Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Proceedings Nature

Nature é uma das mais prestigiosas e antigas revistas científicas do mundo: sua primeira edição é de 4 de novembro de 1869. Entre as inúmeras descobertas científicas publicadas na Nature estão a dos raios X, da estrutura em dupla hélice do ADN e o buraco na camada de ozônio.

Página 4 dos resultados de 3453 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

‣ Antidiabetic, Anti-hyperlipidemic & Hepatoprotective effect of a Polyherbal Unani formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in STZ-diabetic wistar rats

Danish Ahmed; Manju Sharma; Alok Mukerjee; Raja Kamal Kant; Vikas Kumar
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effect of a traditional unani formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rats. Up until now, no study was undertaken to appraise the efficacy of “Qurs Tabasheer” in the diabetic rats. Qurs Tabasheer is a unani formulation restraining preparations from six various herbs namely Tukhme Khurfa (Portulaca oleracea seed), Gule Surkh (Rosa damascena flower), Gile armani (Arminium bole), Gulnar (Punica granatum flower), Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinasia dried exudate on node), Tukhme Kahu (Lactuca sativa Linn seed). The effect of Qurs Tabasheer was assessed in STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p single shot) induced diabetic wistar rats. STZ produced a marked increase in the serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides and trimmed down the HDL level. We have weighed the effect of Qurs Tabasheer on hepatic activity through estimating levels of various liver enzymes viz. Hexokinase, Glucose-6-Phosphatase and Fructose-1-6-biphosphatase in STZ diabetic wistar rats. In STZ-induced diabetic wistar rats the level of Hexokinase, and Glucose-6-Phosphatase was decreased to a significant level while the level of fructose-1-6-biphophatase was augmented. Therapy with Qurs Tabasheer for 30 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduces the level of serum glucose...

‣ An emerging protagonist: Sodium Glucose Co-transporters (SGLTs) as a burgeoning target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus

Danish Ahmed; Manju Sharma; Vikas Kumar; Pankaj S Yadav
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Contemporary therapies to rationalize the hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) generally involve insulin-dependent mechanisms and lose their effectiveness as pancreatic b-cell function decreases to a greater extent. The kidney emerges out as a novel and potential target to trim down the T2DM. The filtered glucose is reabsorbed principally through the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2), a low affinity transport system, which is present at the luminal surface cells that cover the first segment of proximal tubules. Competitive inhibition of SGLT2 therefore represents an innovative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hyperglycaemia and/or obesity in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes by enhancing glucose and energy loss through the urine. Selective inhibitors of SGLT2 reduce glucose reabsorption, causing excess glucose to be eliminated in the urine; this decreases plasma glucose. SGLT2 inhibitors are coupled with osmotic dieresis and loss of weight which aid in reducing blood pressure. The observation that individuals with familial renal glycosuria maintain normal long-term kidney function provides some encouragement that this mode of action will not adversely affect renal function. This novel mechanism of targeting the kidney for the treatment of T2DM is reasonably valuable and is independent of insulin and clutch with the low risk of hypoglycemia.

‣ The phage-host interaction as a model for studying carbon regulation in aquatic system

Swapnil G. Sanmukh; Waman N. Paunikar; Dilip B. Meshram; Satish K. Lokhande; Tarun K. Ghosh
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
This document contains the presentation by Swapnil G Sanmukh et al, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur on “The phage-host interaction as a model for studying carbon regulation in aquatic system” during Second National Research Conference on Climate Change, organized by the Centre for Science and Environment, IIT Delhi and IIT Madras on November 5-6, 2011 at New Delhi.

