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‣ Gating Pore Currents in DIIS4 Mutations of NaV1.4 Associated with Periodic Paralysis: Saturation of Ion Flux and Implications for Disease Pathogenesis

Struyk, Arie F.; Markin, Vladislav S.; Francis, David; Cannon, Stephen C.
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2008 Português
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S4 voltage–sensor mutations in CaV1.1 and NaV1.4 channels cause the human muscle disorder hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP). The mechanism whereby these mutations predispose affected sarcolemma to attacks of sustained depolarization and loss of excitability is poorly understood. Recently, three HypoPP mutations in the domain II S4 segment of NaV1.4 were shown to create accessory ionic permeation pathways, presumably extending through the aqueous gating pore in which the S4 segment resides. However, there are several disparities between reported gating pore currents from different investigators, including differences in ionic selectivity and estimates of current amplitude, which in turn have important implications for the pathological relevance of these aberrant currents. To clarify the features of gating pore currents arising from different DIIS4 mutants, we recorded gating pore currents created by HypoPP missense mutations at position R666 in the rat isoform of Nav1.4 (the second arginine from the outside, at R672 in human NaV1.4). Extensive measurements were made for the index mutation, R666G, which created a gating pore that was permeable to K+ and Na+. This current had a markedly shallow slope conductance at hyperpolarized voltages and robust inward rectification...

‣ Sonic Hedgehog Mutations Identified in Holoprosencephaly Patients Can Act in a Dominant Negative Manner

Singh, Samer; Tokhunts, Robert; Baubet, Valerie; Goetz, John A.; Huang, Zhen Jane; Schilling, Neal S.; Black, Kendall E.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Dahmane, Nadia; Robbins, David J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) plays an important instructional role in vertebrate development, as exemplified by the numerous developmental disorders that occur when the SHH pathway is disrupted. Mutations in the SHH gene are the most common cause of sporadic and inherited Holoprosencephaly (HPE), a developmental disorder that is characterized by defective prosencephalon development. SHH HPE mutations provide a unique opportunity to better understand SHH biogenesis and signaling, and to decipher its role in the development of HPE. Here, we analyzed a panel of SHH HPE missense mutations that encode changes in the amino-terminal active domain of SHH. Our results show that SHH HPE mutations affect SHH biogenesis and signaling at multiple steps, which broadly results in low levels of protein expression, defective processing of SHH into its active form and protein with reduced activity. Additionally, we found that some inactive SHH proteins were able to modulate the activity of wt SHH in a dominant negative manner, both in vitro and in vivo. These findings show for the first time the susceptibility of SHH driven developmental processes to perturbations by low-activity forms of SHH. In conclusion, we demonstrate that SHH mutations found in HPE patients affect distinct steps of SHH biogenesis to attenuate SHH activity to different levels...

‣ Mutations in TDP-43 link glycine-rich domain functions to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Pesiridis, G. Scott; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2009 Português
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult motor neuron disease that affects ∼2/100 000 individuals each year worldwide. Patients with ALS suffer from rapidly progressive degeneration of motor neurons ultimately leading to death. The major pathological features observed in post-mortem tissue from patients with ALS are motor neuron loss, cortical spinal tract degeneration, gliosis and cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions formed by TDP-43 or TAR DNA binding Protein with a molecular mass of 43 kDa, which are now recognized as the signature lesions of sporadic ALS. TDP-43 possesses two RNA binding domains (RBD) and a glycine-rich C terminus classifying it with other heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins known as 2XRBD-Gly proteins. A number of reports showed that a subset of patients with ALS possess mutations in the TDP-43 (TARDBP) gene. This further strengthens the hypotheses that gain of toxic function or loss of function in TDP-43 causes ALS. Currently, 29 different TARDBP missense mutations have been reported in 51 unrelated sporadic or familial ALS cases and two cases of ALS plus concomitant frontotemporal lobar degeneration with a remarkable concentration of mutations in the C-terminal glycine-rich domain of TDP-43. As these mutations will most certainly be an invaluable tool for the design and implementation of ALS animal and cell models...

