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‣ Structural basis of activity and allosteric control of diguanylate cyclase

Chan, Carmen; Paul, Ralf; Samoray, Dietrich; Amiot, Nicolas C.; Giese, Bernd; Jenal, Urs; Schirmer, Tilman
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Recent discoveries suggest that a novel second messenger, bis-(3′→5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-diGMP), is extensively used by bacteria to control multicellular behavior. Condensation of two GTP to the dinucleotide is catalyzed by the widely distributed diguanylate cyclase (DGC or GGDEF) domain that occurs in various combinations with sensory and/or regulatory modules. The crystal structure of the unorthodox response regulator PleD from Caulobacter crescentus, which consists of two CheY-like receiver domains and a DGC domain, has been solved in complex with the product c-diGMP. PleD forms a dimer with the CheY-like domains (the stem) mediating weak monomer–monomer interactions. The fold of the DGC domain is similar to adenylate cyclase, but the nucleotide-binding mode is substantially different. The guanine base is H-bonded to Asn-335 and Asp-344, whereas the ribosyl and α-phosphate moieties extend over the β2-β3-hairpin that carries the GGEEF signature motif. In the crystal, c-diGMP molecules are crosslinking active sites of adjacent dimers. It is inferred that, in solution, the two DGC domains of a dimer align in a two-fold symmetric way to catalyze c-diGMP synthesis. Two mutually intercalated c-diGMP molecules are found tightly bound at the stem–DGC interface. This allosteric site explains the observed noncompetitive product inhibition. We propose that product inhibition is due to domain immobilization and sets an upper limit for the concentration of this second messenger in the cell.

‣ Interplay between Cyclic AMP-Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Cyclic di-GMP Signaling in Vibrio cholerae Biofilm Formation▿ †

Fong, Jiunn C. N.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Vibrio cholerae is a facultative human pathogen. The ability of V. cholerae to form biofilms is crucial for its survival in aquatic habitats between epidemics and is advantageous for host-to-host transmission during epidemics. Formation of mature biofilms requires the production of extracellular matrix components, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) and matrix proteins. Biofilm formation is positively controlled by the transcriptional regulators VpsR and VpsT and is negatively regulated by the quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator HapR, as well as the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) regulatory complex. Transcriptome analysis of cyaA (encoding adenylate cyclase) and crp (encoding cAMP receptor protein) deletion mutants revealed that cAMP-CRP negatively regulates transcription of both VPS biosynthesis genes and genes encoding biofilm matrix proteins. Further mutational and expression analysis revealed that cAMP-CRP negatively regulates transcription of vps genes indirectly through its action on vpsR transcription. However, negative regulation of the genes encoding biofilm matrix proteins by cAMP-CRP can also occur independent of VpsR. Transcriptome analysis also revealed that cAMP-CRP regulates the expression of a set of genes encoding diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases. Mutational and phenotypic analysis of the differentially regulated DGCs revealed that a DGC...

‣ Analysis of a Borrelia burgdorferi phosphodiesterase demonstrates a role for cyclic-di-GMP in motility and virulence

Sultan, Syed Z.; Pitzer, Joshua E.; Miller, Michael R.; Motaleb, Md. A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The genome of Borrelia burgdorferi encodes a set of genes putatively involved in cyclic-di-GMP metabolism. Although BB0419 was shown to be a diguanylate cyclase, the extent to which bb0419 or any of the putative cyclic-di-GMP metabolizing genes impact B. burgdorferi motility and pathogenesis has not yet been reported. Here we identify and characterize a phosphodiesterase (BB0363). BB0363 specifically hydrolyzed cyclic-di-GMP with a Km of 0.054 μM, confirming it is a functional cyclic-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. A targeted mutation in bb0363 was constructed using a newly developed promoterless antibiotic cassette that does not affect downstream gene expression. The mutant cells exhibited an altered swimming pattern, indicating a function for cyclic-di-GMP in regulating B. burgdorferi motility. Furthermore, the bb0363 mutant cells were not infectious in mice, demonstrating an important role for cyclic-di-GMP in B. burgdorferi infection. The mutant cells were able to survive within Ixodes scapularis ticks after a blood meal from naïve mice; however, ticks infected with the mutant cells were not able to infect naïve mice. Both motility and infection phenotypes were restored upon genetic complementation. These results reveal an important connection between cyclic-di-GMP...

