Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade Católica de Temuco

A Universidade Católica de Temuco é uma institução privada confessional do Chile, fundada pelo bispo Alejandro Menchaca Lira em 1959.

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‣ Two-phase partitioning bioreactors: towards a new generation of high-performance biological processes for VOC and CH4 abatement.

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The intense research and development conducted over the past 30 years in the field of air pollution control have increased the acceptance of biotechnologies as cost-efficient technological solutions to mitigate atmospheric pollution. Despite the low operating cost of biofilters and biotrickling filters, the limited mass transfer rates of certain key air contaminants from the gas phase to the microbial community and the perceived limited robustness of biotechnologies still make physical-chemical technologies the preferred methods for air pollution control. In this context, the addition of a non-aqueous phase to conventional bioreactors, in the so called two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs), can overcome the above mentioned limitations and trigger the consolidation of biotechnologies for the removal of odors, volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) or greenhouse gases. TPPBs have been successfully implemented in stirred tank, airlift, biofilter and biotrickling filter reactors for the removal of hydrophobic VOCs and CH4 at unprecedentedly high removal rates. The high affinity of the non-aqueous phase for the target gas pollutant creates a new and efficient mass transfer pathway and increases process robustness compared to conventional biotechnologies. Finally...

‣ Technology Prospects of Wave Power Systems

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
In this work, a comparative overview of wave power technologies is carried out. Although wave energy resource is theoretically enormous, it is only located in certain areas of the globe where sufficiently high wave power potential exists. These areas are the western seaboard of Europe, the northern coast of the UK and the pacific coastlines of North and South America, Southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand. In addition, the highest potential exists in deep ocean waters, many kilometers offshore. Therefore, only a fraction of the wave energy resource can be harnessed by current wave energy technologies. Currently, wave power technologies are neither mature nor have become widely commercialized. Although these technologies can cover onshore, near-shore and offshore applications, the vast majority of wave energy devices developed today from these technologies is still in prototype demonstration stage. It is, therefore, too early to predict which of these technologies will become the most prevalent one for future commercialization. Currently the major obstacles towards wave energy commercialization are the high capital costs of wave energy devices (translated into high electricity unit costs for power generation) and the adverse working weather conditions that these devices have to endure...

‣ El fuego sagrado. Epistemología y ontología postcuántica

Fonte: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco Publicador: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
El presente artículo se expone y explica la esencia de los cambios epistémicos, considerando el papel de la mecánica cuántica, así como las ideas y teorías que hoy caracterizan la concepción de la realidad en base a conceptos y paradigmas como 'organización compleja', 'dialógico', 'autoorgonización'. A la vez, se establece uno íntimo relación entre la nueva concepción de la realidad (ontología) con la tradición filosófica griega y oriental, de tal manera de vincular la ciencia actual con fundamentos y supuestos que escapan a toda reducción positivista del conocimiento.

‣ Male sterility induced by the chemical hybridizing agent clofencet on wheat, Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum var. durum

Fonte: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco Publicador: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the male sterilizing activity induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA) clofencet, on four wheat varieties: two Triticum aestivum cultivars, 'Pia' and 'Claudia', and two Triticum turgidum var. durum cultivars, 'Capri' and 'Ambra'. The CHA was sprayed at two stages of the Feekes scale, 7.5 and 8.5, using four rates of active ingredients (0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 kgּ ha-1) in a split block design with fi ve replicates. The effi ciency of the treatments was determined by measuring developed seeds and calculating male sterility (MS). Results showed that MS increased with increasing dosage and was more pronounced at the latest stage of development. The MS average for the highest dosage was 47.3% in the first stage of application and reached 84% at the second stage of application. Cultivars responded differently to the CHA, but no differences clearly attributable to species could be detected. T. aestivum cultivar ‘Pia’ reached 96% MS, a value that justifi es the use of clofencet as a CHA for hybrid wheat production. The insufficient levels of MS detected in the other cultivars were due to causes not determined in this study.

