This review gives a comprehensive overview of cancer development and links it to the current understanding of tumorigenesis and malignant progression in colorectal cancer. The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder. A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model) will also be presented. The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication. The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma). These can be defined as well-demarcated masses of epithelial dysplasia, with uncontrolled crypt cell proliferation. When neoplastic cells pass through the muscularis mucosa and infiltrate the submucosa, they are malignant. Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis. Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal neoplasms cover a wide range of pre-malignant and malignant lesions...
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age with an estimated prevalence of about 10%. Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, endometrial cancer, breast cancer and ovarian cancer are some of the most important emerging issues regarding syndromes influence in womens future well being. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information, based on clinical evidence, in order to advise clinicians about the late consequences of the syndrome.
Changes to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control policies since 2001 mean that emergency vaccination must be considered more readily as a control measure in the future. Since field application of vaccine for emergency use has only rarely been applied, the effectiveness of single dose administration, as a control measure in an outbreak situation, is poorly understood. In this review we consider all the available experimental data from studies utilizing either experimental or readily available, commercially produced vaccines, in order to assess their likely effectiveness as an additional means of controlling FMD transmission and spread in an emergency. Overall it is concluded that such vaccines offer an additional and valuable means of FMD control for both ruminants and pigs. They are able to reduce clinical disease, sub-clinical infection and excretion and onward transmission of virus. However, to be most effective, vaccination should be rapidly applied to give maximum opportunity for immunity to develop. We also identify areas for future research and emphasize the importance of vaccine efficacy studies in providing data for models that can help to predict the efficacy of differing FMD control strategies.
When a diffuse object is illuminated with coherent laser light, the backscattered light will form an interference pattern on the detector. This pattern of bright and dark areas is called a speckle pattern. When there is movement in the object, the speckle pattern will change over time. Laser speckle contrast techniques use this change in speckle pattern to visualize tissue perfusion. We present and review the contribution of laser speckle contrast techniques to the field of perfusion visualization and discuss the development of the techniques.
Scrapie is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. It is also the earliest known member in the family of diseases classified as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) or prion diseases, which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and chronic wasting disease in cervids. The recent revelation of naturally occurring BSE in a goat has brought the issue of TSE in goats to the attention of the public. In contrast to scrapie, BSE presents a proven risk to humans. The risk of goat BSE, however, is difficult to evaluate, as our knowledge of TSE in goats is limited. Natural caprine scrapie has been discovered throughout Europe, with reported cases generally being greatest in countries with the highest goat populations. As with sheep scrapie, susceptibility and incubation period duration of goat scrapie are most likely controlled by the prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP). Like the PRNP of sheep, the caprine PRNP shows significantly greater variability than that of cattle and humans. Although PRNP variability in goats differs from that observed in sheep, the two species share several identical alleles. Moreover, while the ARR allele associated with enhancing resistance in sheep is not present in the goat PRNP...
Honey has been used since long time both in medical and domestic needs, but only recently the antioxidant property of it came to limelight. The fact that antioxidants have several preventative effects against different diseases, such as cancer, coronary diseases, inflammatory disorders, neurological degeneration, and aging, led to search for food rich in antioxidants. Chemoprevention uses various dietary agents rich in phytochemicals which serve as antioxidants. With increasing demand for antioxidant supply in the food, honey had gained vitality since it is rich in phenolic compounds and other antioxidants like ascorbic acid, amino acids, and proteins. Some simple and polyphenols found in honey, namely, caffeic acid (CA), caffeic acid phenyl esters (CAPE), Chrysin (CR), Galangin (GA), Quercetin (QU), Kaempferol (KP), Acacetin (AC), Pinocembrin (PC), Pinobanksin (PB), and Apigenin (AP), have evolved as promising pharmacological agents in treatment of cancer. In this review, we reviewed the antiproliferative and molecular mechanisms of honey and above-mentioned polyphenols in various cancer cell lines.
The number of fatalities in Japan attributable to lung cancer exceeded 50000 in 2001. It is socially desirable that various markers, which can be utilized for the prevention of lung cancer, be established. We believe that smoking or exposure to carcinogens in air induces mutations in bronchial and alveolar epithelia, leading to the development of lung cancer. It would be useful to have markers of individual differences in susceptibility to chemical carcinogen-induced lung cancer 1) to identify genetic polymorphisms of enzymes metabolizing chemical carcinogens and 2) to investigate the expression of enzymes metabolizing chemical carcinogens. In this paper, we review CYP expression in the bronchial epithelium. CYP1, CYP2 and CYP3 are expressed in the bronchial epithelium. We also show the relationship between the genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and a person’s susceptibility to chemical carcinogen-induced lung cancer. We demonstrate the relationship between cigarette consumption and the CYP expression profile in the bronchial epithelium. To maintain and promote public health, we must apply evidence, such as CYP polymorphisms and CYP profiles to disease prevention and also to aggressively advance evidence-based prevention (EBP) of lung cancer.
