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‣ Mutations of the KISS1 Gene in Disorders of Puberty

SILVEIRA, L. G.; NOEL, S. D.; SILVEIRA-NETO, A. P.; ABREU, A. P.; BRITO, V. N.; SANTOS, M. G.; BIANCO, S. D. C.; KUOHUNG, W.; XU, S.; GRYNGARTEN, M.; ESCOBAR, M. E.; ARNHOLD, I. J. P.; MENDONCA, B. B.; KAISER, U. B.; LATRONICO, A. C.
Fonte: ENDOCRINE SOC Publicador: ENDOCRINE SOC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Context: Kisspeptin, encoded by the KISS1 gene, is a key stimulatory factor of GnRH secretion and puberty onset. Inactivating mutations of its receptor (KISS1R) cause isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). A unique KISS1R-activating mutation was described in central precocious puberty (CPP). Objective: Our objective was to investigate KISS1 mutations in patients with idiopathic CPP and normosmic IHH. Patients: Eighty-three children with CPP (77 girls) and 61 patients with IHH (40 men) were studied. The control group consisted of 200 individuals with normal pubertal development. Methods: The promoter region and the three exons of KISS1 were amplified and sequenced. Cells expressing KISS1R were stimulated with synthetic human wild-type or mutant kisspeptin-54 (kp54), and inositol phosphate accumulation was measured. In a second set of experiments, kp54 was preincubated in human serum before stimulation of the cells. Results: Two novel KISS1 missense mutations, p.P74S and p.H90D, were identified in three unrelated children with idiopathic CPP. Both mutations were absent in 400 control alleles. The p.P74S mutation was identified in the heterozygous state in a boy who developed CPP at 1 yr of age. The p.H90D mutation was identified in the homozygous state in two unrelated girls with CPP. In vitro studies revealed that the capacity of the P74S and H90D mutants to stimulate IP production was similar to the wild type. After preincubation of wild-type and mutant kp54 in human serum...

‣ Analysis of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene in patients with obstructive azoospermia

Bernardino,Andrea L.F.; Lima,Cintia E.; Zatz,Mayana
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 Português
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Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) accounts for 1%-2% of sterility in men. A high incidence of mutations, as well as the involvement of the 5T variant of the T tract length in intron 8 of the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, have been previously described in males with CBAVD. Herein we report the screening for mutations and for the 5T variant of the CFTR gene in 17 patients with CBAVD and three others with non-CABVD obstructive azoospermia. In the CBAVD group, three patients (15%) were compound heterozygotes for mutations, and five patients (25%) had a mutation in one allele and the 5T variant in the other; the 5T variant was also present in two other patients, one of them being homozygous. The most frequent mutation was DF508, present on five chromosomes (12.5%). A novel missense mutation (A399D) was detected in a Japanese CBVAD patient. Our results yield further evidence for a strong association between male obstructive azoospermia caused by CBAVD and mutation/5T variant in the CFTR gene. The search for CFTR mutations in such patients is thus recommended for genetic counseling of couples who undergo assisted fertilization due to CBAVD.

‣ Novel GATA5 loss-of-function mutations underlie familial atrial fibrillation

Gu,Jian-Yun; Xu,Jia-Hong; Yu,Hong; Yang,Yi-Qing
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 Português
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OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify novel GATA5 mutations that underlie familial atrial fibrillation. METHODS: A total of 110 unrelated patients with familial atrial fibrillation and 200 unrelated, ethnically matched healthy controls were recruited. The entire coding region of the GATA5 gene was sequenced in 110 atrial fibrillation probands. The available relatives of the mutation carriers and 200 controls were subsequently genotyped for the identified mutations. The functional effect of the mutated GATA5 was characterized using a luciferase reporter assay system. RESULTS: Two novel heterozygous GATA5 mutations (p.Y138F and p.C210G) were identified in two of the 110 unrelated atrial fibrillation families. These missense mutations cosegregated with AF in the families and were absent in the 400 control chromosomes. A cross-species alignment of GATA5 protein sequence showed that the altered amino acids were completely conserved evolutionarily. A functional analysis revealed that the mutant GATA5 proteins were associated with significantly decreased transcriptional activation when compared with their wild-type counterpart. CONCLUSION: The findings expand the spectrum of GATA5 mutations linked to AF and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation...

