Página 4 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.135 segundos

‣ Systemic therapy of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis: A case report and review article

Abadir, Amir; Patel, Ameen; Haider, Shariq
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease endemic to Central and South America, Mexico and the Caribbean, and affects millions of people. As travel to these regions becomes more common, cutaneous leishmaniasis is becoming a disease of increasing importance in the developed world. However, disease recognition and access to appropriate therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis remains a challenge in North America. The present article reports a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a Canadian man following a trip to Costa Rica. Species-specific diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of a skin biopsy, which was positive for Leishmania panamensis. After failing a course of itraconazole, the patient was successfully treated with sodium stibogluconate, despite significant barriers to administering this therapy, and the paucity of data regarding its efficacy and tolerability. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and systemic treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, as well as its emerging presence in the developed world, are reviewed.

‣ Challenges Associated with Scaling up Artemisinin Combination Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa A Review Article

Njuguna, J; Qader, SS
Fonte: CoAction Publishing Publicador: CoAction Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2008 Português
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Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. One key strategic intervention is provision of early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment. A major setback has been the development of drug resistance to commonly used antimalarials. To overcome this, most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have adopted Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) as a first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Artemether Lumefantrine (AL) and Artesunate Amodiaquine (ASAQ) are the main drugs of choice. There are key implementation issues, which may have a bearing on the scaling up of this new treatment. This article reviewed the published papers on ACT with focus on sustainability, compliance, and diagnosis. ACTs are costly, but highly effective. Their scaling up is the most cost effective malaria intervention currently available. Most countries rely heavily on the Global Fund for their scaling up. AL has a short shelf life, a complicated six-dose regimen that requires intake with fat to ensure sufficient bioavailability. High rates of adherence have been reported. Use of parasitic diagnosis is advocated to ensure rational use. Parasitic diagnostics like rapid test and microscopy are currently inadequate. The majority of malaria cases may continue to be diagnosed clinically leading to over prescription of drugs. ACTs are currently not available at the community level for home based management of malaria. Issues related to safety and rational use need to be addressed before their use in the informal health sector like community drug sellers and community health workers. The majority of malaria cases at the community level could go untreated or continue to be treated using less effective drugs. We conclude that ACTs are highly effective. A major challenge is ensuring rational use and access at the household level. It is hoped that addressing these issues will increase the likelihood that ACT achieves its intended goals of reducing morbidity and mortality due to malaria...

‣ Management of Common Bile Duct Stones in the Laparoscopic Era

Sharma, A.; Dahiya, P.; Khullar, R.; Soni, V.; Baijal, M.; Chowbey, P. K.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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There is no consensus regarding the ideal management of concurrent gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD) stones. Currently the treatment protocol involves most commonly a sequential approach consisting of endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy or a single stage laparoscopic procedure, including cholecystectomy and exploration of the CBD. For this article literature search was performed using online search engines, Google, Pubmed, the online Springer link library and the Cochrane Database Systematic Review. Review articles, prospective and retrospective studies which detailed or compared the various treatment strategies for CBD stones were selected and analyzed. This review article aims to provide an insight into the optimal management of CBD stones in different clinical scenarios. Endoscopic sphincterotomy has inherent morbidity and complications like CBD stone recurrence whereas laparoscopic CBD exploration demands considerable expertise which is available only at specialized centres. The clinical presentation of the patient, number of stones, size of CBD, available resources and technical expertise at hand are an important consideration for the ideal management in different scenarios.

‣ The Utility of Breastmilk for Genetic or Genomic Studies: A Systematic Review

Baumgartel, Kelley L.; Conley, Yvette P.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
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This study synthesized scientific literature that applies genetic or genomic approaches to breastmilk. A literature search of PubMed was conducted in March 2012 using the key words "breast milk," "lactation," "genetic," "gene expression," and "epigenetic." Additional articles were identified/selected for evaluation with MeSH term searches, and a review of article reference lists was obtained from the search. The initial 657 abstracts retrieved from the literature search were reviewed, and 16 studies were selected for evaluation. Studies that examined the transmission of viruses/bacteria into breastmilk and/or measured concentration of specific proteins without examination of genetic material from milk were excluded. Data related to subjects, tissue, purpose, setting, gene/protein, approach (candidate versus genome-wide), platform, statistical analysis, and results were extracted. Gene expression and epigenetic/epigenomic study designs have been successfully implemented using breastmilk. A major weakness of both gene expression studies and epigenetic studies that examine breastmilk is the omission of maternal information known to influence milk composition. This review article is the first to synthesize evidence related to the application of breastmilk to evaluate RNA and epigenetic modifications. Additional research is needed that applies epigenetic analyses to human breastmilk samples. Findings from this review can be used for future research designs that use breastmilk for genetic analyses.