Polyurethanes are useful polymers in a large variety of technical and consumer products that are generally made from diisocyanates and polyols or similar compounds. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), 4,4′-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and 1,6′-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) are useful for polyurethane products. Isocyanates are reactive chemicals that can be handled without problems in manufacturing or technical environments. In general, consumers may only have contact with these chemicals on rare occasions. The objective of this study was to review the mechanisms of action of inhalation of isocyanates. This paper describes, in summary, the potential occupational exposure to isocyanates, the chemistry and reactivity of isocyanates, the results from genotoxicity studies, investigative toxicity studies, metabolism and results from epidemiology studies on isocyanate-exposed workers. The overall conclusion is that because humans are not exposed to high levels of respiratory isocyanate particles, concerns over the possible development of lung tumors should not be relevant. There are many mechanisms of action induced by isocyanates, but those entities are unclear. This is because these mechanisms act simultaneously and are complex.
Increased intake or supplementation of vitamin D is often recommended for normal bone health; however, its preventive effect on osteoporosis has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this review is to gather evidence of the efficacy of the optimization of vitamin D nutrition in preventing osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. PubMed was used for searching the relevant literature using the MeSH terms “Bone Density (limited to “human”, “female”, and “English” literature)” or “Fractures (limited to “human”, “age ≥45 years”, and “English” literature)”, and “Vitamin D”. The searches yielded 19 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine cohort studies, 19 case-control studies, 19 cross-sectional studies, and one meta-analysis. We attempted to answer three questions: 1) does increased vitamin D intake prevent bone loss in peri- and postmenopausal women?, 2) does increased vitamin D intake prevent osteoporotic fractures in the elderly?, and 3) does increased vitamin D in take positively affect peak bone mass attainment in young women? The answer to questions 1 and 2 is that a vitamin D intake of 10–17.5 μg/day (400–700 IU/day) or more is effective in preventing bone loss in late postmenopausal women and an intake of 17.5–20 μg/day (700–800 IU/day) or more together with a calcium supplement reduces the risk of osteoporotic fractures. For question 3...
Currently, psychosocial stressors’ impacts on health are increasing. Among these stressors, this review focused on inter-human relationships. Since social supports could be protective against ill health, consequences contributing to psychosocial stressors are discussed here in relation to social supports for each stage of childhood, adulthood and elderly status.
The incidences of diseases related to mental stress are increasing in Japan. Mental stress, unacknowledged for long periods, has been shown to lead to the development of a number of diseases. Thus, an index for mental stress is important to induce awareness of its presence. We focused on the relationship between cortisol and mental stress in this review. We will discuss both the usefulness and problems of cortisol as a mental stress index by summarizing the relationship between cortisol and mental stress. The present findings suggested that cortisol appears to be an adequate index for mental stress. However, there are several problems; the present group clarifies these problems and builds the comprehensive mental stress assessment systems by using saliva samples.
To prevent lifestyle related diseases, it is important to modify lifestyle behavior. The control of mental stress level and prevention of mental stress-related diseases have become one of the most important problems in Japan. To check mental stress level objectively during the early stage of stress-related diseases and determine appropriate coping methods, it is necessary to design a useful index for mental stress. Cortisol is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. This is an essential hormone to human survival, and plays a key role in adaptation to stress. In another review, we concluded that cortisol appears to be an adequate index for mental stress.
Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired in childhood and plays a causative role in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and the development of gastric cancer. The present review focuses on recent advances in the management of H pylori infection in children and provides an update of current Canadian guidelines regarding clinical sequelae, diagnosis and treatment.
Glycated proteins, particularly glycated hemoglobin A1c, are important markers for assessing the effectiveness of diabetes treatment. Convenient and reproducible assay systems based on the enzyme fructosyl amino acid oxidase (FAOD) have become attractive alternatives to conventional detection methods. We review the available FAOD-based assays for measurement of glycated proteins as well as the recent advances and future direction of FAOD research. Future research is expected to lead to the next generation of convenient, simple, and economical sensors for glycated protein, ideally suited for point-of-care treatment and self-monitoring applications.