‣ Mind over chatter: plastic up-regulation of the fMRI alertness network by EEG neurofeedback

Tomas Ros; Jean Theberge; Paul A. Frewen; Rosemarie Kluetsch; Maria Densmore; Vince D. Calhoun; Ruth A. Lanius
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
EEG neurofeedback (NFB) is a brain-computer interface (BCI) approach used to shape brain oscillations by means of real-time feedback from the electroencephalogram (EEG), which is known to reflect neural activity across cortical networks. Although NFB is being evaluated as a novel tool for treating brain disorders, evidence is scarce on the mechanism of its impact on brain function. In this study with 34 healthy participants, we examined whether, during the performance of an attentional auditory oddball task, the functional connectivity strength of distinct fMRI networks would be plastically altered after a 30-min NFB session of alpha-band reduction (n=17) versus a sham-feedback condition (n=17). Our results reveal that compared to sham, NFB induced a specific increase of functional connectivity within the alertness/salience network (dorsal anterior and mid cingulate), which was detectable 30 minutes after termination of training. Crucially, these effects were significantly correlated with reduced mind-wandering 'on-task' and were coupled to NFB-mediated resting state reductions in the alpha-band (8-12 Hz). No such relationships were evident for the sham condition. Although group default-mode network (DMN) connectivity was not significantly altered following NFB...

‣ Microparticles specific for lung delivery: in-vivo drug distribution in monkeys

Rahul Verma; Amit Misra
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
In spite of extensive research in tuberculosis (TB), it is still one of the major infectious diseases and cause of high mortality worldwide. To enhance efficacy with lower dosing, newer drug delivery systems has been developed which provide targeted drug delivery and controlled release at the primary site of infection, i.e., the lung macrophage. Our lab has previously reported poly(D, L-lactic acid) (PLA) microparticles containing rifabutin (RFB) and isoniazid (INH) for pulmonary delivery and explored various facets of treatment with microparticle DPI. We have utilized this dry powder aerosol drug delivery system to deposit drugs directly at the site of infection in lungs and have been investigating such DPI as a novel approach to increase therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance and lower toxicity. Data from murine models of DPI delivery suggests that aerosolized delivery of anti-TB drugs is more effective than conventional drug therapies in maintaining therapeutic concentration at the site of infection. Most of the previous studies were primarily concerned with acute administration of drug-containing delivery systems and evaluation of their pharmacokinetic profile in rodents. The aim of present study was to evaluate pharmacokinetics...

‣ Mummification in a Bitch: A case report

Perumal P; Venkateswaralu B; D.N. Mohanty; Srinibas Das; Ashok Kumar Barik; P.C. Mishra
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
A pug aged 5 years was admitted in the Lyka pet clinic with difficulty in parturition. Breeding history of the dog was collected from the owner. X-ray was conducted which confirmed the presence of foetus. The bitch was manually handled to relieve the Dystocia following intravenous drip of N.S.S. and oxytocin. In the vent of unsuccessful attempt the bitch was surgically operated for C.S. and six fetuses of which four normal and two mummified were relieved. Routine post operative care were undertaken and the bitch recovered normally with out any complication. Photographic recording was also made during the recovery of mummified foetus.

‣ Endoscopy

Perumal P
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedure that is used to assess the interior surfaces of an organ by inserting a tube into the body. The instrument may have a rigid or flexible tube and not only provide an image for visual inspection and photography, but also enable taking biopsies and retrieval of foreign objects. Endoscopy is the vehicle for minimally invasive surgery and patients may receive conscious sedation so they do not have to be consciously aware of the discomfort. Many endoscopic procedures are considered to be relatively painless and, at worst, associated with moderate discomfort.

‣ Role of intellectual property rights in biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries

Ajeet Ajeet
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
The main objective of this review is to highlight and explore the inter-relationship and the functioning of the intellectual property right in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. The rising tide of patent applications can be witnessed globally in this industry as the need for such protection and licensing has become imperative so as to safeguard the rights of the inventor and also to encourage and promote new talents, inventions and innovations which can be a boon for the economy. The field of biotechnology is an upcoming science which is still at the initial stage of establishing a foundation but it promises a revolution in the fields of medicine, agriculture, pharmaceuticals and industrial sector amongst other sectors of the economy along with contribution to the GDP growth.