‣ Mutations in TRPV4 cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C

Landouré, Guida; Zdebik, Anselm A.; Martinez, Tara L.; Burnett, Barrington G.; Stanescu, Horia C.; Inada, Hitoshi; Shi, Yijun; Taye, Addis A.; Kong, Lingling; Munns, Clare H.; Choo, Shelly S.; Phelps, Christopher B.; Paudel, Reema; Houlden, Henry; Ludlow
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C (CMT2C) is an autosomal dominant neuropathy characterized by limb, diaphragm, and laryngeal muscle weakness. Two unrelated families with CMT2C showed significant linkage to chromosome 12q24.11. All genes in this region were sequenced and heterozygous missense mutations were identified in the TRPV4 gene at positions c.805C>T and c.806G>A, causing the amino acid substitutions R269C and R269H. TRPV4 is a well known member of the TRP superfamily of cation channels. In TRPV4-transfected cells, the CMT2C mutations caused marked cellular toxicity and increased constitutive and activated channel currents. Mutations in TRPV4 were previously associated with skeletal dysplasias. Our findings indicate that TRPV4 mutations can also cause a degenerative disorder of peripheral nerves. The CMT2C mutations lie in a distinct region of the TRPV4 ankyrin repeats, suggesting that this striking phenotypic variability may be due to differential effects on regulatory protein-protein interactions.

‣ Recessive COL6A2 C-globular Missense Mutations in Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy: ROLE OF THE C2a SPLICE VARIANT*

Zhang, Rui-Zhu; Zou, Yaqun; Pan, Te-Cheng; Markova, Dessislava; Fertala, Andrzej; Hu, Ying; Squarzoni, Stefano; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Marie, Suely K. N.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.; Chu, Mon-Li
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is a disabling and life-threatening disorder resulting from either recessive or dominant mutations in genes encoding collagen VI. Although the majority of the recessive UCMD cases have frameshift or nonsense mutations in COL6A1, COL6A2, or COL6A3, recessive structural mutations in the COL6A2 C-globular region are emerging also. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Here we identified a homozygous COL6A2 E624K mutation (C1 subdomain) and a homozygous COL6A2 R876S mutation (C2 subdomain) in two UCMD patients. The consequences of the mutations were investigated using fibroblasts from patients and cells stably transfected with the mutant constructs. In contrast to expectations based on the clinical severity of these two patients, secretion and assembly of collagen VI were moderately affected by the E624K mutation but severely impaired by the R876S substitution. The E624K substitution altered the electrostatic potential of the region surrounding the metal ion-dependent adhesion site, resulting in a collagen VI network containing thick fibrils and spots with densely packed microfibrils. The R876S mutation prevented the chain from assembling into triple-helical collagen VI molecules. The minute amount of collagen VI secreted by the R876S fibroblasts was solely composed of a faster migrating chain corresponding to the C2a splice variant with an alternative C2 subdomain. In transfected cells...

‣ Naturally occurring mutations in the canine CFTR gene

Spadafora, Domenico; Hawkins, Eleanor C.; Murphy, Keith E.; Clark, Leigh Anne; Ballard, Stephen T.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Naturally occurring cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutations in the CFTR gene have not been identified in any nonhuman animal species. Since domestic dogs are known to develop medical conditions associated with atypical CF in humans (e.g., bronchiectasis and pancreatitis), we hypothesized that dogs with these disorders likely have a higher expression rate of CFTR mutations than the at-large population. Temporal temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) was used to screen canine CFTR in 400 animals: 203 dogs diagnosed with pancreatitis, 23 dogs diagnosed with bronchiectasis, and 174 dogs admitted to clinics for any illness (at-large dogs). Twenty-eight dogs were identified with one of four CFTR missense mutations. P1281T and P1464H mutations occur in relatively unconserved residues. R1456W is analogous to the human R1453W mutation, which has ∼20% of normal CFTR function and is associated with pancreatitis and panbronchiolitis. R812W disrupts a highly conserved protein kinase A recognition site within the regulatory domain. We conclude that naturally occurring CFTR mutations are relatively common in domestic dogs and can be detected with TTGE. No substantive differences in mutation frequency were observed between the at-large, pancreatitis...