‣ Biological treatment of contaminated air with toluene in an airlift reactor

Fonte: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco Publicador: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
In this work the variation in the toluene elimination capacity of an airlift bioreactor as a function of the toluene inlet load, using compost as the support material for the microorganisms was studied. In order to evaluate the flexibility of the reactor under changing toluene load, the toluene biodegradation was measured for flows from 2.4 x 10-2 to 0.132 m3 h-1, and a concentration range from 1.4 to 0.8 g m-3. Results show a 100% removal efficiency (RE) for minor flows, however, for a flow increase of 450% the RE decreased 40%, reflecting the equipments weak flexibility in varying flows. Meanwhile the maximum elimination capacity obtained was 230 g m-3 h-1, for toluene loads of 550 g m-3 h-1, corresponding to a flow of 0.132 m3 h-1. It was found that a average biomass concentration in suspension of 3700 g m-3, reflected EC's of 203 g m-3 h-1.

‣ Primer reporte en Chile de Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) en evidencia entomológica forense

Fonte: Universidad Austral de Chile - Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias Publicador: Universidad Austral de Chile - Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) es una mosca hemisinantrópica ampliamente distribuida en América Latina. Es probable que esta especie de mosca sea la más importante para la entomología forense en casuística humana y veterinaria. Hasta la fecha, no hay evidencia de la presencia de esta especie en Chile. En esta investigación se analizó la evidencia entomológica recogida de 60 cadáveres humanos encontrados por Carabineros de Chile (Labocar) desde el año 2006 hasta el 2011 desde Antofagasta (23º36' 40'' S, 70º23' 31'' W) a Punta Arenas (53º10' 00'' S, 70º56' 00'' W). Se encontraron larvas de C. albiceps en cinco casos. Para ofrecer la evidencia experimental de la presencia de C. albiceps en Chile y para generar una tabla con su ciclo de vida, se analizó la sucesión de insectos en cadáveres de cerdo en descomposición durante el verano en la zona central de Chile (35°39' 46,8"S, 71°43' 14,85'' O). El tiempo de desarrollo de la mosca de huevo a imago fue de 12 días. El 10% de las larvas más grandes de cada muestra se midió para desarrollar una tabla que podrá ser utilizada en análisis entomológico forense en Chile. Este es el primer reporte de la presencia de C. albiceps en Chile en casos forenses y se muestra la primera tabla con el ciclo de esta especie en cadáveres de cerdo que puede ser utilizado en el análisis entomológico forense humano y veterinario.; Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a hemisynanthropic fly widely distributed in Latin America. This organism is probably the most important fly species for forensic entomology in human and veterinary casuistic. Until now...

‣ Registro de poliploidia en la almeja dulceacuícola Musculium Argentinum (D'ORBIGNY 1835) (SPHAERIIDAE, VENEROIDA)

Fonte: Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas. Publicador: Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas.
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
La poliploidía es un carácter inusual en moluscos bivalvos. Sin embargo, datos citogenéticos documentados para especies de la subfamilia Sphaeriinae (familia Sphaeriidae) del hemisferio norte muestran números cromosómicos que varían desde 36 hasta ca. 247. La almeja dulceacuícola Musculium argentinum (D'Orbigny 1835) presenta un número cromosómico 2n = ca. 130, lo cual muestra que la poliploidía también estaría presente en esféridos sudamericanos. Estos antecedentes citogenéticos sugieren que Sphaeriinae podría constituir un complejo poliploide maduro.; The polyploidy is an unusual character in bivalve mollusks. However, cytogenetic data documented for north-hemispheric species of the subfamily Sphaeriinae (family Sphaeriidae), showed chromosome numbers ranging from 36 to ca. 247. The freshwater clam Musculium argentinum (D'Orbigny 1835) has a polyploid chromosome number 2n = ca. 130, which shows that polyploidy likewise may be present in South American sphaeriids. These cytogenetic data suggest that the subfamily Sphaeriinae could constitute a mature polyploid complex.

‣ Primer registro de Musculium Argentinum (D'ORBIGNY 1835) (BIVALVIA: SPHAERIIDAE) en aguas continentales chilenas

Fonte: Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas. Publicador: Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas.
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Se comunica el primer registro de Musculium argentinum (d'Orbigny 1835) Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae) sobre la base de especímenes recolectados del fondo fangoso de piletas de engorda de la piscicultura de Lautaro (38° 32' S; 72° 27' W). La descripción y análisis morfométrico de los ejemplares coinciden con los entregados por Ituarte (1996). Con ello se extiende el rango de distribución longitudinal oeste de esta especie, aumentando la diversidad de esféridos para Chile.; The first record of Musculium argentinum (d'Orbigny 1835) (Bivalvia:Sphaeriidae) on the basis of specimens collected buried in the muddy bottom of raceways of Lautaro Fishfarming (38° 32' S; 72° 27' W ) is communicated. The description and morphometric analysis of the specimens are coincident with those described by Ituarte (1996) for this species. The finding adds a new species to Chilean continental malacofauna and extends the west longitudinal distribution range of this species, so increasing spheriid diversity in Chile.

