Página 34 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.083 segundos

‣ Robotic Colorectal Surgery

Baik, Seung Hyuk
Fonte: Yonsei University College of Medicine Publicador: Yonsei University College of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Robotic colorectal surgery has gradually been performed more with the help of the technological advantages of the da Vinci® system. Advanced technological advantages of the da Vinci® system compared with standard laparoscopic colorectal surgery have been reported. These are a stable camera platform, three-dimensional imaging, excellent ergonomics, tremor elimination, ambidextrous capability, motion scaling, and instruments with multiple degrees of freedom. However, despite these technological advantages, most studies did not report the clinical advantages of robotic colorectal surgery compared to standard laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Only one study recently implies the real benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery. The purpose of this review article is to outline the early concerns of robotic colorectal surgery using the da Vinci® system, to present early clinical outcomes from the most current series, and to discuss not only the safety and the feasibility but also the real benefits of robotic colorectal surgery. Moreover, this article will comment on the possible future clinical advantages and limitations of the da Vinci® system in robotic colorectal surgery.

‣ High Defibrillation Threshold: The Science, Signs and Solutions

Jacob, Sony; Pidlaoan, Victorio; Singh, Jaspreet; Bharadwaj, Aditya; Patel, Mehul B; Carrillo, Antonio
Fonte: Indian Heart Rhythm Society Publicador: Indian Heart Rhythm Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2010 Português
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Defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing has traditionally been an integral part of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. With the increasing number of patients receiving ICDs, physicians are encountering high DFT more often than before. Tackling the problem of high DFT, warrants an in-depth understanding of the science of defibrillation including the key electrophysiological concepts and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Numerous factors have been implicated in the causation of high DFT. Due consideration to the past medical history, pharmacotherapy, laboratory data and cardiac imaging, help in assessing the pre-procedural risk for occurrence of high DFT. Drugs, procedural changes, type and location of ICD lead system are some of the key players in predicting DFT during implantation. In the event of encountering an unacceptably high DFT, we recommend to follow a step-wise algorithm. Ruling out procedural complications like pneumothorax and tamponade is imperative before embarking on a search for potentially reversible clinical or metabolic derangements. Finally, if these attempts fail, the electrophysiologist must choose from a wide range of options for device adjustment and system modification. Although this review article is meant to be a treatise on the science...

‣ A review of Indian psychiatry research and ethics

Agarwal, A. K.
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2010 Português
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Ethics does not seem to be a favorite topic of Indian authors. Electronic search of the IJP web site could only identify six articles which were directly related to ethics. One article discussed the relationship of ethics religion and psychiatry. Another editorial discussed the concept of responsibility in psychiatrists. Other editorial discussed the truth about ‘truth serum’ in legal investigations. One article discussed the ethical aspects of published research. There were two articles that specifically discussed ethical aspects. This write-up provides some details about the ethical aspects of psychiatric practice, specific to India, and emphasizes the need to rediscover ethics in India.

‣ Where will the stem cells lead us? Prospects for dentistry in the 21st century

Sreenivas, S. Durga; Rao, Akula Sreenivasa; Satyavani, S. Sri; Reddy, Bavigadda Harish; Vasudevan, Sanjay
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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It is dentists’ dream to achieve bone repair with predictability, but without donor site morbidity as well as reconstruction of injured or pathologically damaged complex dental structures, however, this will no longer be a dream as these are being made into a reality using stem cell science. Stem cell science is clearly an intriguing and promising area of science. Stem cells have been isolated from a variety of embryonic and adult tissues. Dental stem cells are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) brought new enthusiasm among the researchers because of their easy accessibility, high quality and they don’t pose the same ethical concerns and controversy in comparison with embryonic stem cells. This review article provides brief insights about stem cell basics, the state of art in human dental stem cell research and its possible impact on future dentistry. Even though most of these modalities are still in infancy, it is evident that the 21st century dentist is going to play a critical role in the field of medicine. The aim of this article is to bring awareness among the dentists about the huge potential associated with the use of stem cells in a clinical setting, as well as proper understanding of related problems.

