewed. A comprehensive search was designed. The articles were independently screened for eligibility. Articles with authentic controls and proper randomization and pertaining specifically to their role in periodontal regeneration were included. The available literature was analyzed and compiled. The analysis indicate tissue engineering to be a promising...
The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ‘PUBMED’ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by unpleasant sensations mainly in the legs. 43% of RLS-associated conditions have also been associated with systemic iron deficiency. The objective of this study was to review in the literature the relationship between iron metabolism and RLS. With an initial search using the keywords combination “Iron Metabolism OR Iron Deficiency AND Restless Legs Syndrome,” 145 articles were screened, and 20 articles were selected. Few studies were found for this review in the period of 2001–2014, however, the correlation between RLS and iron was evident.
Pakistan has moved from a ‘low prevalence–high risk’ to a ‘concentrated epidemic’ state, yet the forcefulness required for managing this silent escalation of HIV infected numbers is not being highlighted, as it should be. A more comprehensive review of the national strategy for HIV/AIDS would necessitate a system's thinking. For this purpose, the WHO's Health Systems Building Blocks have been discussed to analyse whether this framework can be employed to take some corrective measures. An extensive literature review in this regard helps to understand that the service delivery has to be responsive, but skilled human resources, a robust information system, an uninterrupted supplies and use of latest technology, adequate financing, and above all good governance at operational level are essential ingredients, which call for re-orienting the national programme today. Lack of coordination, capacity, and interventions with questionable sustainability pave a perilous path. Hitherto, the issue can be addressed by involving stakeholders from all levels of the society and managing the void between policy and implementation. Furthermore, interventions that focus on the long-term future are imperative to combat the menace threatening human lives.
The aim was to conduct a systematic review of studies that described the functional profile of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), published between 2000 and 2013. The bibliographic search was conducted using the terms “frontotemporal dementia” and “frontotemporal lobar degeneration” in combination with “independence,” “functionality,” “basic activities of daily living,” “disability,” and scales that measure functional performance: “Disability Assessment for Dementia-DAD,” “Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ),” “Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS).” To be included in the review, the study had to mention the characterization of the functional status of patients with bvFTD in the objectives of the study, using a previously validated instrument of functional assessment. Fourteen studies met this criterion. The reviewed studies suggested that individuals with bvFTD have greater functional impairment when compared to those with other subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration or Alzheimer's disease. The studies documented a significant association between cognitive impairment and measures of functionality in these patients. The cognitive profile of patients may predict faster functional decline.
Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011.