‣ Aplicación de biomarcadores como herramienta de evaluación de contaminación en efluentes de pisciculturas.

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
El hombre ha introducido al ambiente una amplia gama de sustancias químicas que no están presentes en forma natural. Por esta razón existen múltiples factores estresores como la contaminación producto de las actividades productivas, que pueden ejercer efectos acumulativos y sinérgicos en el ambiente. En los ríos una de las razones de la degradación ambiental de sus sistemas acuáticos es producto de la expansión de las pisciculturas, puesto que sus efluentes son considerados como un potencial contribuyente de la alteración física como también química de los recursos hídricos; enriquecimiento de nutrientes en la recepción de las masas de agua, la eutrofización posterior ,cambios en la deriva de comunidades bentónicas y el estado ecológico perturbado según lo encontrado por publicaciones a nivel mundial .Es así como numerosos contaminantes ambientales (o sus metabolitos) han mostrado ejercer efectos tóxicos a nivel sub-letal, relacionados a un proceso llamado estrés oxidativo. Una manera de evaluar los efectos derivados de las descargas de los cultivos acuícolas como desechos de alimentos, fármacos (anestésicos, antibióticos, antiparasitarios), es través del uso de biomarcadores en comunidades bentónicas, más específicamente determinar el estrés oxidativo producido por las descargas de efluentes...

‣ Nuevos registros de presencia para Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) en Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Arundo donax L. es una gramínea altamente invasora, originaria de Asia y que está presente en Chile. El presente trabajo reporta nuevos registros de presencia para la especie en las regiones de O´higgins, Maule y Biobío. Se incluye una descripción morfológica y del habitat de la planta.; Arundo donax L. is a highly invasive grass, native of Asia and is present in Chile. This paper reports a new records of the specie in the regions of O'higgins, Maule and Biobío. A morphological and habitat description of the plant is included.

‣ Feasibility Analysis of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV)/Hydro Power System for Community Service Facilities

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
There is the need for the provision of an alternative sustainable electric power supply system to provide electricity for Community Service Facilities (CSF) such as Information Communication Technology (ICT) for e-service to rural communities, rural banking, hospitals, and supply of potable water if the social and economic lives of rural citizens in Nigeria are to be improved. This paper presents the feasibility study of a stand-alone Photovoltaic (PV)/Hydro power system for CSF in Ogologo-Eji Ndiagu Akpugo in Nkanu-West L.G.A located in South-Eastern Nigeria on Latitude 6°35'N and Longitude 7°51'E with annual average solar daily radiation of 4.73kWh/m²/d. The river used for the study is Atavo stream also located in Ogologo-Eji Ndiagu Akpugo. In carrying out the flow measurement of the stream, the length, width, and depth of the stream were measured, while a floating object was used as the technique for the determination of the surface speed. The readings were taken over a period of 2 years (2010-2012) with an average stream discharge of 26.42 M3/s. Load estimates of a typical rural ICT infrastructures, banking and hospital were estimated. The simulation results show that the renewable energy system (RES) is capable of supplying sufficient power...

‣ Nuevos limites para la distribución de salix humboldtiana willd., salicaceae, en Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Salix humboldtiana Willd. is reported for the first time from wetlands in the Araucanian Region of Chile. Furthermore, our inspection of existing herbarium collections shows that the range limits previously reported in the literature considerably underestimate the range of this species in Chile. These findings therefore represent an extension of the southern range limit of S. humboldtiana by ca. 2° of latitude (from 36°59' to 38°47'S), and an extension of the northern limit in Chile by more than 9° of latitude (27°21' to 18°35'S).

