Página 33 dos resultados de 1440 itens digitais encontrados em 0.009 segundos

‣ Epidemiology of malocclusion in children and adolescents: a critic review

CARVALHO,Fábio Silva de; CARVALHO,Cristiane Alves Paz de; SALES-PERES,Arsenio; BASTOS,José Roberto de Magalhães; SALES-PERES,Sílvia Helena de Carvalho
Fonte: Faculdade São Leopoldo Mandic Publicador: Faculdade São Leopoldo Mandic
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 Português
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OBJECTIVES: The aim of this literature review about malocclusion was to identify epidemiologic instruments which are being used in Public Health, as well as to bring information regarding the occlusal alterations more prevalent in children and adolescents. METHODS: Information presented in previous studies was reviewed, in articles published in period 1997-2007, considering the production registered in the following databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, Scientific Electronic Library Online, International Database for Medical Literature and Brazilian Dentistry Bibliography. RESULTS: The total of 191 identified references, 170 had been eliminated after the implementation of the exclusion criteria and 21 articles met the proposed inclusion criteria and had served of base for this work. The use of different criteria made difficult the comparison of studies in literature and did not offer parameters that can guide the scientific evidences. CONCLUSION: The most used epidemiologic indices were Dental Aesthetic Index and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and it was observed predominance of open bite in the deciduous dentition and crowding in the mixed and permanent dentitions.

‣ Association of Rhinovirus Infections with Asthma

Gern, James E.; Busse, William W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1999 Português
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Rhinoviruses are the most common cause of the common cold, but they can cause more severe illnesses in people with underlying lung disorders such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cystic fibrosis. Epidemiologic studies with sensitive detection methods such as PCR have identified rhinovirus infection as a major source of asthma exacerbations in both children and adults, especially during the spring and fall. Since rhinoviruses cause little tissue destruction, it is presumed that the immune response to the infection may play an important role in the pathogenesis of rhinovirus-induced exacerbations of asthma. This review examines the epidemiologic association between rhinovirus infections and exacerbations of asthma and outlines current information on immune responses to rhinovirus infection and potential connections between antiviral responses and preexisting allergic inflammation. Finally, current and future strategies for treating rhinovirus infections and virus-induced exacerbations of asthma are discussed.

‣ Molecular Epidemiology of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Belgrade, Central Serbia

Vuković, Dragana; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Savić, Branislava; Niemann, Stefan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2003 Português
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In order to gain precise data on the actual epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Belgrade, central Serbia, we conducted the molecular epidemiological investigation described herein. IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of 176 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was performed. These strains were obtained from 48.4% of all patients diagnosed with culture-proven pulmonary TB from April through September 1998 and from May through October 1999. Clusters containing strains with identical RFLP IS6110 patterns were assumed to have arisen from recent transmission. Of the 176 cases, 55 (31.2%) were grouped into 23 clusters ranging in size from two to six patients. Nearly 80% of clustered patients were directly interviewed, and transmission between family-unrelated contacts was found to be predominant in the study population. Classical contact investigation identified only 2 (3.6%) of the 55 clustered patients. The clustering of TB patients was not associated with any demographic or clinical characteristic other than infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis strains. Nearly 70% of MDR strains were clustered, which indicates active transmission of MDR TB in Belgrade. However, this was not observed by conventional epidemiologic surveillance. In conclusion...

‣ Protocol for sampling environmental sites for legionellae.

Barbaree, J M; Gorman, G W; Martin, W T; Fields, B S; Morrill, W E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1987 Português
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A protocol for sampling environmental sites was developed and used to identify possible sources of Legionella species in support of epidemiologic investigations at two hospitals. In hospital A, legionellae were isolated from 43 of 106 (40%) different sites. Three separate Legionella pneumophila serotypes and a previously unrecognized species were present in different combinations in the positive samples. Two of five cooling towers contained the same L. pneumophila serogroup 1 monoclonal type (1,2,4,5) as was isolated from patients. The same monoclonal type was also isolated from make-up water for the two cooling towers, a hot water tank, water separators in four main air compressor systems for respiratory therapy, and cold and hot water faucets. In hospital B, 13 of 37 (38%) sample sites contained legionellae, all of which were L. pneumophila serogroup 1. The monoclonal type matching isolates from patients (1,2,4,5) was found at the highest concentration in a hot water tank, but it was also present at four other sample sites. Since legionellae not related to disease may be found in many of the sites sampled, an epidemiologic association with the probable source should be established before intervention methods, such as disinfection...