‣ Hepatitis C in Pakistan: A Review of Available Data

Umar, Muhammad; Bushra, Hamama tul; Ahmad, Masood; Data, Available; Ahmad, Masood; Khurram, Muhammad; Usman, Saima; Arif, Mohammad; Adam, Tashfeen; Minhas, Zahid; Arif, Adnan; Naeem, Abdul; Ejaz, Khushnud; Butt, Zameer; Bilal, Muhammad
Fonte: Kowsar Publicador: Kowsar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly recognized as a major health care problem, and is found frequently in Pakistani settings. In this article we reviewed published and unpublished data related to the seroepidemiology of HCV infection in Pakistan. For this article, data from 132 published studies and three unpublished data sets published/ presented between the period 1992-2008 were utilized. Data of 1,183,329 individuals were gathered. Blood donors (982,481) and the general population (178,322) constituted the majority of these subjects. The frequency of HCV infection in blood donors and in the general population was 3.0 % (95% CI: 3.0- 3.1) and 4.7 (95% CI: 4.6 -4.8), respectively. The frequency among 6,148 pregnant females was 7.3% (95% CI = 6.7 – 8.0). The frequency in healthy children ranged from 0.4 to 4.1% (95% CI = 1.4 – 2.3). Pakistani HCV serofrequency figures are significantly higher (P < 0.0001) compared to those of the corresponding populations in surrounding countries like India, Nepal, Myanmar, Iran and Afghanistan.

‣ Covariate Pharmacokinetic Model Building in Oncology and its Potential Clinical Relevance

Joerger, Markus
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/01/2012 Português
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When modeling pharmacokinetic (PK) data, identifying covariates is important in explaining interindividual variability, and thus increasing the predictive value of the model. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with stepwise covariate modeling is frequently used to build structural covariate models, and the most commonly used software—NONMEM—provides estimations for the fixed-effect parameters (e.g., drug clearance), interindividual and residual unidentified random effects. The aim of covariate modeling is not only to find covariates that significantly influence the population PK parameters, but also to provide dosing recommendations for a certain drug under different conditions, e.g., organ dysfunction, combination chemotherapy. A true covariate is usually seen as one that carries unique information on a structural model parameter. Covariate models have improved our understanding of the pharmacology of many anticancer drugs, including busulfan or melphalan that are part of high-dose pretransplant treatments, the antifolate methotrexate whose elimination is strongly dependent on GFR and comedication, the taxanes and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the latter being subject of cytochrome p450 3A4 (CYP3A4) associated metabolism. The purpose of this review article is to provide a tool to help understand population covariate analysis and their potential implications for the clinic. Accordingly...

‣ The Social-Psychological Outcomes of Martial Arts Practise Among Youth: A Review

Vertonghen, Jikkemien; Theeboom, Marc
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
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Martial arts involvement among the youth has been described in controversial terms. Studies regarding the effects of martial arts practise on youth show contrasting images. While some refer to enhanced personal and social opportunities for those that participate, others warn against increased levels of aggressiveness and antisocial behavior among its participants. The aim of the present review is to provide, firstly, an overview of the major findings of studies concerning the social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise. Secondly, the limitations of those studies are discussed. From more than 350 papers, collected during a two-year lasting literature study, 27 papers met all criteria to be included in this study. This review revealed that even though a considerable amount of research on social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise has been conducted over the years, to date, it has not brought clarity in the existing duality regarding the possible effects of martial arts involvement. It is proposed that a better understanding can be provided if specific influential factors are taken into account in future research (i.e., participants' characteristics, type of guidance, social context and structural qualities of the sport).