‣ Mutations in NEXN, a Z-Disc Gene, Are Associated with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Wang, Hu; Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Jizheng; Sun, Kai; Cui, Qiqiong; Song, Lei; Zou, Yubao; Wang, Xiaojian; Liu, Xuan; Hui, Rutai; Fan, Yuxin
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/2010 Português
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common inherited cardiac disorder, is characterized by increased ventricular wall thickness that cannot be explained by underlying conditions, cadiomyocyte hypertrophy and disarray, and increased myocardial fibrosis. In as many as 50% of HCM cases, the genetic cause remains unknown, suggesting that more genes may be involved. Nexilin, encoded by NEXN, is a cardiac Z-disc protein recently identified as a crucial protein that functions to protect cardiac Z-discs from forces generated within the sarcomere. We screened NEXN in 121 unrelated HCM patients who did not carry any mutation in eight genes commonly mutated in myofilament disease. Two missense mutations, c.391C>G (p.Q131E) and c.835C>T (p.R279C), were identified in exons 5 and 8 of NEXN, respectively, in two probands. Each of the two mutations segregated with the HCM phenotype in the family and was absent in 384 control chromosomes. In silico analysis revealed that both of the mutations affect highly conserved amino acid residues, which are predicted to be functionally deleterious. Cellular transfection studies showed that the two mutations resulted in local accumulations of nexilin and that the expressed fragment of actin-binding domain containing p.Q131E completely lost the ability to bind F-actin in C2C12 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that the p.Q131E mutation decreased the binding of full-length NEXN to α-actin and abolished the interaction between the fragment of actin-binding domain and α-actin. Therefore...

‣ Mutations in mammalian tolloid-like 1 gene detected in adult patients with ASD

Stańczak, Paweł; Witecka, Joanna; Szydło, Anna; Gutmajster, Ewa; Lisik, Małgorzata; Auguściak-Duma, Aleksandra; Tarnowski, Maciej; Czekaj, Tomasz; Czekaj, Hanna; Sieroń, Aleksander L
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Atrial septal defect (ASD) is an incomplete septation of atria in human heart causing circulatory problems. Its frequency is estimated at one per 10 000. Actions of numerous genes have been linked to heart development. However, no single gene defect causing ASD has yet been identified. Incomplete heart septation similar to ASD was reported in transgenic mice with both inactive alleles of gene encoding mammalian zinc metalloprotease a mammalian tolloid-like 1 (tll1). Here, we have screened 19 ASD patients and 15 healthy age-matched individuals for mutations in TLL1 gene. All 22 exons were analyzed exon by exon for heteroduplex formation. Subsequently, DNA fragments forming heteroduplexes were sequenced. In four nonrelated patients, three missense mutations in coding sequence, and one single base change in the 5′UTR have been detected. Two mutations (Met182Leu, and Ala238Val) were detected in ASD patients with the same clinical phenotype. As the second mutation locates immediately upstream of the catalytic zinc-binding signature, it might change the enzyme substrate specificity. The third change, Leu627Val in the CUB3 domain, has been found in an ASD patient with interatrial septum aneurysm in addition to ASD. The CUB3 domain is important for substrate-specific recognition. In the remaining 15 patients as well as in 15 reference samples numerous base substitutions...

‣ SUMF1 mutations affecting stability and activity of formylglycine generating enzyme predict clinical outcome in multiple sulfatase deficiency