‣ The use of low level laser therapy in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders. Review of the literature

Herranz-Aparicio, Judit; Vázquez-Delgado, Eduardo; Arnabat-Domínguez, Josep; España-Tost, Antoni; Gay-Escoda, Cosme
Fonte: Medicina Oral S.L. Publicador: Medicina Oral S.L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.09883%
Introduction: The temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) have been identified as the most important cause of pain in the facial region. The low level laser therapy (LLLT) has demonstrated to have an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and biostimulating effects. The LLLT is a noninvasive, quick and safe, non-pharmaceutical intervention that may be beneficial for patients with TMDs. However the clinical efficiency of LLLT in the treatment of this kind of disorders is controversial. Objectives: Literature review in reference to the use of LLLT in the treatment of TMDs, considering the scientific evidence level of the published studies. Material and Methods: A MEDLINE and COCHRANE database search was made for articles. The keywords used were “temporomandibular disorders” and “low level laser therapy” or “phototherapy” and by means of the Boolean operator “AND”. The search provided a bank of 35 articles, and 16 relevant articles were selected to this review. These articles were critically analyzed and classified according to their level of scientific evidence. This analysis produced 3 literature review articles and 13 are clinical trials. The SORT criteria (Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy) was used to classify the articles. Results: Only one article presented an evidence level 1...

‣ Cleaning and Sterilisation of Anaesthetic Equipment

Juwarkar, Chitra Sanjeev
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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The main purpose of this review article is to bring up what has been known (practiced) about decontamination, disinfection, and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment. It also discusses how this evidence-based information on infection prevention and control impacts care of patient in routine anaesthesia practice. This review underscores the role played by us, anaesthetists in formulating guidelines, implementing the same, monitoring the outcome and training post-graduate trainees and coworkers in this regard. The article re-emphasises that certain guidelines when followed strictly will go a long way in reducing transmission of hospital acquired infection between patient and anaesthetist or between patients. Anaesthetists do not restrict their work to operating room but are involved in disaster management, interventional radiological procedures and in trauma care. They should ensure that the patients are cared for in clean and safe environment so as to reduce healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) simultaneously taking preventive measures against the various health hazards associated with clinical practice. They should ensure that the coworkers too adopt all the preventive measures while delivering their duties. For this review, we conducted literature searches in Medline (PubMed) and also searched for relevant abstracts and full texts of related articles that we came across. There is much to be learned from the western world where...

‣ Management of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Combination Inhaled Corticosteroids and Long-Acting β-Agonists: A Review of Comparative Effectiveness Research

Mapel, Douglas W.; Roberts, Melissa H.
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.14334%
The value of combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists (ICS/LABA) is well recognized in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite differences in the pharmacological properties between two well-established ICS/LABA products (budesonide/formoterol and fluticasone/salmeterol), data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses suggest that these two products perform similarly under RCT conditions. In contrast, a few recently reported real-world comparative effectiveness studies have suggested that there are substantial differences between ICS/LABA combination treatments in terms of clinical and healthcare outcomes in patients with asthma or COPD. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief review of the benefits, as well as the limitations, of comparative effectiveness research (CER) in the therapeutic area of asthma and COPD. We conducted a structured literature review of the current CER studies on ICS/LABA combinations in asthma and COPD. These articles were then used to illustrate the unique challenges of CER studies, providing a summary of study results and limitations. We focus particularly on difficult biases and confounding factors that may be introduced before...

‣ Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity

Alam, Md. Nur; Bristi, Nusrat Jahan; Rafiquzzaman, Md.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.14334%
A good number of abstracts and research articles (in total 74) published, so far, for evaluating antioxidant activity of various samples of research interest were gone through where 407 methods were come across, which were repeated from 29 different methods. These were classified as in vitro and in vivo methods. And those are described and discussed below in this review article. In the later part of this review article, frequency of in vitro as well as in vivo methods is analyzed with a bar diagram. Solvents are important for extracting antioxidants from natural sources. Frequency of solvents used for extraction is also portrayed and the results are discussed in this article. As per this review there are 19 in vitro methods and 10 in vivo methods that are being used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity of the sample of interest. DPPH method was found to be used mostly for the in vitro antioxidant activity evaluation purpose while LPO was found as mostly used in vivo antioxidant assay. Ethanol was with the highest frequency as solvent for extraction purpose.

‣ Summarizing Research Findings: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Wong, LP
Fonte: Academy of Family Physician of Malaysia Publicador: Academy of Family Physician of Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/04/2007 Português
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The explosion of biomedical publishing makes keeping up with the primary studies an impossible task. The often disparate, confusing and contradicting findings of individual studies makes healthcare professionals turn to review articles where knowledge has been collated and published in summaries. Narrative reviews lack rigorous, systematic and reproducible synthesis. In contrast, systematic reviews are conducted using systematic and explicit methods to identify, select and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. The final pathway for systematic review is a statistical summary of the results of primary studies, or meta-analysis. This article provides some guidelines to health care providers in understanding the key aspects of systematic review and meta-analysis. Steps involved in systematic review are discussed. The potential pitfall of meta-analysis was also explored.

