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‣ How will we know "good" qualitative research when we see it? Beginning the dialogue in health services research.

Devers, K J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To lay the foundation for an explicit review and dialogue concerning the criteria that should be used to evaluate qualitative health services research. Clear criteria are critical for the discipline because they provide a benchmark against which research can be assessed. DATA SOURCES: Existing literature in the social sciences and health services research, particularly in primary care and medicine. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Traditional criteria for evaluating qualitative research are rooted in the philosophical perspective (positivism) most closely associated with quantitative research and methods. As a result, qualitative research and methods may not be used as frequently as they can be and research results generated from qualitative studies may not be disseminated as widely as possible. However, alternative criteria for evaluating qualitative research have been proposed that reflect a different philosophical perspective (post-positivism). Moreover, these criteria are tailored to the unique purposes for which qualitative research is used and the research designs traditionally employed. While criteria based on these two different philosophical perspectives have much in common, some important differences exist. CONCLUSION: The field of health services research must engage in a collective...

‣ Research interests of physicians in two practice-based primary care research networks.

Croughan-Minihane, M S; Thom, D H; Petitti, D B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1999 Português
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Regional practice-based network research has grown significantly in the past 15 years. Previous studies have reported on characteristics of physicians who participate in network research, but little is known about the specific a priori research interests of practicing physicians. Knowledge of such interests could be useful in planning network research studies. We conducted a mail survey to assess the research interests of primary care physicians in two contiguous research networks at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) and at Stanford University. Among 120 respondents from the UCSF Collaborative Research Network and 85 from the Stanford Ambulatory Research Network, the most common topics of interest were disease prevention, communication and compliance, and managed care. Among specific conditions, heart disease, hypertension, and respiratory infection were of interest to the majority of respondents. Topics not of interest to network members were obstetrics, diagnostic procedures, alcoholism, drug abuse, tuberculosis, male genito-urinary problems, occupational hazards, domestic violence, and AIDS and HIV. Identification of network physician research interests can help focus research and recruitment efforts on topics of interest and provide estimates of participation levels for planning studies and preparing funding applications for research networks.

‣ Using Participatory Action Research to build Healthy Communities.

Minkler, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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The author contends that community-based Participatory Action Research (PAR) is ideally suited for use in Healthy Communities projects. The article begins by defining PAR and its principles and characteristics, then discusses the philosophical and methodological compatibility of PAR and Healthy Communities. After highlighting the challenges of expanding the Healthy Communities accent on participation to include PAR, the article describes the experiences of two Healthy Communities projects in the US that have successfully used PAR.

‣ Research in primary care: extent of involvement and perceived determinants among practitioners from one English region.

Jowett, S M; Macleod, J; Wilson, S; Hobbs, F D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2000 Português
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The lack of research evidence relevant to and generated by general practitioners (GPs) has been a concern in the context of a putative primary care-led National Health Service (NHS). However, very little has been published on the current extent or determinants of research activity among United Kingdom primary care doctors. We surveyed all (n = 2770) service GPs in the West Midlands Region in order to quantify their research involvement and to explore determinants of this. The response rate was 49% (n = 1351). A total of 84% of responders reported participating in research or audit, with 16% having initiated their own research; 9% of GPs had been published in a peer-reviewed journal; 6% had generated research funding; and 3% had held a research training fellowship. The characteristics positively associated with initiating research included an involvement in teaching, having research-active partners, the availability of protected time, and working in a larger practice. The most commonly perceived barriers to undertaking research were lack of time (92%), lack of staff to collect data (73%), and a lack of funding (71%). In all, 41% of responders reported no interest in research. Overall, the extent of research activity among responding GPs appears to be greater than is often assumed. Recent NHS research and development proposals to strengthen and develop research in primary care are...

‣ The U.S. federal framework for research on endocrine disruptors and an analysis of research programs supported during fiscal year 1996.

Reiter, L W; DeRosa, C; Kavlock, R J; Lucier, G; Mac, M J; Melillo, J; Melnick, R L; Sinks, T; Walton, B T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1998 Português
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The potential health and ecological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals has become a high visibility environmental issue. The 1990s have witnessed a growing concern, both on the part of the scientific community and the public, that environmental chemicals may be causing widespread effects in humans and in a variety of fish and wildlife species. This growing concern led the Committee on the Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council to identify the endocrine disruptor issue as a major research initiative in early 1995 and subsequently establish an ad hoc Working Group on Endocrine Disruptors. The objectives of the working group are to 1) develop a planning framework for federal research related to human and ecological health effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals; 2) conduct an inventory of ongoing federal research programs; and 3) identify research gaps and develop a coordinated interagency plan to address priority research needs. This communication summarizes the activities of the federal government in defining a common framework for planning an endocrine disruptor research program and in assessing the status of the current effort. After developing the research framework and compiling an inventory of active research projects supported by the federal government in fiscal year 1996...