Schlotawa, Lars; Ennemann, Eva Charlotte; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Chakrapani, Anupam; Christen, Hans-Jürgen; Moser, Hugo; Steinmann, Beat; Dierks, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD) is caused by mutations in the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 gene encoding the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). FGE post translationally activates all newly synthesized sulfatases by generating the catalytic residue formylglycine. Impaired FGE function leads to reduced sulfatase activities. Patients display combined clinical symptoms of single sulfatase deficiencies. For ten MSD patients, we determined the clinical phenotype, FGE expression, localization and stability, as well as residual FGE and sulfatase activities. A neonatal, very severe clinical phenotype resulted from a combination of two nonsense mutations leading to almost fully abrogated FGE activity, highly unstable FGE protein and nearly undetectable sulfatase activities. A late infantile mild phenotype resulted from FGE G263V leading to unstable protein but high residual FGE activity. Other missense mutations resulted in a late infantile severe phenotype because of unstable protein with low residual FGE activity. Patients with identical mutations displayed comparable clinical phenotypes. These data confirm the hypothesis that the phenotypic outcome in MSD depends on both residual FGE activity as well as protein stability. Predicting the clinical course in case of molecularly characterized mutations seems feasible...

‣ Exome Sequencing and cis-Regulatory Mapping Identify Mutations in MAK, a Gene Encoding a Regulator of Ciliary Length, as a Cause of Retinitis Pigmentosa

Özgül, Rıza Köksal; Siemiatkowska, Anna M.; Yücel, Didem; Myers, Connie A.; Collin, Rob W.J.; Zonneveld, Marijke N.; Beryozkin, Avigail; Banin, Eyal; Hoyng, Carel B.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; ; Bose, Ron; Shen, Wei; Sharon, Dror; Cremers,
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2011 Português
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A fundamental challenge in analyzing exome-sequence data is distinguishing pathogenic mutations from background polymorphisms. To address this problem in the context of a genetically heterogeneous disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), we devised a candidate-gene prioritization strategy called cis-regulatory mapping that utilizes ChIP-seq data for the photoreceptor transcription factor CRX to rank candidate genes. Exome sequencing combined with this approach identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in male germ cell-associated kinase (MAK) in the single affected member of a consanguineous Turkish family with RP. MAK encodes a cilium-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase whose function is conserved from the ciliated alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to humans. Mutations in MAK orthologs in mice and other model organisms result in abnormally long cilia and, in mice, rapid photoreceptor degeneration. Subsequent sequence analyses of additional individuals with RP identified five probands with missense mutations in MAK. Two of these mutations alter amino acids that are conserved in all known kinases, and an in vitro kinase assay indicates that these mutations result in a loss of kinase activity. Thus, kinase activity appears to be critical for MAK function in humans. This study highlights a previously underappreciated role for CRX as a direct transcriptional regulator of ciliary genes in photoreceptors. In addition...

‣ Mutations in the satellite cell gene MEGF10 cause a recessive congenital myopathy with minicores

Boyden, Steven E.; Mahoney, Lane J.; Kawahara, Genri; Myers, Jennifer A.; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Estrella, Elicia A.; Duncan, Anna R.; Dey, Friederike; DeChene, Elizabeth T.; Blasko-Goehringer, Jessica M.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.; Darras, Basil T.; Mendell, J
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We ascertained a nuclear family in which three of four siblings were affected with an unclassified autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by severe weakness, respiratory impairment, scoliosis, joint contractures, and an unusual combination of dystrophic and myopathic features on muscle biopsy. Whole genome sequence from one affected subject was filtered using linkage data and variant databases. A single gene, MEGF10, contained nonsynonymous mutations that co-segregated with the phenotype. Affected subjects were compound heterozygous for missense mutations c.976T > C (p.C326R) and c.2320T > C (p.C774R). Screening the MEGF10 open reading frame in 190 patients with genetically unexplained myopathies revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.211C > T (p.R71W), in one additional subject with a similar clinical and histological presentation as the discovery family. All three mutations were absent from at least 645 genotyped unaffected control subjects. MEGF10 contains 17 atypical epidermal growth factor-like domains, each of which contains eight cysteine residues that likely form disulfide bonds. Both the p.C326R and p.C774R mutations alter one of these residues, which are completely conserved in vertebrates. Previous work showed that murine Megf10 is required for preserving the undifferentiated...

