Página 4 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.033 segundos

‣ Privately owned public space attached to office buildings in Manhattan : economic and urban perspectives of incentive zoning

Cai, Hongyu.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 122 leaves; 10670826 bytes; 10670585 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines the Incentive Zoning Policy of New York City from economic and urban perspectives. In the first part, it evaluates empirically the economic contribution of privately owned public space to the value of the office buildings to which they are attached. An economic model is postulated to predict the equilibrium rental behavior as a function of a series of independent variables, including a dummy variable representing the existence and the quality of privately owned public spaces. The model is tested against disaggregated cross-sectional data from a set of 475 office buildings in downtown and midtown Manhattan. Results confirm a strong economic influence of privately owned public spaces on office rents. Office buildings with favorable privately owned public spaces are predicted to extract $5.05/sq. ft. more in rent annually, a premium of 12.3% over the $41.03/sqft average annual rate. Based on the rating system defined by Jerold Kayden, on average, for each level increase of quality, there is $1.36/sqft of value (a premium of 3.3%) added to the annual rent, which can further be translated into a premium in the property value when properties are sold. The second part of the thesis addresses the possible impact that this result may bring to the different players in the process of urban development...

‣ Small urban spaces : programming for good tot lots

Simon, Carolina Natividade, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 73 leaves (some folded); 4938648 bytes; 4946970 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis is about small urban spaces, specifically tot lots in dense neighborhoods. It includes a literature review on small urban spaces and playgrounds, and site-specific research based on both a survey of users and direct observation of three tot lots in Cambridge, MA. Initially, this thesis set out to explore whether good tot lots could potentially attract community members beyond children and parents. Ultimately, my observations of these tot lots did not reveal convincing evidence of attributes that would foster other interactions aside from those that evolve around children. In the end, this thesis identified the indicators that signal good tot lot design, the attributes of goodness. This study found a large overlay between the attributes identified in the literature reviewed, and those that people perceived as being good qualities in the three tot lots studied. These attributes are: play equipment, scale, sun and shade, safety and management. However, the literature on playgrounds did not reveal attributes other than the ones directly related to play equipment and child development. For the attributes not covered by the literature, I have relied on my own set of observations to reveal the ones that contribute to the quality of the tot lots studied. These attributes are: furniture...

‣ The real estate user charge and its impact on housing development in China

Deng, Hui, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 103 p.
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Off-budget public finance in China is an informal system of levies that emerges in response to local fiscal needs. Off-budget funds serve as part of local government revenue and help finance local government expenditures. In the real estate sector, local governments raise off-budget funds by charging many types of user fees on housing development. The user charge revenue is an important revenue source to finance urban public service expenditures. Some drawbacks of user charges such as legal ambiguity and the lack of transparency reflect noteworthy investment risks in Chinese housing development. Thus, a good understanding of the real estate user charges is critical for foreign and domestic developers who are interested in housing development in China. In this study, we have explored literatures about urban public service policies, presented facts about the current user charge practices, analyzed the costs incurred in use fee transactions, evaluated the efficiency and equity contributions of the current system, and illustrated important issues in details by a case study of a single user fee.; (cont.) Based on our research, we argue that user charges are important financial instruments for urban public services such as water, gas, electricity...

‣ Finding home : making a place for the homeless in the urban landscape; Making a place for the homeless in the urban landscape

Cheng, Marissa A
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 61 p.
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Is homelessness a problem? What if you considered homelessness to be a state, rather than a problem, and provided for it accordingly in the urban landscape? As roads and water and sewer lines are one type of infrastructure, a diverse mix of dwelling types is another kind of infrastructure - the infrastructure in which we live. This thesis looks at the way the homeless have sheltered themselves in the past, and comes to several conclusions about how they might be sheltered in the future such that homelessness becomes a natural part of the urban landscape. Through this process of changing societal attitudes through the design of physical space, homelessness loses its label of "problem" and becomes more accepted as a way of life.; by Marissa A. Cheng.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2007.; Vita.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 59-61).