‣ Comments on “Assessing future risk: quantifying the effects of sea level rise on storm surge risk for the southern shores of Long Island, New York”

David A. Burton
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Tide gauge and satellite data indicate that the rate of sea level rise has not increased significantly in response to the last 3/4 century of CO2 emissions, so there is no reason to expect that it will do so in response to the next 3/4 century of CO2 emissions. The best prediction for sea level in the future is simply a linear projection of the history of sea level at the same location in the past. For Long Island, that is about 7-8 inches by 2080.

‣ Critical nutritional stress among adult tribal populations of West Bengal and Orissa, India.

Samiran Bisai; Kaushik Bose
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
This paper deals with cross-sectional studies carried out during the period 2004-2007. It is based on eight data sets of tribals of Paschim Medinipur and Bankura Districts of West Bengal and Keonjhar District of Orissa. The tribes include Bhumijs, Kora Mudis, Lodhas, Santals, Bathudis and Savars. Height and weight were measured following standard techniques. The body mass index (BMI) was computed following standard equation. Nutritional status (chronic energy deficiency, CED) was evaluated using internationally accepted cut-off values of BMI. We followed the World Health Organization's classification (1995) of the public health problem of low BMI, based on adult populations worldwide. Our results show that, in general, among the tribes studied: i)Both sexes had very low levels of BMI ii)There existed high rates of CED indicating a critical nutritional condition iii)Women experienced greater nutritional stress iv)The nutritional situation is similar in both West Bengal as well as Orissa.

‣ Bevacizumab-induced tumor calcifications can be elicited in glioblastoma microspheroid culture and represent massive calcium accumulation death (MCAD) of tumor endothelial cells

Larry Weiseenthal; Summer Williamson; Cindy Brunschwiler; Constance Rueff-Weisenthal
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Bähr and colleagues reported that 22 of 36 glioblastoma patients treated with bevacizumab showed tumor calcifications on 8 week post therapy follow up with MRI. Early tumor calcification strongly predicted for response, time to progression, and overall survival. The authors didn’t understand the mechanism, but speculated that it was vascular in nature. At the 13th International Anti-Angiogenic Symposium (2011), we presented our discovery of the phenomenon of massive calcium accumulation death, wherein MCAD occurred in endothelial cells (tumor, circulating, and HUVEC), in response to VEGF depletion by bevacizumab and other putative anti-angiogenic agents, but not in response to non-specific cytotoxins. In subsequent work, we have documented marked MCAD to occur in primary microcluster cultures from 6 fresh human glioblastoma biopsies, following 96 hours of VEGF depletion in vitro by bevacizumab. The presence and degree of MCAD is strikingly dependent on the type of serum in the culture medium (RPMI-1640 + 25% serum) -- typically most striking in (very low VEGF) fetal calf serum, but inhibited (often) or enhanced (rarely) by 25% human serum from different patients or normal donors containing variable quantities of VEGF. There was not a linear relationship between VEGF concentration and MCAD inhibition (or enhancement)...

‣ Life Tables of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae): with a Mathematical Invalidation for Applying the Jackknife Technique to the Net Reproductive Rate

Hsin Chi; Yu-Bing J. O. Y. C. E. Huang
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Life table data for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), reared on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were collected under laboratory and simulated field conditions. Means and standard errors of life table parameters were estimated for two replicates using the jackknife technique. At 25ºC, the intrinsic rates of increase (_r_) found for the two replicates were 0.1354 and 0.1002 day-1, and the net reproductive rates (_R_~0~) were 206.3 and 66.0 offspring, respectively. When the cucumbers kept under simulated field conditions were covered with leaves, the _r_ and _R_~0~ for the two replicates were 0.0935 and 0.0909 day-1, 17.5 and 11.4 offspring, respectively. However, when similar cucumbers were left uncovered, the _r_ and _R_~0~ for the two replicates were 0.1043 and 0.0904 day-1, and 27.7 and 10.1 offspring, respectively. Our results revealed that considerable variability between replicates in both laboratory and field conditions is possible; this variability should be taken into consideration in data collection and application of life tables. Mathematical analysis has demonstrated that applying the jackknife technique results in unrealistic pseudo-_R_~0~ and overestimation of its variance. We suggest that the jackknife technique should not be used for the estimation of variability of _R_~0~.