‣ Methods for Structuring Scientific Knowledge from Many Areas Related to Aging Research

Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/07/2011 Português
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Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications...

‣ How Can the Operating Environment for Nutrition Research Be Improved in Sub-Saharan Africa? The Views of African Researchers

Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/06/2013 Português
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Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers...

‣ Students’ Perceptions of Peer-Organized Extra-Curricular Research Course during Medical School: A Qualitative Study

Nazha, Bassel; Salloum, Rony H.; Fahed, Akl C.; Nabulsi, Mona
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/03/2015 Português
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Early integration of research education into medical curricula is crucial for evidence-based practice. Yet, many medical students are graduating with no research experience due to the lack of such integration in their medical school programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a peer-organized, extra-curricular research methodology course on the attitudes of medical students towards research and future academic careers. Twenty one medical students who participated in a peer-organized research course were enrolled in three focus group discussions to explore their experiences, perceptions and attitudes towards research after the course. Discussions were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, and were transcribed and thematically analyzed for major and minor themes identification. Our findings indicate that students’ perceptions of research changed after the course from being difficult initially to becoming possible. Participants felt that their research skills and critical thinking were enhanced and that they would develop research proposals and abstracts successfully. Students praised the peer-assisted teaching approach as being successful in enhancing the learning environment and filling the curricular gap. In conclusion...

‣ Bibliometric Assessment of European and Sub-Saharan African Research Output on Poverty-Related and Neglected Infectious Diseases from 2003 to 2011

Breugelmans, J. Gabrielle; Makanga, Michael M.; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia V.; Mathewson, Sophie B.; Sheridan-Jones, Bethan R.; Gurney, Karen A.; Mgone, Charles S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/08/2015 Português
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The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) was created in 2003 as a European response to the global health crisis caused by the three main poverty-related diseases (PRDs) of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. EDCTP funds research focusing on clinical trials for diagnosing, preventing and treating these diseases. We conducted a bibliometric analysis to 1) measure research output and citation impact from European and African researchers working on PRDs, 2) describe collaboration patterns, and 3) assess the citation impact of research funded by EDCTP. Citation analysis is a commonly used bibliometric tool to analyse scientific literature. Overall, the volume and citation impact of papers from sub-Saharan Africa has increased since 2003, as has collaborative research between Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. Papers arising from collaborative research had a higher citation impact than non-collaborative research and >90% of publications from EDCTP-funded research projects were published in high-impact journals. These results suggest that research on PRDs in sub-Saharan Africa is growing and that the EDCTP partnership contributes to high-impact, collaborative research published in high-impact journals. By providing research funds and supporting activities to strengthen the research environment...

‣ SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 36 (Jan/Feb 2009)

Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.). Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.). Maritime Defense and Security Research Program
Tipo: Periódico
Português
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This newsletter contains two brief articles, a calendar of events, and a Librarian's Corner highlighting featured documents. The first article discusses research and education on port security at the DHS National Center for Secure and Resilient Maritime Commerce and Coastal Environments (CSR) at Stevens Institute of Technology. The second article highlights the research results of the Systems Engineering Analysis Cohort 14 (SEA 14) at the Naval Postgraduate School.

‣ Embracing the local: enriching scientific research, education, and outreach on the Texas-Mexico border through a participatory action research partnership.

May, Marlynn L; Bowman, Gloria J; Ramos, Kenneth S; Rincones, Larry; Rebollar, Maria G; Rosa, Mary L; Saldana, Josephine; Sanchez, Adelina P; Serna, Teresa; Viega, Norma; Villegas, Gregoria S; Zamorano, Maria G; Ramos, Irma N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2003 Português
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Cameron Park, Texas, is a colonia (an isolated, unincorporated rural settlement without municipal improvements) on the Texas-Mexico border in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in Cameron County near Brownsville, Texas. Cameron Park has a population of 5,961 residents, 99.3% of whom are Hispanic. The annual median income is 16,934 US dollars, about one-half of the state median. Fifty-eight percent of families generally and 68% of those with children younger than 5 years have incomes below poverty level. Cameron Park resides geographically in a region where agriculture has been, and continues to be, a dominant industry, a fact consistent with the intensive use of pesticides and increased potential for air, water, and ground contamination. The practice of good environmental health is extremely difficult under these conditions. In 1999 the Texas A&M University Center for Housing and Urban Development's Colonias Program and the Center for Environmental and Rural Health teamed up to create an environmental health education and outreach program called the Cameron Park Project (CPP). The CPP focused on how to reduce potential environmental exposures associated with human illness by providing residents with scientifically sound information on positive health practices and how to deal with environmental hazards. In this article we discuss the research methodology used in the CPP...