‣ Energy consumption and smart growth in Massachusetts : does smart growth make a difference?

Van Tassel, Katherine
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 68 p.
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With the environmental crisis involving climate change fast approaching, all potential mitigation techniques must be explored and implemented. A key approach comes from the power towns and cities have to influence land use and building standards in their jurisdiction. This thesis uses a scenario planning approach to explore the energy implications of four potential futures for the town of Littleton, MA. Four scenario storylines (Business as Usual (BAU), Baby Steps (high residential density, no mixing), Mixed Use Village (higher residential density, mixed uses), and Thoroughly Green (similar to Mixed Use Village with added green building requirements)) were used to frame the potential outcomes. Typical development typologies from nearby Massachusetts towns served as proxies for the scenarios. Using an elasticity method based on the density, diversity and design of the typologies, the reduction in Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) for each alternative scenario as compared to the BAU scenario was calculated and used to determine the reduction in gasoline usage and CO2 emissions. Local and regional average electricity and heating values were used to calculate the home energy consumption for each scenario.; (cont.) The Baby Steps and Mixed Use Village/Thoroughly Green scenarios reduced VMT by 14% and 32%...

‣ From negotiation to auction : Land-Conveyance Reform in China and its institutional and social impacts

Chen, Zhiyu (Zhiyu Jerry)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 109 leaves
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The land market and the associated land-development-control mechanism in China have been experiencing a series of reforms since the 1990s, of which Land Conveyance Reform (LCR) in 2004 is a very recent and an important one. LCR-the formal procedure to transfer the land-use rights (LURs) from the government to other users-has been used together with land use planning as institutional tools to generate and distribute the revenues for both local municipal government and real estate developers. Meanwhile, a large-scale government-led deindustrialization has been going on sine 1995 in city of Beijing, where many State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) were relocated from downtown Beijing to suburbs or other cities. I studied the change of the LCR from the former negotiation approach to the current auction approach. I analyzed its institutional impact on the land-use planning decision-making process and its social impacts on the deindustrialization process, specifically, the economic and social condition of working staff of SOEs. I conducted an empirical study in Beijing to investigate both institutional and social impacts. The LCR has caused an institutional shift in the land-use planning process, from the former "developer-coordinated process" to the current "local government-coordinated process." However...

‣ A matter of understanding : urban design strategies to integrate street vendors in Mumbai

Sharma, Sagree
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 51 leaves
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Resistance to informal markets appears related to a growing desire to modernize among citizens of developing countries. These markets, in their indigenous, often chaotic, form, are viewed as symbols as poverty and backwardness.Their appearance is increasingly becoming undesirable to citizens seeking to replace the local with the global, redefining their identity in a globalizing world. Street markets provide a valuable amenity to the city and it is inequitable, imprudent and impractical to remove them because they fail to fit into a newly emerging notion of what urban public space should look/be/operate like. They have thrived, often despite strong opposition from the government, and now even some citizen groups, because they provide a necessary and efficient service. This thesis explores whether, instead of absolute rejection or resigned acceptance of these markets, good design offers a better solution. It inquires into Mumbai's structure and how the street vendors use civic space to inform a new design creating an equitable integration of the informal markets into the emerging modern paradigms of urban design. The thesis presumes that small-scale street markets are an essential and effective form of retail and explores design strategies that address the concerns raised in resistance to street markets while incorporating the needs of the vendors. It proposes that an external disinterested mediator might successfully bring the stakeholders to consensus by creating a common equitable and sustainable solution through effective conflict management and good design. I generalize from this case into how designers might take on conflict mediation roles through appropriate design...