‣ Structural interpretation of the mutations in the beta-cardiac myosin that have been implicated in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Rayment, I; Holden, H M; Sellers, J R; Fananapazir, L; Epstein, N D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/04/1995 Português
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In 10-30% of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy kindreds, the disease is caused by > 29 missense mutations in the cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain (MYH7) gene. The amino acid sequence similarity between chicken skeletal muscle and human beta-cardiac myosin and the three-dimensional structure of the chicken skeletal muscle myosin head have provided the opportunity to examine the structural consequences of these naturally occurring mutations in human beta-cardiac myosin. This study demonstrates that the mutations are related to distinct structural and functional domains. Twenty-four are clustered around four specific locations in the myosin head that are (i) associated with the actin binding interface, (ii) around the nucleotide binding site, (iii) adjacent to the region that connects the two reactive cysteine residues, and (iv) in close proximity to the interface of the heavy chain with the essential light chain. The remaining five mutations are in the myosin rod. The locations of these mutations provide insight into the way they impair the functioning of this molecular motor and also into the mechanism of energy transduction.

‣ Benzo[a]pyrene-induced murine skin tumors exhibit frequent and characteristic G to T mutations in the p53 gene.

Ruggeri, B; DiRado, M; Zhang, S Y; Bauer, B; Goodrow, T; Klein-Szanto, A J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/1993 Português
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Human tobacco-related cancers exhibit a high frequency of G to T transversions in the mutation hot spot region of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, possibly the result of specific mutagens in tobacco smoke, most notably benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). No in vivo animal model of B[a]P-induced tumorigenesis has been used, however, to substantiate these molecular epidemiological data experimentally. Direct DNA sequence analysis of the hot spot region (exons 5-8 inclusive) of murine p53 was performed in 20 skin tumors induced by a complete carcinogenesis protocol with B[a]P. Sequence analyses revealed numerous heterozygous missense mutations in carcinomas, specifically in exons 7 and 8 of the p53 gene, and targeting exclusively guanine residues. Moreover, 70% (5/7) of the mutations characterized were G to T transversions. In contrast, direct DNA sequence analysis of 36 skin tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in either a complete carcinogenesis protocol or in a two-stage carcinogenesis protocol revealed a 30% frequency of heterozygous p53 mutations, with the majority of mutations found in carcinomas, but only a single G to T transversion (1/8). Thus, while mutation frequencies are similar, the pattern and type of p53 mutations in B[a]P-induced skin tumors differs significantly from the mutation spectra in DMBA-induced squamous neoplasias. These in vivo findings in B[a]P-induced tumors lend support to in vitro and molecular epidemiological evidence...

‣ Mutator Phenotypes Conferred by MLH1 Overexpression and by Heterozygosity for mlh1 Mutations

Shcherbakova, Polina V.; Kunkel, Thomas A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1999 Português
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Loss of DNA mismatch repair due to mutation or diminished expression of the MLH1 gene is associated with genome instability and cancer. In this study, we used a yeast model system to examine three circumstances relevant to modulation of MLH1 function. First, overexpression of wild-type MLH1 was found to cause a strong elevation of mutation rates at three different loci, similar to the mutator effect of MLH1 gene inactivation. Second, haploid yeast strains with any of six mlh1 missense mutations that mimic germ line mutations found in human cancer patients displayed a strong mutator phenotype consistent with loss of mismatch repair function. Five of these mutations affect amino acids that are homologous to residues suggested by recent crystal structure and biochemical analysis of Escherichia coli MutL to participate in ATP binding and hydrolysis. Finally, using a highly sensitive reporter gene, we detected a mutator phenotype of diploid yeast strains that are heterozygous for mlh1 mutations. Evidence suggesting that this mutator effect results not from reduced mismatch repair in the MLH1/mlh1 cells but rather from loss of the wild-type MLH1 allele in a fraction of cells is presented. Exposure to bleomycin or to UV irradiation strongly enhanced mutagenesis in the heterozygous strain but had little effect on the mutation rate in the wild-type strain. This damage-induced hypermutability may be relevant to cancer in humans with germ line mutations in only one MLH1 allele.