‣ Gait disorder rehabilitation using vision and non-vision based sensors: A systematic review

Ali, Asraf; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, Badlishah; Ahamed, Nizam; Islam, Anamul
Fonte: Association of Basic Medical Sciences of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Publicador: Association of Basic Medical Sciences of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 Português
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Even though the amount of rehabilitation guidelines has never been greater, uncertainty continues to arise regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of the rehabilitation of gait disorders. This question has been hindered by the lack of information on accurate measurements of gait disorders. Thus, this article reviews the rehabilitation systems for gait disorder using vision and non-vision sensor technologies, as well as the combination of these. All papers published in the English language between 1990 and June, 2012 that had the phrases “gait disorder” “rehabilitation”, “vision sensor”, or “non vision sensor” in the title, abstract, or keywords were identified from the SpringerLink, ELSEVIER, PubMed, and IEEE databases. Some synonyms of these phrases and the logical words “and” “or” and “not” were also used in the article searching procedure. Out of the 91 published articles found, this review identified 84 articles that described the rehabilitation of gait disorders using different types of sensor technologies. This literature set presented strong evidence for the development of rehabilitation systems using a markerless vision-based sensor technology. We therefore believe that the information contained in this review paper will assist the progress of the development of rehabilitation systems for human gait disorders.

‣ Ophthalmic regional anaesthesia: A review and update

Jaichandran, VV
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Local anaesthetic techniques are increasingly popular for ophthalmic surgery. It is now being provided mainly by anaesthesiologists and varies from an akinetic injection technique to a non-akinetic topical technique. Each technique has its own risk/benefit profile, and proven to be highly successful if performed correctly. The choice of the technique should be individualized based upon specific needs of the patient, the nature and extent of eye surgery, and the anaesthesiologist's and surgeon's preferences and skill. This review article attempts to outline the orbital anatomy, discuss the commonly used agents, current method of pre-operative preparation, available clinical techniques and their inherent complications.

‣ Beneficial Effects of Cinnamon on the Metabolic Syndrome, Inflammation, and Pain, and Mechanisms Underlying These Effects – A Review

Shen, Yan; Jia, Liu-Nan; Honma, Natsumi; Hosono, Takashi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Cinnamon is one of the most important herbal drugs and has been widely used in Asia for more than 4000 years. As a folk medicine, cinnamon has been traditionally applied to the treatment of inflammatory disorders and gastric diseases. After chemical profiling of cinnamon's components, their biological activities including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertension, antilipemic, antidiabetes, gastroprotective and immunomodulatory were reported by many investigators. As a result, current studies have been performed mostly focusing on the bioactivity of cinnamon toward the recently generalized metabolic syndrome involving diabetes. In this review article, we provide an overview of the recent literature describing cinnamon's potential for preventing the metabolic syndrome.

‣ Oral splint for temporomandibular joint disorders with revolutionary fluid system

Srivastava, Rahul; Jyoti, Bhuvan; Devi, Parvathi
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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46.107007%
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases and disorders refer to a complex and poorly understood set of conditions, manifested by pain in the area of the jaw and associated muscles and limitations in the ability to make the normal movements of speech, facial expression, eating, chewing, and swallowing. The conventional soft occlusal splint therapy is a much safer and effective mode of a conservative line of therapy in comparison to the surgical therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The purpose of this article is to review the Aqualizer™, an hydrostatic oral splint, as accurate, effective treatment and differential diagnostic tool in TMD that allow treating the patient's pain quickly and accurately saving valuable treatment time. The review article has been prepared doing a literature review from the world-wide web and pubmed/medline.

‣ Fatigue in Cancer: A Review of Literature

Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Koshy, Cherian
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Fatigue is a common symptom of advanced cancer limiting one's activity and affecting the quality of life. It is a multidimensional symptom complex with subjective and objective components. Hence, its definition and assessment seems arbitrary, incomplete, and elusive. Components of fatigue often merge with other ‘disease states’ as anemia, depression and so on, compounding difficulty to assess it separately. Fatigue has a high prevalence rate, and lasts longer in chronic diseases like cancer. Its association with treatment modalities like chemotherapy, radiotherapy alongside the primary disease process makes it seemingly ubiquitous in many cases. Systemic manifestation of cancer causes excess demand on body resources on cell repair, uncontrolled growth with metabolite accumulation causing fatigue. Co-morbid conditions of organic and psychological nature causes fatigue. There are many assessment tools for fatigue with different uses and objectives, simple and reproducible tools like Brief Fatigue Inventory, Edmonton Symptom assessment scale seem feasible in everyday practice. Management of fatigue is not straightforward and rewarding. Although treatment of cause appears to be an attractive option, it is not possible in all cases. Therapeutic agents targeting cytokine load is in early stages of study and available results are not favorable. Specific measures aimed at pain relief...