‣ Identification and Characterization of a Phosphodiesterase That Inversely Regulates Motility and Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae▿

Liu, Xianxian; Beyhan, Sinem; Lim, Bentley; Linington, Roger G.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Vibrio cholerae switches between free-living motile and surface-attached sessile lifestyles. Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a signaling molecule controlling such lifestyle changes. C-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) that contain a GGDEF domain and is degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that contain an EAL or HD-GYP domain. We constructed in-frame deletions of all V. cholerae genes encoding proteins with GGDEF and/or EAL domains and screened mutants for altered motility phenotypes. Of 52 mutants tested, four mutants exhibited an increase in motility, while three mutants exhibited a decrease in motility. We further characterized one mutant lacking VC0137 (cdgJ), which encodes an EAL domain protein. Cellular c-di-GMP quantifications and in vitro enzymatic activity assays revealed that CdgJ functions as a PDE. The cdgJ mutant had reduced motility and exhibited a small decrease in flaA expression; however, it was able to produce a flagellum. This mutant had enhanced biofilm formation and vps gene expression compared to that of the wild type, indicating that CdgJ inversely regulates motility and biofilm formation. Genetic interaction analysis revealed that at least four DGCs, together with CdgJ, control motility in V. cholerae.

‣ Identification and Characterization of CdgB, a Diguanylate Cyclase Involved in Developmental Processes in Streptomyces coelicolor ▿

Tran, Ngat T.; Den Hengst, Chris D.; Gomez-Escribano, Juan Pablo; Buttner, Mark J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2011 Português
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We describe the identification and functional characterization of cdgB (SCO4281), a recently discovered target of BldD, a key regulator of morphological differentiation and antibiotic production in the mycelial bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. cdgB (cyclic dimeric GMP [c-di-GMP] B) encodes a GGDEF-containing protein that has diguanylate cyclase activity in vitro. Consistent with this enzymatic activity, heterologous expression of cdgB in Escherichia coli resulted in increased production of extracellular matrix in colonies and enhanced surface attachment of cells in standing liquid cultures. In Streptomyces coelicolor, both overexpression and deletion of cdgB inhibited aerial-mycelium formation, and overexpression also inhibited production of the antibiotic actinorhodin, implicating c-di-GMP in the regulation of developmental processes in Streptomyces.

‣ The Yersinia pestis Rcs Phosphorelay Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Repressing Transcription of the Diguanylate Cyclase Gene hmsT

Sun, Yi-Cheng; Guo, Xiao-Peng; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Darby, Creg
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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Yersinia pestis, which causes bubonic plague, forms biofilms in fleas, its insect vectors, as a means to enhance transmission. Biofilm development is positively regulated by hmsT, encoding a diguanylate cyclase that synthesizes the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP. Biofilm development is negatively regulated by the Rcs phosphorelay signal transduction system. In this study, we show that Rcs-negative regulation is accomplished by repressing transcription of hmsT.

‣ Cellular Levels and Binding of c-di-GMP Control Subcellular Localization and Activity of the Vibrio cholerae Transcriptional Regulator VpsT

Shikuma, Nicholas J.; Fong, Jiunn C. N.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The second messenger, cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), regulates diverse cellular processes in bacteria. C-di-GMP is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs), and receptors couple c-di-GMP production to cellular responses. In many bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae, multiple DGCs and PDEs contribute to c-di-GMP signaling, and it is currently unclear whether the compartmentalization of c-di-GMP signaling components is required to mediate c-di-GMP signal transduction. In this study we show that the transcriptional regulator, VpsT, requires c-di-GMP binding for subcellular localization and activity. Only the additive deletion of five DGCs markedly decreases the localization of VpsT, while single deletions of each DGC do not impact VpsT localization. Moreover, mutations in residues required for c-di-GMP binding, c-di-GMP-stabilized dimerization and DNA binding of VpsT abrogate wild type localization and activity. VpsT does not co-localize or interact with DGCs suggesting that c-di-GMP from these DGCs diffuses to VpsT, supporting a model in which c-di-GMP acts at a distance. Furthermore, VpsT localization in a heterologous host, Escherichia coli, requires a catalytically active DGC and is enhanced by the presence of VpsT-target sequences. Our data show that c-di-GMP signaling can be executed through an additive cellular c-di-GMP level from multiple DGCs affecting the localization and activity of a c-di-GMP receptor and furthers our understanding of the mechanisms of second messenger signaling.