‣ Molecular typing of Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia by DNA macrorestriction analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

Yao, J D; Conly, J M; Krajden, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1995 Português
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Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant, nosocomial pathogen for which optimal typing methods in epidemiologic investigations of nosocomial outbreaks have not been defined. We compared DNA macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis by arbitrarily primed PCR for molecular typing of 109 multidrug-resistant strains of S. maltophilia from multiple outbreaks at our institution over a 10-month period in 1993. PFGE after digestion with restriction endonuclease DraI revealed 62 unique DNA restriction profiles among the 109 strains, with 23, 11, 6, 6, and 3 strains having concordant profiles in each of five types. There were four concordant profiles among 8 strains (2 strains with each profile), while unique profiles were present in each of the remaining 52 strains. Further RAPD analysis with a decanucleotide primer showed the same number of distinct strain types as PFGE but more subtype diversity within each clonal type. We concluded that DNA macrorestriction analysis and RAPD analysis are sufficiently discriminatory and useful for differentiation of S. maltophilia strains in epidemiologic investigations of nosocomial outbreaks. However...

‣ Concordant clonal delineation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by macrorestriction analysis and polymerase chain reaction genome fingerprinting.

Struelens, M J; Bax, R; Deplano, A; Quint, W G; Van Belkum, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1993 Português
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Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA macrorestriction fragments (macrorestriction analysis) allows epidemiologic typing and delineation of genetic relatedness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by indexing variations in the global chromosome architecture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated genome fingerprinting can also discriminate MRSA strains by detecting locally variable DNA motifs. To assess the correlation between these methods, 48 epidemic MRSA strains collected from 20 hospitals over a 10-year period were tested in a blind comparison by (i) macrorestriction analysis with SstII or SmaI endonuclease and (ii) PCR fingerprinting with four primer sets aimed at the mecA gene, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences, and arbitrary sequences. Isolates were discriminated into 22 macrorestriction patterns and 15 PCR fingerprints. MRSA strains belonging to 12 distinct clones by macrorestriction analysis showed 11 distinct PCR genotypes distinguished by multiple band differences. In contrast, 34 of 37 MRSA strains found to be clonally related by macrorestriction analysis clustered in two highly related PCR genotypes that differed by a single DNA fragment (P < 0.0001). These data demonstrate concordant clonal delineation of epidemic MRSA by macrorestriction analysis and PCR fingerprinting and thereby indicate that the rapid PCR assay may be an efficient epidemiologic typing system.

‣ Detection of astrovirus in pediatric stool samples by immunoassay and RNA probe.

Moe, C L; Allen, J R; Monroe, S S; Gary, H E; Humphrey, C D; Herrmann, J E; Blacklow, N R; Carcamo, C; Koch, M; Kim, K H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1991 Português
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Two new astrovirus assays, a rapid biotin-avidin enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and RNA probe hybridization, were developed and compared with an established astrovirus assay, an indirect EIA, and immune electron microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated by using a screening panel of 22 astrovirus-positive and 305 astrovirus-negative fecal specimens. The biotin-avidin assay was equivalent in performance to the reference indirect assay, and both could detect about 10 ng of viral protein. Although the probe was more sensitive than either EIA and could detect higher dilutions of virus in tissue culture and stool specimens, it did not detect more astrovirus-positive fecal specimens. Of the 22 astrovirus-positive specimens detected by the EIAs, 20 were confirmed by immune electron microscopy with hyperimmune rabbit antiserum. To determine the usefulness of EIAs for large epidemiologic studies, EIAs were used to screen 1,289 stool specimens from three studies of children with and without diarrhea. Astrovirus was detected in 3.5% of specimens from children with diarrhea and 1.9% of specimens from those without diarrhea. Our results indicate that the biotin-avidin EIA is an efficient, sensitive, and specific method for routinely screening large numbers of fecal samples and that its application in epidemiologic studies may yield higher rates of astrovirus infection than have been found previously by other methods.

‣ Outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis.