‣ Contribution of rpoB Mutations to Development of Rifamycin Cross-Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Williams, D. L.; Spring, L.; Collins, L.; Miller, L. P.; Heifets, L. B.; Gangadharam, P. R. J.; Gillis, T. P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1998 Português
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The contributions of 23 insertion, deletion, or missense mutations within an 81-bp fragment of rpoB, the gene encoding the β-subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to the development of resistance to rifamycins (rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentine, and KRM-1648) in 29 rifampin-resistant clinical isolates were defined. Specific mutant rpoB alleles led to the development of cross-resistance to all rifamycins tested, while a subset of mutations were associated with resistance to rifampin and rifapentine but not to KRM-1648 or rifabutin. To further study the impact of specific rpoB mutant alleles on the development of rifamycin resistance, mutations were incorporated into the rpoB gene of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, contained on a mycobacterial shuttle plasmid, by in vitro mutagenesis. Recombinant M. tuberculosis clones containing plasmids with specific mutations in either codon 531 or 526 of rpoB exhibited high-level resistance to all rifamycins tested, whereas clones containing a plasmid with a mutation in codon 516 exhibited high-level resistance to rifampin and rifapentine but were susceptible to both rifabutin and KRM-1648. These results provided additional proof of the association of specific rpoB mutations with the development of rifamycin resistance and corroborate previous reports of the usefulness of rpoB genotyping for predicting rifamycin-resistant phenotypes.

‣ Defective importin β recognition and nuclear import of the sex-determining factor SRY are associated with XY sex-reversing mutations

Harley, Vincent R.; Layfield, Sharon; Mitchell, Claire L.; Forwood, Jade K.; John, Anna P.; Briggs, Lyndall J.; McDowall, Sharon G.; Jans, David A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The architectural transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome) plays a key role in sex determination as indicated by the fact that mutations in SRY are responsible for XY gonadal dysgenesis in humans. Although many SRY mutations reduce DNA-binding/bending activity, it is not clear how SRY mutations that do not affect interaction with DNA contribute to disease. The SRY high-mobility group domain harbors two nuclear localization signals (NLSs), and here we examine SRY from four XY females with missense mutations in these signals. In all cases, mutant SRY protein is partly localized to the cytoplasm, whereas wild-type SRY is strictly nuclear. Each NLS can independently direct nuclear transport of a carrier protein in vitro and in vivo, with mutations in either affecting the rate and extent of nuclear accumulation. The N-terminal NLS function is independent of the conventional NLS-binding importins (IMPs) and requires unidentified cytoplasmic transport factors, whereas the C-terminal NLS is recognized by IMPβ. The SRY-R133W mutant shows reduced IMPβ binding as a direct consequence of the sex-reversing C-terminal NLS mutation. Of the N-terminal NLS mutants examined, SRY-R62G unexpectedly shows a marked reduction in IMPβ binding...

‣ Suppression of signal sequence defects and azide resistance in Escherichia coli commonly result from the same mutations in secA.

Huie, J L; Silhavy, T J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1995 Português
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The SecA protein of Escherichia coli is required for protein translocation from the cytoplasm. The complexity of SecA function is reflected by missense mutations in the secA gene that confer several different phenotypes: (i) conditional-lethal alleles cause a generalized block in protein secretion, resulting in the cytoplasmic accumulation of the precursor forms of secreted proteins; (ii) azi alleles confer resistance to azide at concentrations up to 4 mM; and (iii) prlD alleles suppress a number of signal sequence mutations in several different genes. To gain further insights into the role of SecA in protein secretion, we have isolated and characterized a large number of prlD mutations, reasoning that these mutations alter a normal function of wild-type SecA. Our results reveal a striking coincidence of signal sequence suppression and azide resistance: the majority of prlD alleles also confer azide resistance, and all azi alleles tested are suppressors. We suggest that this correlation reflects the mechanism(s) of signal sequence suppression. There are two particularly interesting subclasses of prlD and azi alleles. First, four of the prlD and azi alleles exhibit special properties: (i) as suppressors they are potent enough to allow PrlD (SecA) inactivation by a toxic LacZ fusion protein marked with a signal sequence mutation (suppressor-directed inactivation)...