‣ Needs and opportunities for improving the health, safety, and productivity of medical research facilities.

Hodgson, M; Brodt, W; Henderson, D; Loftness, V; Rosenfeld, A; Woods, J; Wright, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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Medical research facilities, indeed all the nation's constructed facilities, must be designed, operated, and maintained in a manner that supports the health, safety, and productivity of the occupants. The National Construction Goals, established by the National Science and Technology Council, envision substantial improvements in occupant health and worker productivity. The existing research and best practices case studies support this conclusion, but too frequently building industry professionals lack the knowledge to design, construct, operate, and maintain facilities at these optimum levels. There is a need for more research and more collaborative efforts between medical and facilities engineering researchers and practitioners in order to attain the National Construction Goals. Such collaborative efforts will simultaneously support attainment of the National Health Goals. This article is the summary report of the Healthy Buildings Committee for the Leadership Conference: Biomedical Facilities and the Environment sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, the National Association of Physicians for the Environment, and the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers on 1--2 November 1999 in Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

‣ Bridges between health care research evidence and clinical practice.

Haynes, R B; Hayward, R S; Lomas, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 Português
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Research is producing increasing amounts of important new evidence for health care, but there is a large gap between what this evidence shows can be done and the care that most patients actually receive. An important reason for this gap is the extensive processing that evidence requires before application. This article discusses a three-step model for bridging research evidence to management of clinical problems: getting the evidence straight, formulating evidence-based clinical policies, and applying evidence-based clinical policies at the right place and time. This model is purposely broad in scope and provides a framework for coordinating efforts to support evidence-based medical care. The authors' purpose is to represent the roles of health informatics in the context of the roles of all the key players, including health care researchers and practitioners, health care organizations, and the public. Health informatics has already made important contributions to bridging evidence to practice, including improving evidence retrieval, evaluation, and synthesis; new evidence-based information products; and computerized aids for facilitating the use of these products during clinical decision making. However, much more innovation and coordination are needed. The authors call for health informaticians to pay balanced attention to 1) the quality of evidence embodied in information innovations...

‣ Assessing country-level efforts to link research to action.

Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 Português
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We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action).

‣ The East Side Village Health Worker Partnership: integrating research with action to reduce health disparities.

Schulz, A. J.; Israel, B. A.; Parker, E. A.; Lockett, M.; Hill, Y.; Wills, R.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
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This article describes the work of the East Side Village Health Worker Partnership as a case study of an initiative that seeks to reduce the disproportionate health risks experienced by residents of Detroit's east side. The Partnership is a community-based participatory research and intervention collaboration among academia, public health practitioners, and the east side Detroit community. The Partnership is guided by a steering committee that is actively involved in all aspects of the research, intervention, and dissemination process, made up of representatives of five community-based organizations, residents of Detroit's east side, the local health department, a managed care provider, and an academic institution. The major goal of the East Side Village Health Worker Partnership is to address the social determinants of health on Detroit's east side, using a lay health advisor intervention approach. Data collected from 1996 to 2001 are used here to describe improvements in research methods, practice activities, and community relationships that emerged through this academic-practice-community linkage.

‣ Racial disparities in participation in biomedical research.

Kressin, N. R.; Meterko, M.; Wilson, N. J.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2000 Português
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To determine whether minority patients were less likely to participate in biomedical research, perceive positive benefits from such participation, or to recommend research participation to other patients, an observational study was conducted. Sociodemographic and survey data were collected from 5436 users of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Ambulatory Care, which included questions about veterans' research participation and related attitudes. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine if there were racial differences in the outcomes of interest, controlling for relevant sociodemographic factors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that there were no racial differences in self-reported research participation, but minority veterans were more likely to perceive a positive effect of research and less likely to recommend research to other veterans. However, subgroup analyses indicated that, of those veterans having negative attitudes about research, minority and less educated veterans were disproportionately represented. In the VA system, racial differences in research participation may dissipate because many sociodemographic factors are controlled. Although we did not observe consistent racial differences in research participation or attitudes...