‣ RsmA Regulates Biofilm Formation in Xanthomonas campestris through a Regulatory Network Involving Cyclic di-GMP and the Clp Transcription Factor

Lu, Xiu-Hong; An, Shi-Qi; Tang, Dong-Jie; McCarthy, Yvonne; Tang, Ji-Liang; Dow, John Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/12/2012 Português
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Biofilm formation and dispersal in the black rot pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc) is influenced by a number of factors. The extracellular mannanase ManA has been implicated in biofilm dispersal whereas biofilm formation requires a putative glycosyl transferase encoded by the xag gene cluster. Previously we demonstrated that the post-transcriptional regulator RsmA exerts a negative regulatory influence on biofilm formation in Xcc. Here we address the mechanisms by which RsmA exerts this action. We show that RsmA binds to the transcripts of three genes encoding GGDEF domain diguanylate cyclases to influence their expression. Accordingly, mutation of rsmA leads to an increase in cellular levels of cyclic di-GMP. This effect is associated with a down-regulation of transcription of manA, but an upregulation of xag gene transcription. Mutation of clp, which encodes a cyclic di-GMP-responsive transcriptional regulator of the CRP-FNR family, has similar divergent effects on the expression of manA and xag. Nevertheless Clp binding to manA and xag promoters is inhibited by cyclic di-GMP. The data support the contention that, in common with other CRP-FNR family members, Clp can act as both an activator and repressor of transcription of different genes to influence biofilm formation as a response to cyclic di-GMP.

‣ Crystal structure of a catalytically active GG(D/E)EF diguanylate cyclase domain from Marinobacter aquaeolei with bound c-di-GMP product

Vorobiev, Sergey M.; Neely, Helen; Yu, Bomina; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas B.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Hunt, John F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Recent studies of signal transduction in bacteria have revealed a unique second messenger, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), which regulates transitions between motile states and sessile states, such as biofilms. C-di-GMP is synthesized from two GTP molecules by diguanylate cyclases (DGC). The catalytic activity of DGCs depends on a conserved GG(D/E)EF domain, usually part of a larger multi-domain protein organization. The domains other than the GG(D/E)EF domain often control DGC activation. This paper presents the 1.83 Å crystal structure of an isolated catalytically competent GG(D/E)EF domain from the A1U3W3_MARAV protein from Marinobacter aquaeolei. Co-crystallization with GTP resulted in enzymatic synthesis of c-di-GMP. Comparison with previously solved DGC structures shows a similar orientation of c-di-GMP bound to an allosteric regulatory site mediating feedback inhibition of the enzyme. Biosynthesis of c-di-GMP in the crystallization reaction establishes that the enzymatic activity of this DGC domain does not require interaction with regulatory domains.

‣ Cyclic di-GMP signalling and the regulation of bacterial virulence

Ryan, Robert P.
Fonte: Society for General Microbiology Publicador: Society for General Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2013 Português
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Signal transduction pathways involving the second messenger cyclic di-GMP [bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate] occur widely in bacteria where they act to link perception of environmental or intracellular cues and signals to specific alterations in cellular function. Such alterations can contribute to bacterial lifestyle transitions including biofilm formation and virulence. The cellular levels of the nucleotide are controlled through the opposing activities of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). The GGDEF domain of DGCs catalyses the synthesis of cyclic di-GMP from GTP, whereas EAL or HD-GYP domains in different classes of PDE catalyse cyclic di-GMP degradation to pGpG and GMP. We are now beginning to understand how alterations in cyclic di-GMP exert a regulatory action through binding to diverse receptors or effectors that include a small ‘adaptor’ protein domain called PilZ, transcription factors and riboswitches. The regulatory action of enzymically active cyclic di-GMP signalling proteins is, however, not restricted to an influence on the level of nucleotide. Here, I will discuss our recent findings that highlight the role that protein–protein interactions involving these signalling proteins have in regulating functions that contribute to bacterial virulence.