‣ Sequential addition of temperature-sensitive missense mutations into the PB2 gene of influenza A transfectant viruses can effect an increase in temperature sensitivity and attenuation and permits the rational design of a genetically engineered live influenza A virus vaccine.

Subbarao, E K; Park, E J; Lawson, C M; Chen, A Y; Murphy, B R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1995 Português
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We have previously described a strategy for the recovery of a synthetic influenza A virus wild-type (wt) PB2 gene (derived from influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 [AA] virus) into an infectious virus. It was possible to introduce an attenuating temperature-sensitive (ts) mutation at amino acid residue 265 of the AA wt PB2 gene and to rescue this mutant gene into infectious virus. Application of this new technology to influenza A virus vaccine development requires that multiple attenuating mutations be introduced to achieve a satisfactorily attenuated virus that retains the attenuation (att) phenotype following replication in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that putative ts mutations at amino acids 112, 556, and 658 each indeed specify the ts and att phenotypes. Each of these mutations was introduced into a cDNA copy of the AA mutant mt265 PB2 gene to produce three double-mutant PB2 genes, each of which was rescued into an infectious virus. In general, the double-mutant PB2 transfectant viruses were more ts and attenuated in the lower respiratory tracts of hamsters than the single-mutant transfectant viruses, and the ts phenotype of two of three double-mutant PB2 transfectant viruses was stable even after prolonged replication in the upper respiratory tracts of immunocompromised mice. Two triple-mutant PB2 transfectant viruses with three predicted amino acid substitutions resulting from five nucleotide substitutions in the cDNA were then generated. The triple-mutant PB2 transfectant viruses were more ts and more attenuated than the double-mutant PB2 transfectant viruses. These results indicate that sequential introduction of additional ts mutations into the PB2 gene can yield mutants that exhibit a stepwise increase in temperature sensitivity and attenuation compared with the preceding mutant(s) in the series. Furthermore...

‣ Salmonella typhimurium fliG and fliN mutations causing defects in assembly, rotation, and switching of the flagellar motor.

Irikura, V M; Kihara, M; Yamaguchi, S; Sockett, H; Macnab, R M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1993 Português
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FliG, FliM, and FliN are three proteins of Salmonella typhimurium that affect the rotation and switching of direction of the flagellar motor. An analysis of mutant alleles of FliM has been described recently (H. Sockett, S. Yamaguchi, M. Kihara, V. M. Irikura, and R. M. Macnab, J. Bacteriol. 174:793-806, 1992). We have now analyzed a large number of mutations in the fliG and fliN genes that are responsible for four different types of defects: failure to assembly flagella (nonflagellate phenotype), failure to rotate flagella (paralyzed phenotype), and failure to display normal chemotaxis as a result of an abnormally high bias to clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW) rotation (CW-bias and CCW-bias phenotypes, respectively). The null phenotype for fliG, caused by nonsense or frameshift mutations, was nonflagellate. However, a considerable part of the FliG amino acid sequence was not needed for flagellation, with several substantial in-frame deletions preventing motor rotation but not flagellar assembly. Missense mutations in fliG causing paralysis or abnormal switching occurred at a number of positions, almost all within the middle one-third of the gene. CW-bias and CCW-bias mutations tended to segregate into separate subclusters. The null phenotype of fliN is uncertain...