Hedberg, C W; Osterholm, M T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1993 Português
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Norwalk virus infection is the epidemiologic prototype for outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne gastroenteritis. Around the world, Norwalk virus and Norwalk-like viruses appear to be major causes of food-borne and waterborne illness. Assessment of the overall significance of viral agents to the epidemiology of food-borne and waterborne illness is hampered by the lack of surveillance throughout much of the world. In areas where food-borne and waterborne illness surveillance is conducted, outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis are underreported because of the lack of availability of routine laboratory services to confirm the viral etiology. Routine use of epidemiologic criteria as an alternative to laboratory confirmation will allow better assessments of the importance of viral gastroenteritis until effective laboratory methods can be widely implemented. Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis have been propagated by contamination of water supplies, raw foods, and ill food handlers. Controlling an outbreak depends on identifying and removing the source of contamination. The demonstrated occurrence of person-to-person transmission and the likely occurrence of transmission of Norwalk-like viruses by aerosol make it necessary to evaluate the potential for transmission by food handlers and servers in every outbreak...

‣ Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT): ubiquity, persistence, and risks.

Turusov, Vladimir; Rakitsky, Valery; Tomatis, Lorenzo
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 Português
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Due to uncontrolled use for several decades, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), probably the best known and most useful insecticide in the world, has damaged wildlife and might have negative effects on human health. This review gives a brief history of the use of DDT in various countries and presents the results of epidemiologic and experimental studies of carcinogenesis. Even though its use has been prohibited in most countries for ecologic considerations, mainly because of its negative impact on wildlife, it is still used in some developing countries for essential public health purposes, and it is still produced for export in at least three countries. Due to its stability and its capacity to accumulate in adipose tissue, it is found in human tissues, and there is now not a single living organism on the planet that does not contain DDT. The possible contribution of DDT to increasing the risks for cancers at various sites and its possible role as an endocrine disruptor deserve further investigation. Although there is convincing experimental evidence for the carcinogenicity of DDT and of its main metabolites DDE and DDD, epidemiologic studies have provided contrasting or inconclusive, although prevailingly negative, results. The presence and persistence of DDT and its metabolites worldwide are still problems of great relevance to public health. Efficient pesticides that do not have the negative properties of DDT...

‣ Community-Initiated Breast Cancer and Environment Studies and the Precautionary Principle

Brody, Julia Green; Tickner, Joel; Rudel, Ruthann A.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The precautionary principle implies the need for research paradigms that contribute to “strength of the evidence” assessments of the plausibility of health effects when scientific uncertainty is likely to persist and prevention is the underlying goal. Previous discussions of science that inform precautionary decision making are augmented by examining three activist-initiated breast cancer and environment studies—the Long Island, New York, and Cape Cod, Massachusetts, studies and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences breast cancer and environment centers. These studies show how the choice of research questions affects the potential of results to inform action. They illustrate a spectrum of public involvement, population- and individual-level epidemiologic study designs, and the crucial importance of developing and applying new exposure assessment methods. The exposure studies are key because they are critical in assessing plausibility (without exposure to a causal agent, there is no health effect), are prerequisite to health studies, and identify preventable exposures that could be reduced by precautionary policies, even in the absence of strong evidence of harm. The breast cancer studies have contributed to environmental and biological sampling programs for endocrine-disrupting compounds in drinking water and household air and dust and the application of geographic information systems for surveillance and historical exposure assessment. They leave unanswered questions about when to invest in large epidemiologic studies...

‣ Analysis of a Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Clonal Group by Multilocus Sequence Typing

Tartof, Sara Y.; Solberg, Owen D.; Manges, Amee R.; Riley, Lee W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2005 Português
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Although many strain typing methods exist for pathogenic Escherichia coli, most have drawbacks in terms of resolving power, interpretability, or scalability. For this reason, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is an appealing alternative. However, its applicability to different pathogens in specific epidemiologic contexts is not well understood. Here, we applied a previously established MLST method based on housekeeping genes to a well-characterized collection of uropathogenic E. coli isolates to compare the discriminatory ability of this procedure with that of enterobacterial repeat intergenic consensus (ERIC2) PCR, serogrouping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among 45 E. coli isolates studied, 17 different multilocus sequence types (ST) were identified. One MLST group (designated ST69 complex) was comprised of 22 isolates, all belonging to uropathogenic and bacteremic E. coli strains previously defined as clonal group A (CgA) by ERIC2 PCR. The ST69 strains contained five different serogroups and 14 PFGE types. ERIC2 PCR CgA strains belonging to different MLST groups were also identified. Interestingly, one cow E. coli isolate, previously shown by PFGE to be closely related to a human uropathogenic CgA strain, was found to cluster with the ST69 strains. All of the other animal and environmental CgA isolates had different MLST profiles. The discriminatory power of this MLST method based on housekeeping genes appears to be higher than that of ERIC2 PCR but lower than that of PFGE for epidemiologic study of uropathogenic E. coli.