‣ CelR, an Ortholog of the Diguanylate Cyclase PleD of Caulobacter, Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Barnhart, D. Michael; Su, Shengchang; Baccaro, Brenna E.; Banta, Lois M.; Farrand, Stephen K.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2013 Português
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Cellulose fibrils play a role in attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to its plant host. While the genes for cellulose biosynthesis in the bacterium have been identified, little is known concerning the regulation of the process. The signal molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been linked to the regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in many bacterial species, including A. tumefaciens. In this study, we identified two putative diguanylate cyclase genes, celR (atu1297) and atu1060, that influence production of cellulose in A. tumefaciens. Overexpression of either gene resulted in increased cellulose production, while deletion of celR, but not atu1060, resulted in decreased cellulose biosynthesis. celR overexpression also affected other phenotypes, including biofilm formation, formation of a polar adhesion structure, plant surface attachment, and virulence, suggesting that the gene plays a role in regulating these processes. Analysis of celR and Δcel mutants allowed differentiation between phenotypes associated with cellulose production, such as biofilm formation, and phenotypes probably resulting from c-di-GMP signaling, which include polar adhesion, attachment to plant tissue, and virulence. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that species containing both celR and celA...

‣ Identification of small molecules inhibiting diguanylate cyclases to control bacterial biofilm development

Sambanthamoorthy, Karthik; Luo, Chunyuan; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Feng, Xiarong; Koestler, Benjamin; Waters, Christopher M.; Palys, Thomas J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria is an important virulence factor in the development of numerous chronic infections, thereby causing a severe health burden. Many of these infections cannot be resolved, as bacteria in biofilms are resistant to the host’s immune defenses and antibiotic therapy. An urgent need for new strategies to treat biofilm-based infections is critically needed. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a widely conserved second-messenger signal essential for biofilm formation. The absence of this signalling system in higher eukaryotes makes it an attractive target for the development of new anti-biofilm agents. In this study, the results of an in silico pharmacophore-based screen to identify small-molecule inhibitors of diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes that synthesize c-di-GMP are described. Four small molecules, LP 3134, LP 3145, LP 4010 and LP 1062 that antagonize these enzymes and inhibit biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in a continuous-flow system are reported. All four molecules dispersed P. aeruginosa biofilms and inhibited biofilm development on urinary catheters. One molecule dispersed A. baumannii biofilms. Two molecules displayed no toxic effects on eukaryotic cells. These molecules represent the first compounds identified from an in silico screen that are able to inhibit DGC activity to prevent biofilm formation.

‣ The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Diguanylate Cyclase GcbA, a Homolog of P. fluorescens GcbA, Promotes Initial Attachment to Surfaces, but Not Biofilm Formation, via Regulation of Motility

Petrova, Olga E.; Cherny, Kathryn E.; Sauer, Karin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2014 Português
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Cyclic di-GMP is a conserved signaling molecule regulating the transitions between motile and sessile modes of growth in a variety of bacterial species. Recent evidence suggests that Pseudomonas species harbor separate intracellular pools of c-di-GMP to control different phenotypic outputs associated with motility, attachment, and biofilm formation, with multiple diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) playing distinct roles in these processes, yet little is known about the potential conservation of functional DGCs across Pseudomonas species. In the present study, we demonstrate that the P. aeruginosa homolog of the P. fluorescens DGC GcbA involved in promoting biofilm formation via regulation of swimming motility likewise synthesizes c-di-GMP to regulate surface attachment via modulation of motility, however, without affecting subsequent biofilm formation. P. aeruginosa GcbA was found to regulate flagellum-driven motility by suppressing flagellar reversal rates in a manner independent of viscosity, surface hardness, and polysaccharide production. P. fluorescens GcbA was found to be functional in P. aeruginosa and was capable of restoring phenotypes associated with inactivation of gcbA in P. aeruginosa to wild-type levels. Motility and attachment of a gcbA mutant strain could be restored to wild-type levels via overexpression of the small regulatory RNA RsmZ. Furthermore...

‣ Engineering of Bacillus subtilis Strains To Allow Rapid Characterization of Heterologous Diguanylate Cyclases and Phosphodiesterases

Gao, Xiaohui; Dong, Xiao; Subramanian, Sundharraman; Matthews, Paige M.; Cooper, Caleb A.; Kearns, Daniel B.; Dann, Charles E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2014 Português
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Microbial processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence, are often regulated by changes in the available concentration of cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Generally, high c-di-GMP concentrations are correlated with decreased motility and increased biofilm formation and low c-di-GMP concentrations are correlated with an increase in motility and activation of virulence pathways. The study of c-di-GMP is complicated, however, by the fact that organisms often encode dozens of redundant enzymes that synthesize and hydrolyze c-di-GMP, diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs); thus, determining the contribution of any one particular enzyme is challenging. In an effort to develop a facile system to study c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes, we have engineered a suite of Bacillus subtilis strains to assess the effect of individual heterologously expressed proteins on c-di-GMP levels. As a proof of principle, we characterized all 37 known genes encoding predicted DGCs and PDEs in Clostridium difficile using parallel readouts of swarming motility and fluorescence from green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed under the control of a c-di-GMP-controlled riboswitch. We found that 27 of the 37 putative C. difficile 630 c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes had either active cyclase or phosphodiesterase activity...