‣ Experimentally Determined Mechanical Properties of, and Models for, the Periodontal Ligament: Critical Review of Current Literature

Fill, Ted S.; Carey, Jason P.; Toogood, Roger W.; Major, Paul W.
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/04/2011 Português
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431.1143%
Introduction. This review is intended to highlight and discuss discrepancies in the literature of the periodontal ligament's (PDL) mechanical properties and the various experimental approaches used to measure them. Methods. Searches were performed on biomechanical and orthodontic publications (in databases: Compendex, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). Results. The review revealed that significant variations exist, some on the order of six orders of magnitude, in the PDL's elastic constants and mechanical properties. Possible explanations may be attributable to different experimental approaches and assumptions. Conclusions. The discrepancies highlight the need for further research into PDL properties under various clinical and experimental loading conditions. Better understanding of the PDL's biomechanical behavior under physiologic and traumatic loading conditions might enhance the understanding of the PDL's biologic reaction in health and disease. Providing a greater insight into the response of the PDL would be instrumental to orthodontists and engineers for designing more predictable, and therefore more efficacious, orthodontic appliances.

‣ Transitioning the Adolescent with IBD from Pediatric to Adult Care: A Review of the Literature

Bollegala, Natasha; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), has increased in pediatric populations over the last decade. Patients diagnosed during childhood often survive well into adulthood, and therefore their healthcare requires transfer to an adult gastroenterologist, usually at age 18 years. Transition has been defined in the literature as the “purposeful planned movement of adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions from child-centered to adult-oriented health care systems” (Blum et al., 1993). The purpose of this review is to establish the current state of knowledge regarding the transition from pediatric to adult care in IBD. This review highlights that developmentally appropriate transitional care is now recognized as a healthcare priority and thoughtful targeted intervention is needed.

‣ Efficacy and Safety of COX-2 Inhibitors in the Clinical Management of Arthritis: Mini Review

Mathew, Sam T.; Devi S, Gayathri; Prasanth, V. V.; Vinod, B.
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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431.1143%
In the clinical management of arthritis, the choice of nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAID) remains confusing and controversial. A common practice on the choice of NSAID in clinical management of arthritis is the risk benefit ratio. The main objective of this review is to addresses the main arguments for the pharmacological and clinical use of COX-2 inhibitors in relation to nonselective NSAIDs for the clinical management of arthritis. This review concluded that, both NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors are equally effective and are associated with increased risk of GI, renal, and CV, adverse effects. Complete understanding of the patient's comorbid conditions and concomitant medications, coupled with precise monitoring during the treatment, may help to decrease the threat of adverse effects induced by nonselective NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors.

‣ Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided.

‣ Flexibility Training and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

Stathokostas, Liza; Little, Robert M. D.; Vandervoort, A. A.; Paterson, Donald H.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. As indicated in a recent systematic review relating to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Older Adults, exercise interventions in older adults can maintain or improve functional abilities. Less is known about the role of flexibility in the maintenance or improvement of functional abilities, and there currently does not exist a synthesis of the literature supporting a consensus on flexibility training prescription. Purpose. To systematically review the effects of flexibility-specific training interventions on measures of functional outcomes in healthy older adults over the age of 65 years. Methods. Five electronic databases were searched for intervention studies involving concepts related to aging, flexibility, functional outcomes, and training interventions. After evaluating the articles for relevance, 22 studies were considered. Results. The results suggested that while flexibility-specific interventions may have effects on range of motion (ROM) outcomes, there is conflicting information regarding both the relationship between flexibility interventions and functional outcomes or daily functioning. Conclusions. Due to the wide range of intervention protocols, body parts studied, and functional measurements, conclusive recommendations regarding flexibility training for older adults or the validity of flexibility training interventions as supplements to other forms of exercise...

‣ Ginseng and Anticancer Drug Combination to Improve Cancer Chemotherapy: A Critical Review

Chen, Shihong; Wang, Zhijun; Huang, Ying; O'Barr, Stephen A.; Wong, Rebecca A.; Yeung, Steven; Chow, Moses Sing Sum
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Ginseng, a well-known herb, is often used in combination with anticancer drugs to enhance chemotherapy. Its wide usage as well as many documentations are often cited to support its clinical benefit of such combination therapy. However the literature based on objective evidence to make such recommendation is still lacking. The present review critically evaluated relevant studies reported in English and Chinese literature on such combination. Based on our review, we found good evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing enhanced antitumor effect when ginseng is used in combination with some anticancer drugs. However, there is insufficient clinical evidence of such benefit as very few clinical studies are available. Future research should focus on clinically relevant studies of such combination to validate the utility of ginseng in cancer.