‣ The process of and barriers to environmentally-oriented real estate development : examining the role of organizational structure, project delivery methods and contracts in low impact development

Singh, Charu, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 131 p.
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Low Impact Development (LID) is a site planning approach that limits the environmental impact of development on the local hydrological regime. By preserving and mimicking natural landscape features, LID introduces a new site planning and stormwater management paradigm to mainstream real estate development and represents a product innovation in the industry. Through the examination of three case studies, this thesis explores the sources of innovation and the risks of implementation. It then examines whether changes to delivery and contract structures might be necessary to redistribute risks and incentives among members of the development team in order to realize LID practices. The investigation finds that the private sector plays an integral role in advancing LID. Often developers are the first adopters of this innovation. The success of their projects motivates municipalities to encourage the innovation through regulation and training. The projects that present the most innovative approach institute small, integrated, multi-disciplinary corporate and project team structures. Examining the process of implementing LID practices reveals that innovation does not introduce new sources of risk; rather it exacerbates existing sources of risk at each phase of development.; (cont.) Much of this increase in risk is related to the innovation's nascent stage of adoption and is related to informational or educational lags in the industry. Incremental process innovation is crucial to proper implementation of LID practices. The design phase should incorporate environmental analysis...

‣ Refugees as planners : Palestinian refugees in Jordan and UNRWA, 1950-1957

Maraqa, Hania Nabil
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 leaves
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This research is an institutional ethnography that documents a case for planning from the middle and planning from below. It looks at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) in Jordan between 1950 and 1957. UNRWA started its operations in 1950 with plans for economic development. By 1957 there had been a clear shift in the agency's mandate to human development. There are many possible reasons for this shift, one of which is the refugees' involvement in the planning process, which was carried out by thousands of refugees working with the agency and performing simultaneously the role of the planner and that of the beneficiary. Refugee staff members included top administration staff as well as street-level bureaucrats. Other refugees participated also in the planning process through spontaneous uprisings, forming local action groups, networking, and building alliances.; by Hania Nabil Maraqa.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Vita.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 100-104).

‣ The potential for trickle up : how local actors' experiments influence national forest policy planning

Blockhus, Jill M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 162 p.
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The loss of forests in Vietnam encouraged central government policy makers to consider new ways to manage forest resources. A major forest policy shift -- moving away from state-led management -- began in earnest in pilot provinces in 1998, with the handing over of forest land and management responsibility to communities. The initial outcomes of this switch and the policy learning that took place as a result of experimentation with community forestry are examined. I show that learning from and sharing these experiences contributed to policy-oriented learning and influenced the formulation of new policy. I review how lessons learned from the field (e.g. local experimentation, project learning and bottom-up planning) can redefine national forest policy priorities. I present preliminary lessons from adaptation of methods of forest land allocation, forest protection regulations and community forest management planning. I share experiences from pilot provinces where, with the involvement of policy innovators (local and external), the results led to the development of an enabling legal framework for community forestry, in the new Land Law and Forest Law. This dissertation suggests how learning from experiments can lead to better policy options in developing countries.; (cont.) I explore the critical roles that development of methodologies (combined with networking and training) play in advancing the lessons learned from the district and province levels in two directions - first...

‣ Unequal development : decentralization and fiscal disparities in the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico; Decentralization and fiscal disparities in the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico

Raich, Uri
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 264 p.
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This study is about the impact of decentralization in metropolitan areas. Studies of fiscal decentralization have largely centered on the formal tiers of government, without looking at the effects of this process on the recipient jurisdictions in metropolitan areas. This is an important omission, considering that more than 50 percent of the world's population lives in urban areas that often extend beyond formal jurisdictional boundaries. As a response, in this study I incorporate the metropolitan dimension into the study of fiscal decentralization. After integrating a database with information on the public finances of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (ZMVM), I test the hypothesis that the policies of fiscal decentralization in Mexico have exacerbated the level of fiscal disparity in this metropolitan area. My results show that fiscal disparity in the ZMVM increased during the 1990s. Fiscal decentralization had two different and opposite effects on fiscal disparities in the ZMVM. On one hand, fiscal decentralization mitigated fiscal disparities through the use of a system of redistributive transfers. On the other, and in contrast to this equalizing effect, decentralization has exacerbated the level of fiscal disparity by accentuating the differences of the jurisdictions' expenditure needs and their capacity to collect local taxes.; (cont.) In particular...