‣ ADAM10 Missense Mutations Potentiate β-Amyloid Accumulation by Impairing Prodomain Chaperone Function

Suh, Jaehong; Choi, Se Hoon; Romano, Donna M.; Gannon, Moira A.; Lesinski, Andrea N.; Kim, Doo Yeon; Tanzi, Rudolph E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The generation of Aβ, the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is precluded by α-secretase cleavage within the Aβ domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We identified two rare mutations (Q170H and R181G) in the prodomain of the metalloprotease, ADAM10, that co-segregate with late-onset AD (LOAD). Here, we addressed the pathogenicity of these mutations in transgenic mice expressing human ADAM10 in brain. In Tg2576 AD mice, both mutations attenuated α-secretase activity of ADAM10 and shifted APP processing toward β-secretase-mediated cleavage, while enhancing Aβ plaque load and reactive gliosis. We also demonstrated ADAM10 expression potentiates adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which is reduced by the LOAD mutations. Mechanistically, both LOAD mutations impaired the molecular chaperone activity of ADAM10 prodomain. Collectively, these findings suggest that diminished α-secretase activity, owing to LOAD ADAM10 prodomain mutations, leads to AD-related pathology, strongly supporting ADAM10 as a promising therapeutic target for this devastating disease.

‣ New somatic mutations and WNK1-B4GALNT3 gene fusion in papillary thyroid carcinoma

Costa, Valerio; Esposito, Roberta; Ziviello, Carmela; Sepe, Romina; Bim, Larissa Valdemarin; Cacciola, Nunzio Antonio; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Fusco, Alfredo; Ciccodicola, Alfredo
Fonte: Impact Journals LLC Publicador: Impact Journals LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/03/2015 Português
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most frequent thyroid malignant neoplasia. Oncogene activation occurs in more than 70% of the cases. Indeed, about 40% of PTCs harbor mutations in BRAF gene, whereas RET rearrangements (RET/PTC oncogenes) are present in about 20% of cases. Finally, RAS mutations and TRK rearrangements account for about 5% each of these malignancies. We used RNA-Sequencing to identify fusion transcripts and mutations in cancer driver genes in a cohort of 18 PTC patients. Furthermore, we used targeted DNA sequencing to validate identified mutations. We extended the screening to 50 PTC patients and 30 healthy individuals. Using this approach we identified new missense mutations in CBL, NOTCH1, PIK3R4 and SMARCA4 genes. We found somatic mutations in DICER1, MET and VHL genes, previously found mutated in other tumors, but not described in PTC. We identified a new chimeric transcript generated by the fusion of WNK1 and B4GALNT3 genes, correlated with B4GALNT3 overexpression. Our data confirmed PTC genetic heterogeneity, revealing that gene expression correlates more with the mutation pattern than with tumor staging. Overall, this study provides new data about mutational landscape of this neoplasia, suggesting potential pharmacological adjuvant therapies against Notch signaling and chromatin remodeling enzymes.

‣ Comparison of predicted and actual consequences of missense mutations

Miosge, Lisa A.; Field, Matthew A.; Sontani, Yovina; Cho, Vicky; Johnson, Simon; Palkova, Anna; Balakishnan, Bhavani; Liang, Rong; Zhang, Yafei; Lyon, Stephen; Beutler, Bruce; Whittle, Belinda; Bertram, Edward M.; Enders, Anselm; Goodnow, Christopher C.;
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Computational tools applied to any human genome sequence identify hundreds of genetic variants predicted to disrupt the function of individual proteins as the result of a single codon change. These tools have been trained on disease mutations and common polymorphisms but have yet to be tested against an unbiased spectrum of random mutations arising de novo. Here we perform such a test comparing the predicted and actual effects of de novo mutations in 23 genes with essential functions for normal immunity and all possible mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. These results highlight an important gap in our ability to relate genotype to phenotype in clinical genome sequencing: the inability to differentiate immediately clinically relevant mutations from nearly neutral mutations.