‣ Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: a Review Featuring a Women's Health Perspective

Marchioni Beery, Renée M.; Vaziri, Haleh; Forouhar, Faripour
Fonte: XIA & HE Publishing Ltd Publicador: XIA & HE Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are two major types of chronic cholestatic liver disease. Each disorder has distinguishing features and variable progression, but both may ultimately result in cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The following offers a review of PBC and PSC, beginning with a general overview of disease etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical features, natural course, and treatment. In addition to commonly associated manifestations of fatigue, pruritus, and fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, select disease-related topics pertaining to women's health are discussed including metabolic bone disease, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular risk, and pregnancy-related issues influencing maternal disease course and birth outcomes. This comprehensive review of PBC and PSC highlights some unique clinical considerations in the care of female patients with cholestatic liver disease.

‣ Neoplasm seeding in biopsy tract of the musculoskeletal system. A systematic review

Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ortopedia e Traumatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ortopedia e Traumatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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To identify, through a systematic literature review, the characteristics of neoplasm seeding in biopsy performed on the musculoskeletal system. We performed a search on PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO from August to October 2010. We included articles that addressed the neoplasm seeding in biopsy performed on the musculoskeletal system. The search was limited to English, Spanish and Portuguese as publication languages, but it was not limited by year of publication. We retrieved 2858 articles, but only seven were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Other four papers were found in the references of selected articles, totalizing 11 articles that were used to perform this systematic review. Issues may be raised in the literature: age and gender don't seem to influence the occurrence of neoplasm seeding; without resection of the biopsy tract, the possibility of local recurrence is very real; the influence of the type of tumor in the occurrence of neoplasm seeding is uncertain; it is impossible to conclude whether the closed biopsy technique has a lower chance of neoplasm seeding; it is likely that adjuvant chemotherapy has a protective effect against neoplasm seeding; an unfavorable prognosis is expected according to neoplasm seeding results.

‣ Nanomodified Peek Dental Implants: Bioactive Composites and Surface Modification—A Review

Najeeb, Shariq; Khurshid, Zohaib; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Siddiqui, Fahad; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Baroudi, Kusai
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Purpose. The aim of this review is to summarize and evaluate the relevant literature regarding the different ways how polyetheretherketone (PEEK) can be modified to overcome its limited bioactivity, and thereby making it suitable as a dental implant material. Study Selection. An electronic literature search was conducted via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases using the keywords “PEEK dental implants,” “nano,” “osseointegration,” “surface treatment,” and “modification.” A total of 16 in vivo and in vitro studies were found suitable to be included in this review. Results. There are many viable methods to increase the bioactivity of PEEK. Most methods focus on increasing the surface roughness, increasing the hydrophilicity and coating osseoconductive materials. Conclusion. There are many ways in which PEEK can be modified at a nanometer level to overcome its limited bioactivity. Melt-blending with bioactive nanoparticles can be used to produce bioactive nanocomposites, while spin-coating, gas plasma etching, electron beam, and plasma-ion immersion implantation can be used to modify the surface of PEEK implants in order to make them more bioactive. However, more animal studies are needed before these implants can be deemed suitable to be used as dental implants.