‣ The research agenda for improving health policy, systems performance, and service delivery for tuberculosis control: a WHO perspective.

Nunn, Paul; Harries, Anthony; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Gupta, Raj; Maher, Dermot; Raviglione, Mario
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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The development of WHO's DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB) in 1995 led to the expansion, adaptation and improvement of operational research in this area. From being a patchwork of small-scale studies concerned with aspects of service delivery, TB operational research shifted to larger-scale, often multicountry projects that were also concerned with health policy and the needs of health systems. The results are now being put into practice by national TB control programmes. In 1998 an ad hoc committee identified the chief factors inhibiting the expansion of DOTS: lack of political will and commitment, poor financial support for TB control, poor organization and management of health services, inadequate human resources, irregular drug supplies, the HIV epidemic, and the rise of multidrug resistance. An analysis of current operational research on TB is presented on the basis of these constraints, and examples of successful projects are outlined in the article. We discuss the prerequisites for success, the shortcomings of this WHO- supported programme, and future challenges and needs.

‣ Quality of abstracts of original research articles in CMAJ in 1989.

Narine, L; Yee, D S; Einarson, T R; Ilersich, A L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/1991 Português
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PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality of abstracts of original research articles. DESIGN: Blind, criterion-based survey. SAMPLE: Systematic sample of 33 abstracts of original research articles published in CMAJ in 1989. MEASUREMENT: The quality of abstracts was measured against a checklist of evaluation criteria, which were divided into eight categories. A score for each abstract was obtained by dividing the number of criteria present by the number applicable. The overall mean score was also determined. RESULTS: The overall mean score of abstract quality was 0.63 (standard deviation 0.13) out of 1. Of the abstracts reporting study design 56% did not include specific technical descriptors. About 52% did not explicitly describe the study variables. In describing subject selection 79% failed to use specific technical terms. Of the abstracts reporting results 66% did not provide appropriate supporting data. Of those that gave conclusions 86% did not address study limitations and 93% made no recommendations for future study. CONCLUSION: Most of the abstracts provided some information pertaining to each evaluation criterion but did not provide detail sufficient to enhance the reader's understanding of the article. On the basis of the study sample the abstracts need improvement in description of research design...

‣ The Association between Four Citation Metrics and Peer Rankings of Research Influence of Australian Researchers in Six Fields of Public Health

Derrick, Gemma Elizabeth; Haynes, Abby; Chapman, Simon; Hall, Wayne D.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/04/2011 Português
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Doubt about the relevance, appropriateness and transparency of peer review has promoted the use of citation metrics as a viable adjunct or alternative in the assessment of research impact. It is also commonly acknowledged that research metrics will not replace peer review unless they are shown to correspond with the assessment of peers. This paper evaluates the relationship between researchers' influence as evaluated by their peers and various citation metrics representing different aspects of research output in 6 fields of public health in Australia. For four fields, the results showed a modest positive correlation between different research metrics and peer assessments of research influence. However, for two fields, tobacco and injury, negative or no correlations were found. This suggests a peer understanding of research influence within these fields differed from visibility in the mainstream, peer-reviewed scientific literature. This research therefore recommends the use of both peer review and metrics in a combined approach in assessing research influence. Future research evaluation frameworks intent on incorporating metrics should first analyse each field closely to determine what measures of research influence are valued highly by members of that research community. This will aid the development of comprehensive and relevant frameworks with which to fairly and transparently distribute research funds or approve promotion applications.

‣ AIDS-related behavioral research and nursing.

Skinner, A.; Walls, L.; Brown, L. S.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1991 Português
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As efforts targeted at producing an effective vaccine or a definitive cure are still in early stages of development, health education and prevention continue to be this country's major line of defense against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This defense is dependent on knowledge of behaviors that place individuals at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure and disease progression. This article reviews the critical points in our state of knowledge and offers additional areas of need. Research is needed to determine a database of persons who use psychoactive substances and to understand the HIV-associated behaviors linked to drug use. Epidemiologic studies are necessary to appreciate the sexual, contraceptive, and childbearing practices of users of any psychoactive substance. Greater emphasis also is needed to investigate the inherent effects of various psychoactive substances on the immune, neurologic, and endocrine systems. While biomedical research continues, it is apparent that research from behavioral studies are crucial to education and prevention efforts. Nurse investigators are well-positioned to play an important role in accumulating this information. Given the critical role of drug abuse in the HIV epidemic...