‣ Mutations in the intellectual disability gene KDM5C reduce protein stability and demethylase activity

Brookes, E.; Laurent, B.; Õunap, K.; Carroll, R.; Moeschler, J.B.; Field, M.; Schwartz, C.E.; Gecz, J.; Shi, Y.
Fonte: Oxford University Press (OUP) Publicador: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Mutations in KDM, C are an important cause of X-linked intellectual disability in males. KDM, C encodes a histone demethylase, suggesting that alterations in chromatin landscape may contribute to disease. We used primary patient cells and biochemical approaches to investigate the effects of patient mutations on KDM, C expression, stability and catalytic activity. We report and characterize a novel nonsense mutation, c., delG, p.V, Yfs, which leads to loss of KDM, C protein. We also characterize two KDM, C missense mutations, c., C, T, p.P, L, and c., G, T, p.D, Y, that are compatible with protein production, but compromise stability and enzymatic activity. Finally, we demonstrate that a c., T, C mutation in the translation initiation codon of KDM, C results in translation re-start and production of a N-terminally truncated protein, p.M, E, del, that is unstable and lacks detectable demethylase activity. Patient fibroblasts do not show global changes in histone methylation but we identify several up-regulated genes, suggesting local changes in chromatin conformation and gene expression. This thorough examination of KDM, C patient mutations demonstrates the utility of examining the molecular consequences of patient mutations on several levels...

‣ In Vitro Characterization of the Function of ABCA1: Effects of Naturally Occurring Mutations

Mok, Leo
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 4174205 bytes; application/pdf
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The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCA1, plays a pivotal role in reverse cholesterol transport, which is the elimination of excess sterols from peripheral cells and their transport to the liver for elimination. Early studies failed to detect significant ATPase activity, prompting the suggestion that ABCA1 was an ATP-regulated receptor, rather than an active transporter. We have provided evidence that ABCA1 can bind ATP and trap its hydrolysis product, ADP, in the presence of either ortho-vanadate or beryllium fluoride and Mg2+ or Mn2+. We have also shown that both nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) trap nucleotide comparably, suggesting that ABCA1 is a functional ATPase. In addition, we have shown that ABCA1 can directly transport 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) in an ATP-dependent manner using a membrane vesicle uptake assay, and can do so when the physiological substrate acceptor apoA-I is replaced with BSA as a non-specific binding protein. Although more than 50 naturally occurring missense mutations and polymorphisms in ABCA1 have been identified in individuals with HDL-C levels within the lowest 5th percentile of the general population, the extent to which many of these mutations affect ABCA1 function is not known and cannot be predicted. Naturally occurring extracellular loop (ECL) mutations W590S and C1477R have both been shown to effectively eliminate the ability to mediate lipid efflux...

‣ TREATMENT-DEPENDENT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR MUTATIONS IN PROSTATE CANCER EXPLOIT MULTIPLE MECHANISMS TO EVADE THERAPY

Steinkamp, Mara P.; O'Mahony, Orla A.; Brogley, Michele; Rehman, Haniya; LaPensee, Elizabeth W.; Dhanasekaran, Saravana; Hofer, Matthias D.; Kuefer, Rainer; Chinnaiyan, Arul; Rubin, Mark A.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Robins, Diane M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) that enable activation by antiandrogens occur in hormone-refractory prostate cancer, suggesting mutant ARs are selected by treatment. To validate this hypothesis, we compared AR variants in metastases obtained by rapid autopsy of patients treated with flutamide or bicalutamide, or by excision of lymph node metastases from hormone-naïve patients. AR mutations occurred at low levels in all specimens, reflecting genetic heterogeneity of prostate cancer. Base changes recurring in multiple samples or multiple times per sample were considered putative selected mutations. Of 26 recurring missense mutations, most in the N-terminal domain (NTD) occurred in multiple tumors, while those in the ligand binding domain (LBD) were case-specific. Hormone-naïve tumors had few recurring mutations and none in the LBD. Several AR variants were assessed for mechanisms that might underlie treatment resistance. Selection was evident for the promiscuous receptor AR-V716M, which dominated three metastases from one flutamide-treated patient. For the inactive cytoplasmically restricted splice variant AR23, co-expression with AR enhanced ligand response, supporting a decoy function. A novel NTD mutation, W435L, in a motif involved in intramolecular interaction influenced promoter-selective...

‣ Mutations in the liver glycogen synthase gene in children with hypoglycemia due to glycogen storage disease type 0.