‣ A novel distinctive cerebrovascular phenotype is associated with heterozygous Arg179 ACTA2 mutations

Munot, Pinki; Saunders, Dawn E.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Regalado, Ellen S.; Ostergaard, John R.; Braun, Kees P.; Kerr, Timothy; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D.; Philip, Sunny; Rittey, Christopher; Jacques, Thomas S.; Cox, Timothy C.; Ganesan, Vijeya
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mutations in the ACTA2 gene lead to diffuse and diverse vascular diseases; the Arg179His mutation is associated with an early onset severe phenotype due to global smooth muscle dysfunction. Cerebrovascular disease associated with ACTA2 mutations has been likened to moyamoya disease, but appears to have distinctive features. This study involved the analysis of neuroimaging of 13 patients with heterozygous missense mutations in ACTA2 disrupting Arg179. All patients had persistent ductus arteriosus and congenital mydriasis, and variable presentation of pulmonary hypertension, bladder and gastrointestinal problems associated with this mutation. Distinctive cerebrovascular features were dilatation of proximal internal carotid artery, occlusive disease of terminal internal carotid artery, an abnormally straight course of intracranial arteries, and absent basal ‘moyamoya’ collaterals. Patterns of brain injury supported both large and small vessel disease. Key differences from moyamoya disease were more widespread arteriopathy, the combination of arterial ectasia and stenosis and, importantly, absence of the typical basal ‘moyamoya’ collaterals. Evaluation of previously published cases suggests some of these features are also seen in the ACTA2 mutations disrupting Arg258. The observation that transition from dilated to normal/stenotic arterial calibre coincides with where the internal carotid artery changes from an elastic to muscular artery supports the hypothesis that abnormal smooth muscle cell proliferation caused by ACTA2 mutations is modulated by arterial wall components. Patients with persistent ductus arteriosus or congenital mydriasis with a label of ‘moyamoya’ should be re-evaluated to ensure the distinctive neuroimaging features of an ACTA2 mutation have not been overlooked. This diagnosis has prognostic and genetic implications...

‣ Genotype-phenotype associations in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1): an increased risk of tumor complications in patients with NF1 splice-site mutations?

Alkindy, Adila; Chuzhanova, Nadia; Kini, Usha; Cooper, David N; Upadhyaya, Meena
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/08/2012 Português
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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a complex neurocutaneous disorder with an increased susceptibility to develop both benign and malignant tumors but with a wide spectrum of inter and intrafamilial clinical variability. The establishment of genotype-phenotype associations in NF1 is potentially useful for targeted therapeutic intervention but has generally been unsuccessful, apart from small subsets of molecularly defined patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical phenotype associated with the specific types of NF1 mutation in a retrospectively recorded clinical dataset comprising 149 NF1 mutation-known individuals from unrelated families. Each patient was assessed for ten NF1-related clinical features, including the number of café-au-lait spots, cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas and the presence/absence of intertriginous skin freckling, Lisch nodules, plexiform and spinal neurofibromas, optic gliomas, other neoplasms (in particular CNS gliomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, phaechromocytoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, juvenile xanthogranuloma, and lipoma) and evidence of learning difficulties. Gender and age at examination were also recorded. Patients were subcategorized according to their associated NF1 germ line mutations: frame shift deletions (52)...

‣ Novel VANGL1 Gene Mutations in 144 Slovakian, Romanian and German Patients with Neural Tube Defects

Bartsch, O.; Kirmes, I.; Thiede, A.; Lechno, S.; Gocan, H.; Florian, I.S.; Haaf, T.; Zechner, U.; Sabova, L.; Horn, F.
Fonte: S. Karger AG Publicador: S. Karger AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations of the central nervous system occurring at an average rate of 1 per 1,000 human pregnancies worldwide. Numerous genetic and environmental factors are discussed to be relevant in their etiology. In mice, mutants in >200 genes including the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway are known to cause NTDs, and recently, heterozygous mutations in the human VANGL1 gene have been described in a small subset of patients with NTDs. We performed a VANGL1 mutation analysis in 144 unrelated individuals with NTDs from Slovakia, Romania and Germany and identified 3 heterozygous missense mutations: c.613G>A (p.Gly205Arg) with an open spina bifida (lumbosacral meningomyelocele), c.557G>A (p.Arg186His) with a closed spina bifida (tethered cord and spinal lipoma) and c.518G>A (p.Arg173His) with an unknown NTD. The c.613G>A mutation was also found in a healthy sibling. None of the mutations were described previously. Findings support that heterozygous VANGL1 mutations represent hypomorphs or conditional mutants predisposing to NTDs and occur at a frequency of approximately 2.1% of open and closed spinal NTDs. The mutations (p.Arg173His, p.Arg186His, p.Gly205Arg) modified conserved regions of the VANGL1 protein and shared similarities with previously described mutants...