‣ Structure of a Diguanylate Cyclase from Thermotoga maritima: Insights into Activation, Feedback Inhibition and Thermostability

Deepthi, Angeline; Liew, Chong Wai; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Lescar, Julien
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/10/2014 Português
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Large-scale production of bis-3′-5′-cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) would facilitate biological studies of numerous bacterial signaling pathways and phenotypes controlled by this second messenger molecule, such as virulence and biofilm formation. C-di-GMP constitutes also a potentially interesting molecule as a vaccine adjuvant. Even though chemical synthesis of c-di-GMP can be done, the yields are incompatible with mass-production. tDGC, a stand-alone diguanylate cyclase (DGC or GGDEF domain) from Thermotoga maritima, enables the robust enzymatic production of large quantities of c-di-GMP. To understand the structural correlates of tDGC thermostability, its catalytic mechanism and feedback inhibition, we determined structures of an active-like dimeric conformation with both active (A) sites facing each other and of an inactive dimeric conformation, locked by c-di-GMP bound at the inhibitory (I) site. We also report the structure of a single mutant of tDGC, with the R158A mutation at the I-site, abolishing product inhibition and unproductive dimerization. A comparison with structurally characterized DGC homologues from mesophiles reveals the presence of a higher number of salt bridges in the hyperthermophile enzyme tDGC. Denaturation experiments of mutants disrupting in turn each of the salt bridges unique to tDGC identified three salt-bridges critical to confer thermostability.

‣ Cyclic-di-GMP signalling and biofilm-related properties of the Shiga toxin-producing 2011 German outbreak Escherichia coli O104:H4

Richter, Anja M; Povolotsky, Tatyana L; Wieler, Lothar H; Hengge, Regine
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In 2011, nearly 4,000 people in Germany were infected by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 with > 22% of patients developing haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). Genome sequencing showed the outbreak strain to be related to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), suggesting its high virulence results from EAEC-typical strong adherence and biofilm formation combined to Stx production. Here, we report that the outbreak strain contains a novel diguanylate cyclase (DgcX)—producing the biofilm-promoting second messenger c-di-GMP—that shows higher expression than any other known E. coli diguanylate cyclase. Unlike closely related E. coli, the outbreak strain expresses the c-di-GMP-controlled biofilm regulator CsgD and amyloid curli fibres at 37°C, but is cellulose-negative. Moreover, it constantly generates derivatives with further increased and deregulated production of CsgD and curli. Since curli fibres are strongly proinflammatory, with cellulose counteracting this effect, high c-di-GMP and curli production by the outbreak O104:H4 strain may enhance not only adherence but may also contribute to inflammation, thereby facilitating entry of Stx into the bloodstream and to the kidneys where Stx causes HUS.

‣ Identification of Small Molecules That Antagonize Diguanylate Cyclase Enzymes To Inhibit Biofilm Formation

Sambanthamoorthy, Karthik; Sloup, Rudolph E.; Parashar, Vijay; Smith, Joshua M.; Kim, Eric E.; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Neiditch, Matthew B.; Waters, Christopher M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2012 Português
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Bacterial biofilm formation is responsible for numerous chronic infections, causing a severe health burden. Many of these infections cannot be resolved, as bacteria in biofilms are resistant to the host's immune defenses and antibiotic therapy. New strategies to treat biofilm-based infections are critically needed. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a widely conserved second-messenger signal essential for biofilm formation. As this signaling system is found only in bacteria, it is an attractive target for the development of new antibiofilm interventions. Here, we describe the results of a high-throughput screen to identify small-molecule inhibitors of diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes that synthesize c-di-GMP. We report seven small molecules that antagonize these enzymes and inhibit biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae. Moreover, two of these compounds significantly reduce the total concentration of c-di-GMP in V. cholerae, one of which also inhibits biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a continuous-flow system. These molecules represent the first compounds described that are able to inhibit DGC activity to prevent biofilm formation.