‣ Successful Strategies to Engage Research Partners for Translating Evidence into Action in Community Health: A Critical Review

Salsberg, Jon; Parry, David; Pluye, Pierre; Macridis, Soultana; Herbert, Carol P.; Macaulay, Ann C.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objectives. To undertake a critical review describing key strategies supporting development of participatory research (PR) teams to engage partners for creation and translation of action-oriented knowledge. Methods. Sources are four leading PR practitioners identified via bibliometric analysis. Authors' publications were identified in January 1995–October 2009 in PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science and CAB databases, and books. Works were limited to those with a process description describing a research project and practitioners were first, second, third, or last author. Results. Adapting and applying the “Reliability Tested Guidelines for Assessing Participatory Research Projects” to retained records identified five key strategies: developing advisory committees of researchers and intended research users; developing research agreements; using formal and informal group facilitation techniques; hiring co-researchers/partners from community; and ensuring frequent communication. Other less frequently mentioned strategies were also identified. Conclusion. This review is the first time these guidelines were used to identify key strategies supporting PR projects. They proved effective at identifying and evaluating engagement strategies as reported by completed research projects. Adapting these guidelines identified gaps where the tool was unable to assess fundamental PR elements of power dynamics...

‣ Academic-Service Partnerships in Nursing: An Integrative Review

Beal, Judy A.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This integrative review summarizes currently available evidence on academic-service partnerships in the profession of nursing. More than 300 articles, published primarily in refereed journals, were accessed. Articles (110) were included in this review as they presented detailed and substantive information about any aspect of a nursing academic-service partnership. The majority were anecdotal in nature. Topics clustered around the following categories: pre-requisites for successful partnerships, benefits of partnerships, types of partnerships, and workforce development with its themes of academic-practice progression and educational re-design. Many examples of partnerships between academic and service settings were thoroughly described and best practices suggested, most often, however, without formal evaluation of outcomes. Nursing leaders in both settings have a long tradition of partnering with very little replicable evidence to support their efforts. It is critical that future initiatives evaluate the effectiveness of these partnerships, not only to ensure quality of patient outcomes but also to maximize efforts at building capacity for tomorrow's workforce.

‣ How can health systems be strengthened to control and prevent an Ebola outbreak? A narrative review

Regmi, Krishna; Gilbert, Ruth; Thunhurst, Colin
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/11/2015 Português
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The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases are now more than ever considered threats to public health systems. There have been over 20 outbreaks of Ebola in the past 40 years. Only recently, the World Health Organization has declared a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) in West Africa, with a projected estimate of 1.2 million deaths expected in the next 6 months. Ebola virus is a highly virulent pathogen, often fatal in humans and non-human primates. Ebola is now a great priority for global health security and often becomes fatal if left untreated. This study employed a narrative review. Three major databases – MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health – were searched using both ‘text-words’ and ‘thesaurus terms’. Evidence shows that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are not coping well with the current challenges of Ebola, not only because they have poor and fragile systems but also because there are poor infectious disease surveillance and response systems in place. The identification of potential cases is problematic, particularly in the aspects of contact tracing, infection control, and prevention, prior to the diagnosis of the case. This review therefore aims to examine whether LMICs’ health systems would be able to control and manage Ebola in future and identifies two key elements of health systems strengthening that are needed to ensure the robustness of the health system to respond effectively.

‣ Blessings in disguise: a review of phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of plants belonging to the genus Eryngium

Erdem, Sinem Aslan; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Daglia, Maria; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 14/12/2015 Português
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Medicinal and edible plants play a crucial role in the prevention and/or mitigation of different human diseases from ancient times to today. In folk medicine, there are different plants used for infectious disease treatment. During the past two decades, much attention has been paid to plants as novel alternative therapeutic agents for the treatment of infectious diseases due to their bioactive natural compounds such as phenol, flavonoids, tannins, etc. The genus Eryngium (Apiaceae) contains more than 250 flowering plant species, which are commonly used as edible and medicinal plants in different countries. In fact, some genus Eryngium species are used as spices and are cultivated throughout the world and others species are used for the treatment of hypertension, gastrointestinal problems, asthma, burns, fevers, diarrhea, malaria, etc. Phytochemical analysis has shown that genus Eryngium species are a rich source of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and triterpenoids. Moreover, eryngial, one the most important and major compounds of genus Eryngium plant essential oil, possesses a significant antibacterial effect. Thus, the objective of this review is to critically review the scientific literature on the phytochemical composition and antibacterial effects of the genus Eryngium plants. In addition...