‣ Mutations in B3GALNT2 Cause Congenital Muscular Dystrophy and Hypoglycosylation of α-Dystroglycan

Stevens, Elizabeth; Carss, Keren J.; Cirak, Sebahattin; Foley, A. Reghan; Torelli, Silvia; Willer, Tobias; Tambunan, Dimira E.; Yau, Shu; Brodd, Lina; Sewry, Caroline A.; Feng, Lucy; Haliloglu, Goknur; Orhan, Diclehan; Dobyns, William B.; Enns, Grego
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2013 Português
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Mutations in several known or putative glycosyltransferases cause glycosylation defects in α-dystroglycan (α-DG), an integral component of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. The hypoglycosylation reduces the ability of α-DG to bind laminin and other extracellular matrix ligands and is responsible for the pathogenesis of an inherited subset of muscular dystrophies known as the dystroglycanopathies. By exome and Sanger sequencing we identified two individuals affected by a dystroglycanopathy with mutations in β-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B3GALNT2). B3GALNT2 transfers N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) in a β-1,3 linkage to N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc). A subsequent study of a separate cohort of individuals identified recessive mutations in four additional cases that were all affected by dystroglycanopathy with structural brain involvement. We show that functional dystroglycan glycosylation was reduced in the fibroblasts and muscle (when available) of these individuals via flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. B3GALNT2 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, and this localization was perturbed by some of the missense mutations identified. Moreover, knockdown of b3galnt2 in zebrafish recapitulated the human congenital muscular dystrophy phenotype with reduced motility...

‣ Mutations in KCTD1 Cause Scalp-Ear-Nipple Syndrome

Marneros, Alexander G.; Beck, Anita E.; Turner, Emily H.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Edwards, Matthew J.; Field, Michael; de Macena Sobreira, Nara Lygia; Perez, Ana Beatriz A.; Fortes, Jose A.R.; Lampe, Anne K.; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa;
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/04/2013 Português
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Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development.

‣ Screening for MYO15A Gene Mutations in Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic, GJB2 Negative Iranian Deaf Population

Fattahi, Zohreh; Shearer, A. Eliot; Babanejad, Mojgan; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Almadani, Seyed Navid; Nikzat, Nooshin; Jalalvand, Khadijeh; Arzhangi, Sanaz; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Abtahi, Rezvan; Azadeh, Batool; Smith, Richard J.H.; Kahrizi, Kimia; Naj
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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MYO15A is located at the DFNB3 locus on chromosome 17p11.2, and encodes myosin-XV, an unconventional myosin critical for the formation of stereocilia in hair cells of cochlea. Recessive mutations in this gene lead to profound autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in humans and the shaker2 (sh2) phenotype in mice. Here, we performed a study on 140 Iranian families in order to determine mutations causing ARNSHL. The families, who were negative for mutations in GJB2, were subjected to linkage analysis. Eight of these families showed linkage to the DFNB3 locus, suggesting a MYO15A mutation frequency of 5.71% in our cohort of Iranian population. Subsequent sequencing of the MYO15A gene led to identification of 7 previously unreported mutations, including 4 missense mutations, 1 nonsense mutation, and 2 deletions in different regions of the myosin-XV protein.