‣ Systematic Analysis of Diguanylate Cyclases That Promote Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 ▿ †

Newell, Peter D.; Yoshioka, Shiro; Hvorecny, Kelli L.; Monds, Russell D.; O'Toole, George A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
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Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a broadly conserved, intracellular second-messenger molecule that regulates biofilm formation by many bacteria. The synthesis of c-di-GMP is catalyzed by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) containing the GGDEF domain, while its degradation is achieved through the phosphodiesterase activities of EAL and HD-GYP domains. c-di-GMP controls biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 by promoting the cell surface localization of a large adhesive protein, LapA. LapA localization is regulated posttranslationally by a c-di-GMP effector system consisting of LapD and LapG, which senses cytoplasmic c-di-GMP and modifies the LapA protein in the outer membrane. Despite the apparent requirement for c-di-GMP for biofilm formation by P. fluorescens Pf0-1, no DGCs from this strain have been characterized to date. In this study, we undertook a systematic mutagenesis of 30 predicted DGCs and found that mutations in just 4 cause reductions in biofilm formation by P. fluorescens Pf0-1 under the conditions tested. These DGCs were characterized genetically and biochemically to corroborate the hypothesis that they function to produce c-di-GMP in vivo. The effects of DGC gene mutations on phenotypes associated with biofilm formation were analyzed. One DGC preferentially affects LapA localization...

‣ Cyclic di-GMP-dependent Signaling Pathways in the Pathogenic Firmicute Listeria monocytogenes

Chen, Li-Hong; Köseoğlu, Volkan K.; Güvener, Zehra T.; Myers-Morales, Tanya; Reed, Joseph M.; D'Orazio, Sarah E. F.; Miller, Kurt W.; Gomelsky, Mark
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2014 Português
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We characterized key components and major targets of the c-di-GMP signaling pathways in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, identified a new c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide responsible for motility inhibition, cell aggregation, and enhanced tolerance to disinfectants and desiccation, and provided first insights into the role of c-di-GMP signaling in listerial virulence. Genome-wide genetic and biochemical analyses of c-di-GMP signaling pathways revealed that L. monocytogenes has three GGDEF domain proteins, DgcA (Lmo1911), DgcB (Lmo1912) and DgcC (Lmo2174), that possess diguanylate cyclase activity, and three EAL domain proteins, PdeB (Lmo0131), PdeC (Lmo1914) and PdeD (Lmo0111), that possess c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. Deletion of all phosphodiesterase genes (ΔpdeB/C/D) or expression of a heterologous diguanylate cyclase stimulated production of a previously unknown exopolysaccharide. The synthesis of this exopolysaccharide was attributed to the pssA-E (lmo0527-0531) gene cluster. The last gene of the cluster encodes the fourth listerial GGDEF domain protein, PssE, that functions as an I-site c-di-GMP receptor essential for exopolysaccharide synthesis. The c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide causes cell aggregation in minimal medium and impairs bacterial migration in semi-solid agar...

‣ Exposure of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium to a Protective Monoclonal IgA Triggers Exopolysaccharide Production via a Diguanylate Cyclase-Dependent Pathway

Amarasinghe, Jayaleka J.; D'Hondt, Rebecca E.; Waters, Christopher M.; Mantis, Nicholas J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2013 Português
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Sal4 is a monoclonal polymeric IgA antibody directed against the O antigen (O-Ag) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which is sufficient to protect mice against intestinal infections from S. Typhimurium. We recently reported that the exposure of S. Typhimurium to Sal4 results in the immediate loss of flagellum-based motility, in alterations to the outer membrane (OM) integrity, and in the concomitant appearance of a mucoid phenotype that is reminiscent of cells in the earliest stages of biofilm formation. We demonstrate here that prolonged (>4 h) exposure of S. Typhimurium to Sal4 at 37°C (but not at ambient temperature [25°C]) results in measurable exopolysaccharide (EPS) accumulation and biofilm formation on both borosilicate glass surfaces and polystyrene microtiter plates. The polysaccharide produced by S. Typhimurium in response to Sal4 contains cellulose, in addition to O-Ag capsule and colanic acid. EPS production was dependent on YeaJ, a proposed inner membrane-localized diguanylate cyclase (DGC) and a known regulator of cellulose biosynthesis. An S. Typhimurium ΔyeaJ strain was unable to produce cellulose or form a biofilm in response to Sal4. Conversely, the overexpression of yeaJ in S. Typhimurium enhanced Sal4-induced biofilm formation and resulted in increased intracellular levels of cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) compared to that of a wild-type control; this strongly suggests that YeaJ is indeed a functional DGC. Based on these data...