‣ Breast cancer pain management - A review of current & novel therapies

Satija, Aanchal; Ahmed, Syed Mehmood; Gupta, Rahul; Ahmed, Arif; Rana, Shiv Pratap Singh; Singh, Suraj Pal; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2014 Português
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56.008857%
Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers amongst women in the world. Unfortunately, even after adequate treatment, some patients experience severe pain either due to disease progression or due to treatment related side effects. The persistent pain causes a negative physical and psychosocial impact on patients’ lives. Current rational pain management is patient-centred and requires a thorough psychological assessment. Usually adequate analgesia is achieved by adopting the WHO's three step analgesic ladder. As the disease progresses, the pain experienced by the patient also increases. This necessitates the administration of opioids and adjuvant analgesics to the breast cancer patients experiencing severe pain. However, opioid use is associated with intolerable side effects like constipation, nausea, vomiting, fear of dependence, and tolerance. Concomitant medications are required to combat these unacceptable side effects. Adjuvant analgesics need to be added to provide adequate and satisfactory analgesia. These factors worsen the psychological state of patients and deteriorate their quality of life. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutic modalities to provide adequate analgesia with minimum side effects. This review article focuses on the current treatments available for cancer pain management...

‣ A Review of Nutritional Factors in Hypertension Management

Nguyen, Ha; Odelola, Olaide A.; Rangaswami, Janani; Amanullah, Aman
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide. Its attendant morbidity and mortality complications have a great impact on patient's quality of life and survival. Optimizing blood pressure control has been shown to improve overall health outcomes. In addition to pharmacological therapies, nonpharmacological approach such as dietary modification plays an important role in controlling blood pressure. Many dietary components such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium have been studied substantially in the past decades. While some of these nutrients have clear evidence for their recommendation, some remain controversial and are still of ongoing study. Dietary modification is often discussed with patients and can provide a great benefit in blood pressure regulation. As such, reviewing the current evidence will be very useful in guiding patients and their physician and/or dietician in decision making. In this review article of nutritional factors in hypertension management, we aim to examine the role of nutritional factors individually and as components of whole dietary patterns.

‣ Review of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in China

Ye, Lingna; Cao, Qian; Cheng, Jianfeng
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2013 Português
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Inflammatory bowel disease mainly consisting of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease has been rising gradually during the last two decades in China. In this review article, we provide the latest epidemiological trends in incidence, prevalence, and mortality of IBD patients in China and summarize the risk factors and genetic susceptibility of Chinese IBD patients. We also compare these characteristics to those of IBD patients in Western countries.

‣ Crosstalk between hormones and oral health in the mid-life of women: A comprehensive review

Grover, Chander Mohan; More, Vanita Parshuram; Singh, Navneet; Grover, Shekhar
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2014 Português
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Oral health is constantly shaped by the cross-talk between behavioral, biological, and social forces. Menopause is that time in a woman's life when menstrual cycles cease by reduced secretion of the ovarian hormones, such as, estrogen and progesterone. Diseases of the mouth itself are the most common reasons for pain and discomfort in the mouth. However, there are certain situations where oral symptoms are caused as a result of systemic diseases. This review article has emphasized on the diverse oral presentations of postmenopausal women by descriptive analysis of various underlying mechanisms associated with these conditions. Dentists should be aware of the possible association of menopause and various oral health problems.

‣ A review on natural background radiation

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/07/2013 Português
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The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic...

‣ Review article: Non-invasive assessment of cardiac output with portable continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound

Meyer, Sascha; Todd, David; Gortner, L.; Reynolds, Graham
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cardiac output is considered an important parameter when assessing the cardiovascular status of a critically ill patient. Both non-invasive (e.g. bioimpedance, echocardiography) and invasive methods (Swan Ganz catheter) have been used to measure cardiac output. The ultrasonic cardiac output monitoring device provides a new method of non-invasively assessing cardiac output in various clinical settings. The ultrasonic cardiac output monitoring device was introduced clinically in 2001, and appears to be a promising adjunct in the assessment of the cardiovascular state in a variety of patient cohorts. In this short review article, we will introduce this new technique, discuss the required skills and compare it with methods already in use. In particular, a critical comparison with the 'gold standard', the invasive measurement of cardiac output with the pulmonary artery catheter, will be given.