‣ Recessive and Dominant Mutations in Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta in Cases with Microphthalmia and Diaphragmatic Hernia

Srour, Myriam; Chitayat, David; Caron, Véronique; Chassaing, Nicolas; Bitoun, Pierre; Patry, Lysanne; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Capo-Chichi, José-Mario; Francannet, Christine; Calvas, Patrick; Ragge, Nicola; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Hamdan, Fadi F.; Rouleau,
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/10/2013 Português
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Anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia, pulmonary hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, and cardiac defects are the main features of PDAC syndrome. Recessive mutations in STRA6, encoding a membrane receptor for the retinol-binding protein, have been identified in some cases with PDAC syndrome, although many cases have remained unexplained. Using whole-exome sequencing, we found that two PDAC-syndrome-affected siblings, but not their unaffected sibling, were compound heterozygous for nonsense (c.355C>T [p.Arg119∗]) and frameshift (c.1201_1202insCT [p.Ile403Serfs∗15]) mutations in retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB). Transfection studies showed that p.Arg119∗ and p.Ile403Serfs∗15 altered RARB had no transcriptional activity in response to ligands, confirming that the mutations induced a loss of function. We then sequenced RARB in 15 subjects with anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia and at least one other feature of PDAC syndrome. Surprisingly, three unrelated subjects with microphthalmia and diaphragmatic hernia showed de novo missense mutations affecting the same codon; two of the subjects had the c.1159C>T (Arg387Cys) mutation, whereas the other one carried the c.1159C>A (p.Arg387Ser) mutation. We found that compared to the wild-type receptor...

‣ Differential Effects of Human L1CAM Mutations on Complementing Guidance and Synaptic Defects in Drosophila melanogaster

Kudumala, Sirisha; Freund, Julie; Hortsch, Michael; Godenschwege, Tanja A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/10/2013 Português
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A large number of different pathological L1CAM mutations have been identified that result in a broad spectrum of neurological and non-neurological phenotypes. While many of these mutations have been characterized for their effects on homophilic and heterophilic interactions, as well as expression levels in vitro, there are only few studies on their biological consequences in vivo. The single L1-type CAM gene in Drosophila, neuroglian (nrg), has distinct functions during axon guidance and synapse formation and the phenotypes of nrg mutants can be rescued by the expression of human L1CAM. We previously showed that the highly conserved intracellular FIGQY Ankyrin-binding motif is required for L1CAM-mediated synapse formation, but not for neurite outgrowth or axon guidance of the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) neuron. Here, we use the GF as a model neuron to characterize the pathogenic L120V, Y1070C, C264Y, H210Q, E309K and R184Q extracellular L1CAM missense mutations and a L1CAM protein with a disrupted ezrin–moesin–radixin (ERM) binding site to investigate the signaling requirements for neuronal development. We report that different L1CAM mutations have distinct effects on axon guidance and synapse formation. Furthermore, L1CAM homophilic binding and signaling via the ERM motif is essential for axon guidance in Drosophila. In addition...

‣ Identification and characterization of novel uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene mutations in a large series of porphyria cutanea tarda patients and relatives

Badenas, C; To-Figueras, J; Phillips, JD; Warby, CA; Muñoz, C; Herrero, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 Português
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Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) arises from decreased hepatic activity of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD). Both genetic and environmental factors interplay in the precipitation of clinically overt PCT, but these factors may vary between different geographic areas. Decreased activity of UROD in erythrocytes was used to identify patients with UROD mutations among a group of 130 Spanish PCT patients. Nineteen patients (14.6%) were found to harbor a mutation in the UROD gene. Eight mutations were novel: M1I, 5del10, A22V, D79N, F84I, Q116X, T141I and Y182C. Five others were previously described: F46L, V134Q, R142Q, P150L and E218G. The new missense mutations and P150L were expressed in Escherichia coli. D79N and P150L resulted in proteins that were localized to inclusion bodies. The other mutations produced recombinant proteins that were purified and showed reduced activity (range: 2.3–73.2% of wild type). These single amino acid changes were predicted to produce complex structural alterations and/or reduced stability of the enzyme. Screening of relatives of the probands showed that 37.5% of mutation carriers demonstrated increased urinary porphyrins. This study emphasizes the role of UROD mutations as a strong risk factor for PCT even in areas where environmental factors (hepatitis C virus) have been shown to be highly associated with the disease.