Hepatic-directed vesicle insulin (HDV-I), a novel investigational vesicle (<150 nm diameter) insulin delivery system that carries insulin and a specific hepatocyte-targeting molecule (HTM) in its phospholipid bilayer and has the ability to mimic a portal vein insulin infusion remotely [subcutaneous (SC) HDV-I] and noninvasively (oral HDV-I), has been developed. This review summarizes formulation development, subsequent refinements, and results of preclinical evaluation studies, including biodistribution, mechanistic, and toxicology studies of predominantly SC HDV-I, in various animal models. Studies conducted to date have confirmed the hepatocyte specificity of HDV and HDV-I and revealed that HDV-I can stimulate the conversion of hepatic glucose output to uptake at a dose that is <1% of the dose of regular insulin (RI) required for liver stimulation; suggest that the enhanced antihyperglycemic effect of HDV-I is due to hepatic glucose uptake; and in pancreatectomized dogs during an oral glucose tolerance test, HDV-I normalized blood glucose curves when compared to control curves in intact dogs and prevented secondary hypoglycemia in contrast to the same dose of RI. A 28-day SC HDV toxicity study in rats revealed no clinical, clinical laboratory...
We review the medical literature on the success, safety and economic value of central neuraxial blockade-assisted (CNB) external cephalic version from randomized controlled studies identified from 1951 to 2009. The result showed that more women had successful ECV with regional anaesthesia with corresponding reduction in caesarean section rate. They were 1.5 times more likely than women not receiving anaesthesia to have a successful ECV. The number to treat is six women needed to receive anaesthesia for 1 baby to be turned from breech to cephalic presentation. Feto-maternal morbidity was not increased in the CNB-aided group consisting of only transient bradycardia. Although the appropriate amount of force for safe version has not been quantified, there was no report of uterine rupture despite removal of these patients from “excessive force-pain biofeedback loop” induced through motor nerve blockade. We can attribute 30% of cost savings amounting to £42,150.00 directly to CNB using the most up to date Health Resource Group Code (HRG4). The initial results are encouraging but until the benefits and safety of CNB-aided ECV are substantiated by large randomized, blinded controlled trials, this practice cannot be universally recommended.
The eosinophil cell has been related as a prognostic indicator for cancers. However, its exact function in tumour behaviour is still not clearly defined. In the oral cavity the presence of eosinophils can be a favourable prognostic indicator as well as it may be associated with a poor prognosis. In this short review, we briefly summarize the role of the eosinophils in the general context of immunoregulation and its relation to oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass can trigger a systemic inflammatory response syndrome similar to sepsis. Aetiological factors include surgical trauma, reperfusion injury, and, most importantly, contact of the blood with the synthetic surfaces of the heart-lung machine. Recently, a new cardiopulmonary bypass system, mini-extracorporeal circulation (MECC), has been developed and has shown promising early results in terms of reducing this inflammatory response. It has no venous reservoir, a reduced priming volume, and less blood-synthetic interface. This review focuses on the inflammatory and clinical outcomes of using MECC and compares these to conventional cardio-pulmonary bypass (CCPB). MECC has been shown to reduce postoperative cytokines levels and other markers of inflammation. In addition, MECC reduces organ damage, postoperative complications and the need for blood transfusion. MECC is a safe and viable perfusion option and in certain circumstances it is superior to CCPB.
Not much is known about the side effects of mitomycin C (MMC), an anti-fibrogenetic agent, in the upper aerodigestive tract. However, its use in ophthalmology is widely known and without quantitatively important side effects. A literature review was performed for side effects of MMC in the upper aerodigestive tract. Forty-six articles, describing the use of MMC to prevent scarring, were retracted from PubMed. Thirty-two are human studies. MMC is used in different concentrations (0.1–10 mg/ml) with different application times (2–5 min) and frequencies (up to 4 times). Five hundred and thirty-eight patients were included in those publications, of whom 19 developed side effects (3.53%). No side effects developed in studies, where post-application irrigation with saline was reported. The longest mean follow-up period is 75.5 months. Direct relations between the reported side effects and MMC seem absent in most studies. Serious complications seem to occur when MMC is used in high concentrations. Unfortunately, sometimes crucial information is lacking. One patient was described who supposedly developed laryngeal carcinoma after repeated treatment of hyperkeratosis and anterior commissure webbing. Animal studies show that excessive fibrin production can lead to acute airway obstruction. In conclusion...