‣ Geoarquelogía del sitio arcaico Chan-Chan 18, costa de Valdivia: Discriminación de ambientes de ocupación humana y su relación con la transgresión marina del Holoceno Medio

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
El sitio arqueológico Chan-Chan 18 (39°30'S/73°15'W) corresponde a un asentamiento costero complejo del Arcaico Medio. En él se reconocen dos fases de ocupación separadas por un hiatus, datadas entre 5.730-6.130 y 6.250-6.420 años cal. AP, respectivamente. Análisis estratigráficos y granulométricos interpretados mediante análisis multivariados, que incluyen muestras actuales de playas y dunas, han permitido reconocer que la ocupación más antigua del sitio se asentó al borde de la berma de una paleoplaya. Tal berma corresponde al registro de la máxima transgresión holocena, y se ubica a una altura de 8 m s.n.m. El registro temporal de la transgresión es sincrónico con otros de la zona centro y norte de Chile, pero reafirma el levantamiento cuaternario generalizado de la costa de Chile centro-sur, tal como lo sugieren otros antecedentes. Este levantamiento ocurre a pesar del hundimiento cosísmico descrito en esta región.; In south central Chile the Middle Archaic is well represented by ChanChan 18, a complex coastal settlement located at the coast of Valdivia (39°30'S/73°15'W). In this archaeological site two separated phases of occupation are recognized, the first dated between 5,730 and 6,130, and the second between 6...

‣ Liderazgo de los directivos docentes en contextos vulnerables

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
El objetivo es describir aspectos relevantes del liderazgo directivo en establecimientos educacionales de enseñanza media en contextos de alta vulnerabilidad social, desde la percepción de sus actores. Bajo un diseño metodológico cualitativo y descriptivo, se aplicó la técnica de grupos focales y entrevistas semiestructuradas a 102 docentes y directivos de establecimientos de enseñanza secundaria municipalizada de la región de la Araucanía, Chile. Los hallazgos informan que el liderazgo directivo promueve relaciones de confianza y reconoce una alta valoración hacia la diversidad, lo que se evidencia en un alto compromiso con los estudiantes, como también en la explicitación de valores relacionados en los proyectos educativos institucionales.; The objective of this study is to describe the relevant aspects of administrative leadership at high schools in extremely vulnerable social environments, as seen from the perspective of school principals and administrators. Using a qualitative, descriptive method, the focus-group technique was applied and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 102 teachers and school principals and administrators at municipal high schools in Chile's Araucanía region. The findings show administrative leadership encourages relationships of trust and acknowledges considerable appreciation for diversity. This is evidenced by a great deal of commitment to students and by the related values specified in the educational projects of the institution.; O objetivo é descrever como percebem los atores os aspectos importantes da liderança dos diretivos em estabelecimentos de ensino secundário em contextos de alta vulnerabilidade social. Com uma metodologia descritivo-qualitativa...

‣ Pedagogical knowledge and disciplinary childhood educator: A study in southern Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
This article allows us to know more about the knowledge handled by the educators who work with boys and girls younger than 3 years around the categories of to know, to know how and to know how to be. The purpose is to understand the pedagogical and disciplinary knowledge they own in order to see how their professional role has an influence on the pertinence and quality of education. It is well known that during this period the abilities of thinking, talking, learning and reasoning use to develop, hence the great responsibility of education in that stage. The research is based on the qualitative methodology and to gather the information a questionnaire and a survey were applied to twenty participants, together with classroom observation and a focal group. One of the main discoveries was that the participants showed a great lack of the conceptual control and a great ignorance of the main contributions and new focuses of today's Pedagogy, based on the discovery of neurosciences within the field of education. This shows clearly the lack of educational intentionality with which the educators of children aged three or less take on the pedagogical process.

‣ Terrestrial archaeological survey in the areas of piedmont lakes, the andes and pampas in center south Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The scarce archaeological research developed in Chile's center south until the past decade has led to the construction of chrono-cultural sketches, which barely account for the internal variability of the past reality in the areas of piedmont lakes and mountains of Central-South Chile. Preliminarily, we have detected strategic archaeological differences between two sectors, which likewise show cultural associations, and environmental characteristics that have allowed us to elaborate a terrestrial survey methodology according to both, by covering extensive surfaces and according to the specific environmental characteristics of the overall study area, using a subdivision on the basis of his principal hydrographic basins. This methodology has been developed using GIS as an auxiliary tool in areas with dense vegetation, bad visibility, abundant and extensive water masses and courses, presence of ancient ancestral mapuche and pewenche ethnic communities and frequent volcanic activity. We will expose a synthesis of regional archaeology, and the methodological survey strategy as implemented in the sub-areas of Villarrica-Lanín and Lonquimay-Llaima volcanic axes. The area of study is re-defined in environmental terms and one declares the presence of 179 patrimonial archaeological resources...