‣ Occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos and cancer risk: a review of the amphibole hypothesis.

Stayner, L T; Dankovic, D A; Lemen, R A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1996 Português
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OBJECTIVES. This article examines the credibility and policy implications of the "amphibole hypothesis," which postulates that (1) the mesotheliomas observed among workers exposed to chrysotile asbestos may be explained by confounding exposures to amphiboles, and (2) chrysotile may have lower carcinogenic potency than amphiboles. METHODS. A critical review was conducted of the lung burden, epidemiologic, toxicologic, and mechanistic studies that provide the basis for the amphibole hypothesis. RESULTS. Mechanistic and lung burden studies do not provide convincing evidence for the amphibole hypothesis. Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies provide strong evidence that chrysotile is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma. Chrysotile may be less potent than some amphiboles for inducing mesotheliomas, but there is little evidence to indicate lower lung cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS. Given the evidence of a significant lung cancer risk, the lack of conclusive evidence for the amphibole hypothesis, and the fact that workers are generally exposed to a mixture of fibers, we conclude that it is prudent to treat chrysotile with virtually the same level of concern as the amphibole forms of asbestos.

‣ The validity of health risk appraisals for coronary heart disease: results from a randomized field trial.

Smith, K W; McKinlay, S M; McKinlay, J B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1991 Português
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BACKGROUND: While health risk appraisals (HRAs) are becoming increasingly popular as tools for health assessment and health education, comparatively little is known about the accuracy of these risk estimates. METHODS: A field trial among 732 randomly selected adults ages 25 to 65 years was conducted to assess the validity of the risk scores produced by four widely used HRAs. RESULTS: Self-reported HRA risk scores for cigarette smoking and relative weight were generally accurate, but correlations between physiological measurements and scores for blood pressure, cholesterol, and physical activity were always lower than .51. Correlations between epidemiologic estimates of the probability of CHD death and HRA total risk scores ranged from .13 to .75; partial correlations adjusting for age, race, and gender ranged from .12 to .47. CONCLUSIONS: The HRAs chosen for the field trial exhibited modest correlations with the CHD mortality risk predicted by the epidemiologic model. Mathematical errors made by respondents completing self-scored instruments and lack of knowledge regarding physiologic status decrease the accuracy of HRA risk estimates.

‣ A national burden of disease calculation: Dutch disability-adjusted life-years. Dutch Burden of Disease Group.

Melse, J M; Essink-Bot, M L; Kramers, P G; Hoeymans, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2000 Português
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OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the burden of disease due to 48 major causes in the Netherlands in 1994 in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), using national epidemiologic data and disability weights, and explored associated problems and uncertainties. METHODS: We combined data from Dutch vital statistics, registrations, and surveys with Dutch disability weights to calculate disease-specific health loss in DALYs, which are the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) weighted for severity. RESULTS: YLLs were primarily lost by cardiovascular diseases and cancers, while YLDs were mostly lost by mental disorders and a range of chronic somatic disorders (such as chronic nonspecific lung disease and diabetes). These 4 diagnostic groups caused approximately equal numbers of DALYs. Sensitivity analysis calls for improving the accuracy of the epidemiologic data in connection with disability weights, especially for mild and frequent diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The DALY approach appeared to be feasible at a national Western European level and produced interpretable results, comparable to results from the Global Burden of Disease Study for the Established Market Economies. Suggestions for improving the methodology and its applicability are presented.

‣ Effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on reproductive outcomes.

Meyer, R E; Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1989 Português
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Much public health research has been directed to studies of cancer risks due to chemical agents. Recently, increasing attention has been given to adverse reproductive outcomes as another, shorter-term biologic indicator of public health impact. Further, several low-level ubiquitous physical agents have been implicated recently as possibly affecting human health. These physical factors (noise and electromagnetic fields) represent difficult topics for research with epidemiologic study methods. This paper provides a brief review of the published data related to the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and exposure to noise or electromagnetic fields. The discussion includes ideas for possible biologic mechanisms, considerations for exposure assessment, and suggestions for epidemiologic research.

‣ Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

Srám, R J; Binková, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2000 Português
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Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes...

‣ Advances in psychiatric epidemiology: rates and risks for major depression.

