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‣ Mutations in NEXN, a Z-Disc Gene, Are Associated with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Wang, Hu; Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Jizheng; Sun, Kai; Cui, Qiqiong; Song, Lei; Zou, Yubao; Wang, Xiaojian; Liu, Xuan; Hui, Rutai; Fan, Yuxin
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/2010 Português
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common inherited cardiac disorder, is characterized by increased ventricular wall thickness that cannot be explained by underlying conditions, cadiomyocyte hypertrophy and disarray, and increased myocardial fibrosis. In as many as 50% of HCM cases, the genetic cause remains unknown, suggesting that more genes may be involved. Nexilin, encoded by NEXN, is a cardiac Z-disc protein recently identified as a crucial protein that functions to protect cardiac Z-discs from forces generated within the sarcomere. We screened NEXN in 121 unrelated HCM patients who did not carry any mutation in eight genes commonly mutated in myofilament disease. Two missense mutations, c.391C>G (p.Q131E) and c.835C>T (p.R279C), were identified in exons 5 and 8 of NEXN, respectively, in two probands. Each of the two mutations segregated with the HCM phenotype in the family and was absent in 384 control chromosomes. In silico analysis revealed that both of the mutations affect highly conserved amino acid residues, which are predicted to be functionally deleterious. Cellular transfection studies showed that the two mutations resulted in local accumulations of nexilin and that the expressed fragment of actin-binding domain containing p.Q131E completely lost the ability to bind F-actin in C2C12 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that the p.Q131E mutation decreased the binding of full-length NEXN to α-actin and abolished the interaction between the fragment of actin-binding domain and α-actin. Therefore...

‣ Exome Sequencing and cis-Regulatory Mapping Identify Mutations in MAK, a Gene Encoding a Regulator of Ciliary Length, as a Cause of Retinitis Pigmentosa

Özgül, Rıza Köksal; Siemiatkowska, Anna M.; Yücel, Didem; Myers, Connie A.; Collin, Rob W.J.; Zonneveld, Marijke N.; Beryozkin, Avigail; Banin, Eyal; Hoyng, Carel B.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; ; Bose, Ron; Shen, Wei; Sharon, Dror; Cremers,
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2011 Português
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A fundamental challenge in analyzing exome-sequence data is distinguishing pathogenic mutations from background polymorphisms. To address this problem in the context of a genetically heterogeneous disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), we devised a candidate-gene prioritization strategy called cis-regulatory mapping that utilizes ChIP-seq data for the photoreceptor transcription factor CRX to rank candidate genes. Exome sequencing combined with this approach identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in male germ cell-associated kinase (MAK) in the single affected member of a consanguineous Turkish family with RP. MAK encodes a cilium-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase whose function is conserved from the ciliated alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to humans. Mutations in MAK orthologs in mice and other model organisms result in abnormally long cilia and, in mice, rapid photoreceptor degeneration. Subsequent sequence analyses of additional individuals with RP identified five probands with missense mutations in MAK. Two of these mutations alter amino acids that are conserved in all known kinases, and an in vitro kinase assay indicates that these mutations result in a loss of kinase activity. Thus, kinase activity appears to be critical for MAK function in humans. This study highlights a previously underappreciated role for CRX as a direct transcriptional regulator of ciliary genes in photoreceptors. In addition...

‣ Mutations in B3GALNT2 Cause Congenital Muscular Dystrophy and Hypoglycosylation of α-Dystroglycan

Stevens, Elizabeth; Carss, Keren J.; Cirak, Sebahattin; Foley, A. Reghan; Torelli, Silvia; Willer, Tobias; Tambunan, Dimira E.; Yau, Shu; Brodd, Lina; Sewry, Caroline A.; Feng, Lucy; Haliloglu, Goknur; Orhan, Diclehan; Dobyns, William B.; Enns, Grego
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2013 Português
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Mutations in several known or putative glycosyltransferases cause glycosylation defects in α-dystroglycan (α-DG), an integral component of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. The hypoglycosylation reduces the ability of α-DG to bind laminin and other extracellular matrix ligands and is responsible for the pathogenesis of an inherited subset of muscular dystrophies known as the dystroglycanopathies. By exome and Sanger sequencing we identified two individuals affected by a dystroglycanopathy with mutations in β-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B3GALNT2). B3GALNT2 transfers N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) in a β-1,3 linkage to N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc). A subsequent study of a separate cohort of individuals identified recessive mutations in four additional cases that were all affected by dystroglycanopathy with structural brain involvement. We show that functional dystroglycan glycosylation was reduced in the fibroblasts and muscle (when available) of these individuals via flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. B3GALNT2 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, and this localization was perturbed by some of the missense mutations identified. Moreover, knockdown of b3galnt2 in zebrafish recapitulated the human congenital muscular dystrophy phenotype with reduced motility...

‣ Mutations in KCTD1 Cause Scalp-Ear-Nipple Syndrome

Marneros, Alexander G.; Beck, Anita E.; Turner, Emily H.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Edwards, Matthew J.; Field, Michael; de Macena Sobreira, Nara Lygia; Perez, Ana Beatriz A.; Fortes, Jose A.R.; Lampe, Anne K.; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa;
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/04/2013 Português
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Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development.

‣ Recessive and Dominant Mutations in Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta in Cases with Microphthalmia and Diaphragmatic Hernia

Srour, Myriam; Chitayat, David; Caron, Véronique; Chassaing, Nicolas; Bitoun, Pierre; Patry, Lysanne; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Capo-Chichi, José-Mario; Francannet, Christine; Calvas, Patrick; Ragge, Nicola; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Hamdan, Fadi F.; Rouleau,
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/10/2013 Português
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Anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia, pulmonary hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, and cardiac defects are the main features of PDAC syndrome. Recessive mutations in STRA6, encoding a membrane receptor for the retinol-binding protein, have been identified in some cases with PDAC syndrome, although many cases have remained unexplained. Using whole-exome sequencing, we found that two PDAC-syndrome-affected siblings, but not their unaffected sibling, were compound heterozygous for nonsense (c.355C>T [p.Arg119∗]) and frameshift (c.1201_1202insCT [p.Ile403Serfs∗15]) mutations in retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB). Transfection studies showed that p.Arg119∗ and p.Ile403Serfs∗15 altered RARB had no transcriptional activity in response to ligands, confirming that the mutations induced a loss of function. We then sequenced RARB in 15 subjects with anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia and at least one other feature of PDAC syndrome. Surprisingly, three unrelated subjects with microphthalmia and diaphragmatic hernia showed de novo missense mutations affecting the same codon; two of the subjects had the c.1159C>T (Arg387Cys) mutation, whereas the other one carried the c.1159C>A (p.Arg387Ser) mutation. We found that compared to the wild-type receptor...