‣ Gonadal organization and gametogenesis in musculium argentinum (Veneroida: Sphaeriidae) from a population in Southern Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
The gonadal organization and cytological characteristics of gametogenesis in a population of the freshwater clam Musculium argentinum (d'Orbigny, 1835) are described. Sections of the rather small gonad demonstrate the existence of hermaphroditic specimens, and is composed of hermaphrodite follicles among the intestine coils in the posterior dorsal region of the body. Follicles contain male and female germ cells at different stages of maturation, which can be recognized by their shape, size, and nuclear features. Male germ cells are organized in cysts, and spermatocytes do carry out meiosis. Within follicles, male and female germ cells occupy different regions. Gonad activity throughout the year is coincident with the life cycle pattern of the M. argentinum population studied previously.

‣ Effects of an urban zone on the benthonic macroinvertebrate community of a fluvial ecosystem in southern Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
A healthy body of freshwater can provide numerous benefits to the society, although currently, the degradation of such ecosystems has been increased due to the establishment of urban areas along its riverbanks. In this study we analyzed the spatial effect of these zones on the water quality, using the benthonic macroinvertebrate communities as bioindicators of fluvial contamination in the Gibbs channel of the Temuco commune (38°46°'S 72°38°'W). The samplings were performed in spring, in six sites. The macrozoobentos was composed by a total of 15 taxa, corresponding to organisms tolerant to anoxic conditions and high concentrations of organic matter, such as amphipods (Hyalella), dipterans (Quironomidae), and oligochaetes (Oligochaeta). There was a marked difference in the composition and abundance of taxa between the pre-urban, urban, and post-urban areas (ANOSIM Global R = 0.882, p = 0.001) tendency that was also recorded by the physicochemical parameters (ANOSIM Global R = 0.498, p = 0.001), of which pH, total suspended solids, and dissolved oxygen are those that best explained the patterns observed in the macrozoobentos. The results obtained with the biotic family index (ChIBF) were similar to those registered in the lower parts of the basins of southern Chile and the invertebrate community was shown to be sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances. © Asociación Ibérica de Limnología...

‣ Review of the species classification in categories of threat in Chile

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Since 1985, the Chilean government with the participation and support of different specialists in plant and animal conservation, started the publication of checklists (i.e. red books) of plant (1985) and animal species (1987) with high to moderate risk of extinction due to human activities (i.e. threatened species). The seven categories of threats used in these publications matched those used by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 1982; nonetheless, for the flora there was matching only in five of the categories used. In 1994, the Law 19300 on the General Bases of the Environment established six categories of conservation status. The regulations for the classification of the wild species in Conservation categories, enacted in 2005, defined these six categories, which resulted from a combination of those proposed by the IUCN in 2001 and 1982. The generation of this hybrid system, which is not fully comparable with that of the IUCN (2001) and widely used in the rest of the world, has severely restricted the possibility of classifying species with a threat level lower than "Vulnerable". Further complications were generated due to the definition of conservation categories that appeared in the Laws 19473 (1996) regulating the hunting activity and 20283 (2008) supporting the native forest recovery and forestry development. The Law 20417 (enacted in January 26...

‣ New model to explain the EQ-5D VAS in patients who have undergone spinal fusion

Fonte: Universidade Católica de Temuco Publicador: Universidade Católica de Temuco
Tipo: Artículo de Revista
Português
Background: In the health sector, the EQ-5D has been widely used to evaluate health-related quality of life, mainly due to its simplicity, robustness and plasticity in calculating years of life adjusted for quality. Methods: However, its model has remained stable over time and knowledge of the influence of such biodemographical variables as age and gender has not been incorporated. This information, along with the well-known non-linear behavior of the VAS, which measures the self-concept of the 'General State of Health', forms the basis for a new model, which we present here from a sample of patients who were operated on for chronic low back pain. Results: These are obtained using multiple regression analysis are consistent in terms of goodness-of-fit given that this new model is able to explain 91.3% of the self-concept of the 'general state of health'. Conclusions: Above leads to an improvement of 21.6% compared to the available models more robust and meets most of the restrictions for this type of statistical modeling.