Weissman, M M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1987 Português
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Over the last decade there has been a marked increase in information on the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders, particularly major depression, in adults living in the community and in families. The ability to conduct large epidemiologic studies of psychiatric disorders is due to improvements in diagnostic precision and reliability in psychiatry and to the development of systematic methods for collecting information on signs and symptoms to make diagnoses. Results from a recently completed epidemiologic survey of psychiatric disorders in five urban communities in the United States and from several large-scale family genetic studies suggest that major depression is a highly prevalent disorder. It occurs in adults and children, and there is evidence for an increased rate in younger people. The average age of first onset is in young adulthood. Most depressions are untreated. The firm risk factors for major depression include being female; young (born after World War II); separated/divorced or in an unhappy marriage; and having a family history of major depression. There is a two-to-threefold increased risk for major depression if there is a family history of the disorder. The relevance of these findings to clinical practice and public health is discussed.

‣ Pregnancy-induced hypertension in North Carolina, 1988 and 1989.

Savitz, D A; Zhang, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1992 Português
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INTRODUCTION. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a highly prevalent pregnancy complication with adverse effects on maternal and infant health. Epidemiologic research concerning its etiology is limited. METHODS. Birth records from North Carolina for the period 1988 through 1989 included an indication of the presence of PIH. The risk of PIH was examined in relation to several maternal characteristics and exposures, including reproductive history, demographic characteristics, and tobacco use during pregnancy. Risk ratio estimates, adjusted for confounders, were calculated contrasting PIH among exposed vs unexposed women. RESULTS. The overall risk of PIH was 43.1 per 1000 births, with multiple pregnancies, nulliparity, and advanced maternal age associated with markedly increased risks. Tobacco use was inversely associated with PIH, and Blacks and Whites were at virtually equal risk. CONCLUSIONS. Problems in diagnosis and classification impede research in this area, with birth certificates limited in quality and breadth of information. Nonetheless, several patterns emerged that are worthy of further epidemiologic evaluation using more sophisticated designs.

‣ Risk factors for early adolescent drug use in four ethnic and racial groups.

Vega, W A; Zimmerman, R S; Warheit, G J; Apospori, E; Gil, A G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1993 Português
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OBJECTIVES. It is widely believed that risk factors identified in previous epidemiologic studies accurately predict adolescent drug use. Comparative studies are needed to determine how risk factors vary in prevalence, distribution, sensitivity, and pattern across the major US ethnic/racial groups. METHODS. Baseline questionnaire data from a 3-year epidemiologic study of early adolescent development and drug use were used to conduct bivariate and multivariate risk factor analyses. Respondents (n = 6760) were sixth- and seventh-grade Cuban, other Hispanic, Black, and White non-Hispanic boys in the 48 middle schools of the greater Miami (Dade County) area. RESULTS. Findings indicate 5% lifetime illicit drug use, 4% lifetime inhalant use, 37% lifetime alcohol use, and 21% lifetime tobacco use, with important intergroup differences. Monotonic relationships were found between 10 risk factors and alcohol and illicit drug use. Individual risk factors were distributed disproportionately, and sensitivity and patterning of risk factors varied widely by ethnic/racial subsample. CONCLUSIONS. While the cumulative prevalence of risk factors bears a monotonic relationship to drug use, ethnic/racial differences in risk factor profiles, especially for Blacks...

‣ Rapid Microsphere Assay for Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool and Environmental Samples▿

Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Kellar, Kathryn L.; Moura, Iaci; Casaqui Carollo, Maria Cristina; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Slemenda, Susan; Johnston, Stephanie P.; da Silva, Alexandre J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are associated with massive disease outbreaks worldwide. Because these two species have different transmission cycles, identification of these parasites to the species level in clinical samples may provide laboratory data of crucial importance in epidemiologic investigations. To date, the most reliable way to differentiate C. hominis and C. parvum is based on DNA sequencing analysis of PCR amplicons. Although this approach is very effective for differentiation of Cryptosporidium species, it is labor-intensive and time-consuming compared with methods that do not require DNA sequencing analysis as an additional step and that have been successfully used for specific identification of a number of pathogens. In this study, we describe a novel Luminex-based assay that can differentiate C. hominis from C. parvum in a rapid and cost-effective manner. The assay was validated by testing a total of 143 DNA samples extracted from clinical specimens, environmental samples, or samples artificially spiked with Cryptosporidium oocysts. As few as 10 oocysts per 300 μl of stools could be detected with this assay. The assay format includes species-specific probes linked to carboxylated Luminex microspheres that hybridize to a Cryptosporidium microsatellite-2 region (ML-2) where C. hominis and C. parvum differ by one nucleotide substitution. The assay proved to be 100% specific when samples that had been characterized by direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA) and DNA sequencing analysis were tested. In addition...