‣ QSAR & DOCKING APPROACH - POTENTIAL WAY TO NEW DRUG DEVELOPMENT

Ajeet Ajeet
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
With today's need for discovering and developing new drug molecules, it is necessary to accept ways to save time and wet lab essentials. To this end, the QSAR and molecular docking approach is used widely by us. This poster describes steps for developing a new or modified moiety of a drug molecule.

‣ Estimation of extracellular lipase enzyme produced by thermophilic bacillus sp. isolated from arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan, India

Deeksha Gaur; Pankaj Kumar Jain; Yamini Singh Sisodia; Vivek Bajpai
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Thermophilic organisms can be defined as microorganisms which are adapted to live at high temperatures. The enzymes produce by thermophilic bacteria are capable of catalyzing biochemical reactions at high temperatures. Thermophilic bacteria are able to produce thermostable lipase enzymes capable of degradation of lipid at temperatures higher than those of mesophilic bacteria. Therefore, the isolation of thermophilic bacteria from natural sources and their identification are quite useful in terms of discovering thermophilic lipase enzymes. Due to great temperature fluctuation in hot arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, this area could serve as a good source for new thermophilic lipase producing bacteria with novel industrially important properties. The main objective of this research is the isolation and estimation of industrially important thermophilic lipase enzyme produced by thermophilic bacteria, isolated from arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan. For this research purpose, soil samples were collected from Churu, Sikar and Jhunjunu regions of Rajasthan. A total of 16 bacterial strains were isolated, and among these bacterial isolates only two thermophilic lipase producing bacteria were identified. The thermophilic lipase enzyme was estimated by qualitative and quantitative experiments. The isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. by microscopic...

‣ Analysis of acceptance of bacillus to various heavy metals and antibiotics

Yamini Singh Sisodia; Vivek Bajpai; Deeksha Gaur; Pankaj Kumar Jain
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
The present study was carried out to systematically examine the pathogenic microorganisms in sewage samples isolated from the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan. In this survey, 26 bacterial strains were isolated and identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Molecular identification of isolates was done by DNA isolation, PCR amplification using 16S rDNA primer and partial sequencing of purified product after sequencing, out of 26, 10 sequences were submitted to NCBI. Out of these 10 isolates Bacillus pumilis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis were taken for further studies. There is growing awareness of the need for development of new antimicrobial agents for the treatment of human, animal and plant diseases. Keeping this fact in mind, we did the antibiotic susceptibility of these isolates against various antibiotics (Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol etc.) by measuring zone of inhibition in Mueller Hinton agar plate by Kirby Bauer method comparing with growth pattern at different pH, temperature and various other environmental factors. Results of present studies indicates that the strains isolated from sewage water are resistant to most of the antibiotics and susceptible to Chromium , Cadmium, Mercury and some other heavy meals whereas Zinc and Iron are supporting the growth of bacillus at various parameters. Till date B.licheniformis has been checked for its resistance pattern to eight heavy metals. This study can be used for bioremediation of the environmental hazards and recombinants will also be examined for the same against positive strains.

‣ Parenteral administration of hCG (Human Choriogonadotropin) and fat loss as assessed by Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in experimental animals.

Daniel Belluscio; Ezequiel Klimovsky; Alejandro Kaniuk; Sergio Vaney
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Our studies suggest that in experimental animals, submitted to a hypocaloric diet, the intrarectal administration of hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) decreases body fat and increases lean mass content in relative values to a greater extent that control animals who did not receive hCG.