Orho, M; Bosshard, N U; Buist, N R; Gitzelmann, R; Aynsley-Green, A; Blümel, P; Gannon, M C; Nuttall, F Q; Groop, L C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/1998 Português
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Glycogen storage disease type 0 (GSD-0) is a rare form of fasting hypoglycemia presenting in infancy or early childhood and accompanied by high blood ketones and low alanine and lactate concentrations. Although feeding relieves symptoms, it often results in postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia. The glycogen synthase (GS) activity has been low or immeasurable in liver biopsies, whereas the liver glycogen content has been only moderately decreased. To investigate whether mutations in the liver GS gene (GYS2) on chromosome 12p12.2 were involved in GSD-0, we determined the exon-intron structure of the GYS2 gene and examined nine affected children from five families for linkage of GSD-0 to the GYS2 gene. Mutation screening of the 16 GYS2 exons was done by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and direct sequencing. Liver GS deficiency was diagnosed from liver biopsies (GS activity and glycogen content). GS activity in the liver of the affected children was extremely low or nil, resulting in subnormal glycogen content. After suggestive linkage to the GYS2 gene had been established (LOD score = 2.9; P < 0.01), mutation screening revealed several different mutations in these families, including a premature stop codon in exon 5 (Arg246X)...

‣ Spectrum of Mutations in Gitelman Syndrome

Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Dahan, Karin; Kahila, Diana; Venisse, Annabelle; Riveira-Munoz, Eva; Debaix, Huguette; Grisart, Bernard; Bridoux, Franck; Unwin, Robert; Moulin, Bruno; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Rigothier, Claire; Dussol, Be
Fonte: American Society of Nephrology Publicador: American Society of Nephrology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2011 Português
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Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is a rare, autosomal recessive, salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutations in the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). Because 18 to 40% of suspected GS patients carry only one SLC12A3 mutant allele, large genomic rearrangements may account for unidentified mutations. Here, we directly sequenced genomic DNA from a large cohort of 448 unrelated patients suspected of having GS. We found 172 distinct mutations, of which 100 were unreported previously. In 315 patients (70%), we identified two mutations; in 81 patients (18%), we identified one; and in 52 patients (12%), we did not detect a mutation. In 88 patients, we performed a search for large rearrangements by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and found nine deletions and two duplications in 24 of the 51 heterozygous patients. A second technique confirmed each rearrangement. Based on the breakpoints of seven deletions, nonallelic homologous recombination by Alu sequences and nonhomologous end-joining probably favor these intragenic deletions. In summary, missense mutations account for approximately 59% of the mutations in Gitelman's syndrome, and there is a predisposition to large rearrangements (6% of our cases) caused by the presence of repeated sequences within the SLC12A3 gene.

‣ PITX2C loss-of-function mutations responsible for idiopathic atrial fibrillation

Qiu, Xing-Biao; Xu, Ying-Jia; Li, Ruo-Gu; Xu, Lei; Liu, Xu; Fang, Wei-Yi; Yang, Yi-Qing; Qu, Xin-Kai
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
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OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify novel PITX2c mutations responsible for idiopathic atrial fibrillation. METHODS: A cohort of 210 unrelated patients with idiopathic atrial fibrillation and 200 unrelated, ethnically matched healthy individuals used as controls were recruited. The whole coding exons and splice junctions of the PITX2c gene, which encodes a paired-like homeobox transcription factor required for normal cardiovascular morphogenesis, were sequenced in 210 patients and 200 control subjects. The causative potentials of the identified mutations were automatically predicted by MutationTaster and PolyPhen-2. The functional characteristics of the PITX2c mutations were explored using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system. RESULTS: Two novel heterozygous PITX2c mutations (p.Q105L and p.R122C) were identified in 2 of the 210 unrelated patients with idiopathic atrial fibrillation. These missense mutations were absent in the 400 control chromosomes and were both predicted to be pathogenic. Multiple alignments of PITX2c protein sequences across various species showed that the altered amino acids were highly evolutionarily conserved. A functional analysis demonstrated that the mutant PITX2c proteins were both associated with significantly reduced transcriptional activity compared with their wild-type counterparts. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study associate PITX2c loss-of-function mutations with atrial fibrillation...