‣ Molecular Models of DNA Structures and Dynamics: Principles, Techniques and Applications

I. C. Baianu
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Molecular models of DNA structures are representations of the molecular geometry and topology of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules using one of several means, such as: closely packed spheres (CPK models) made of plastic, metal wires for 'skeletal models', graphic computations and animations by computers, artistic rendering, and so on, with the aim of simplifying and presenting the essential, physical and chemical, properties of DNA molecular structures either in vivo or in vitro. Computer molecular models also allow animations and molecular dynamics simulations that are very important for understanding how DNA functions in vivo.

‣ Changing the Culture of “Ding”: Education, Legislation and Research on Concussive Brain Injury in Youth Athletics

Claire D. Overturf; Donald C. Cooper
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
The number of emergency department visits concerning sport related TBI in youth increased 57% from 2001 to 2009 and while a fraction of that increase may be attributed to injuries that were once missed now being identified due to greater general awareness, the fact remains that there are nearly 200,000 children every year who suffer sport related concussion or other TBI serious enough to prompt a visit to the ED. 40% of sports related concussions involve children between the ages of 8 and 13, and in this group the rate of concussion doubled between 1997 and 2007. The risk of concussion is highest in football and there are nearly 67,000 diagnosed concussions in high school football every year. In other sports that males and females play, such as basketball, girls seem to be at a higher risk. In high schools, concussions account for 15% of all sports related injuries resulting in at least one day of play lost. The risk of a suffering a concussion when participating in a contact sport may be as high as 20% per season. In both girls’ and boys’ soccer and basketball 20% of the concussions were repeat concussions. These statistics just further illustrate the gravity of the problem of sport related concussions. Here we describe the need for more work on education...

‣ A Systems Biology Approach towards Deciphering the Unfolded Protein Response in Huntington's Disease

Kameshwar R. Ayasolla; Ravi K. R. Kalathur; Matthias E. Futschik
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Although the disease causing gene huntingtin has been known for some time, the exact cause of neuronal cell death during _Huntington's disease_ (HD) remains unknown. One potential mechanism contributing to the massive loss of neurons in HD brains might be the _Unfolded Protein Response_ (UPR) which is activated by accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As an adaptive response, UPR upregulates transcription of chaperones, temporarily attenuating new translation and activates protein degradation via the proteasome. However, at high levels of ER stress, UPR signalling can contribute to neuronal apoptosis. Our primary aims include (a) construction of the UPR signalling network, (b) curation and bioinformatical identification of UPR target genes and finally (c) examination of HD gene expression data sets for UPR transcriptional signatures and differential regulation of UPR pathways. The UPR signalling pathway is reconstructed based on literature review and using the "Unified Interactome database":http://www.unihi.org. Lists of UPR target genes detected by previous experiments or as predicted by computational analysis are compiled. This allows us to perform enrichment analysis for differential HD gene expression and to assess whether UPR expression signatures are prominent during HD pathogenesis. Results: The canonical UPR pathway is complemented with additional protein interaction data allowing us to assess its embedding into the cellular context and to identify potential modifiers as well as novel drug targets. Conclusions: The in depth systems biology analysis can give us valuable insights about the involvement of the UPR in HD.

‣ Structural and Dynamic Studies of Amino Acids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids By Chemical-Hyperspectral Imaging, FT-IR/NIR, Vibro-Rotational Spectroscopy, Plasma, Microwave and Neutron Spectroscopy

I. C. Baianu
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
A detailed review of structural and dynamic studies of amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids by spectroscopic techniques: microwaves, near infrared, UV, X-rays and neutrons, including also EXAFS, chemical-hyperspectral imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and FLIM, FRAP imaging with references, instrumentation diagrams and application examples for several related areas.