‣ Social insurance provision for women in the urban informal sector : interpreting the successful strategy of Working Women's Forum, India

Azad, Mithila
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77 leaves
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Since the late-1980s, the world's workers have experienced two strikingly coordinated global trends. The first is an unpredicted decline in secure, formally employed labor, and subsequent growth in informal labor. The second is an unprecedented decline in state welfare rhetoric and policy. These simultaneous trends have resulted in an increase in the proportion of workers that do not receive secure wages or social benefits from either the employer or the state. As this notion of the "benevolent" state purported in the 1950's disintegrates, one finds development literature focusing squarely on formation of social movements as solutions. This study examines the efforts of one such social movement-Working Women's Forum, India (WWF)-which has been successful in providing social protection (insurance) for over 8,00,000 women in the urban informal sector in Tamilnadu, Andhra and Karnataka. This case study looks at linkages between WWF and insurers: Government and Private owned. The curiosity that guides the research is regarding a) opportunities involved in such linkages towards a wider coverage of women in the informal sector, and b) identifying different state characteristics that influence different levels of success among informal workers organizations' ability to secure labor benefits.; (cont.) The latter is marked by continuous negotiations...

‣ Essays on exchange rates and electricity demand

Li, Xiangming, 1966-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 142 p.; 10131306 bytes; 10131064 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines two important issues in economic development: exchange rates and electricity demand and addresses methodological issues of using time series and panel data analysis to investigate important policy issues. In Chapter 2, I examine the impacts of a currency board on the adjustment of a small open economy to external shocks of imported intermediate input prices. The results of this examination add to the existing evidence of the relative merits of a currency board versus a flexible exchange rate. My main finding is that when nominal rigidity exists and the economy is faced with a negative shock, output drops more under a currency board than under flexible exchange rates. Moreover, the difference in output drop declines as the share of tradables in total consumption decreases. This is contrary to the popular view that the more open an economy, the less costly it is to fix the exchange rate. My empirical analysis, based on data from Hong Kong and Singapore, supports my theoretical prediction that with a negative shock output drops more under a currency board than under flexible exchange rates, since considerable nominal rigidity does exist in reality. This is the first such attempt to examine empirically how small economies react to external shocks under different exchange-rate regimes. In Chapter 3...

‣ Doing their part? : proactive planning and deliberate avoidance of affordable housing by Massachusetts communities in response to Chapter 40B; Proactive planning and deliberate avoidance of affordable housing by Massachusetts communities in response to Chapter 40B

Frantz, Anna J. (Anna Jordan)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 109 p.; 7535622 bytes; 7542047 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Chapter 40B is an innovative Massachusetts law adopted in 1969 to expand the supply and distribution of subsidized housing throughout the state. The statute creates a streamlined permitting process through which municipalities may waive local regulations that impede the construction of affordable units. Chapter 40B also establishes a state appeals court to which developers may appeal local permitting decisions if less than 10% of a community's housing stock is affordable to low- income households. In the last half-decade, Chapter 40B has become more controversial as a strong housing market and regulatory changes have increased affordable housing development activity under the law. This thesis examines how Chapter 40B has influenced community planning for the development of affordable housing since 2000. Municipal planning staff, land-use board members, and elected officials in five communities on the rapidly-growing edge of metropolitan Boston (Bellingham, Framingham, Marlborough, Norfolk and Southborough) were interviewed about locally-driven affordability initiatives and community attitudes toward affordable housing. This research was supplemented by analysis of building permit data and zoning ordinances. The results suggest that Chapter 40B has increased local attention to affordable housing needs. However...

‣ Balancing people, place and the automobile : recommendations for the redesign of Belmont's Trapelo Road

Carry, William J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 73 p.; 5936303 bytes; 5939042 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis presents a case study of the planning process for the redesign of Trapelo Road in Belmont, Massachusetts, a Boston suburb. The case is an on-going planning controversy that deals with a number of key issues facing inner-ring suburbs: the impact of sprawl development on older commercial areas, the difficulties inherent in encouraging alternate modes of transportation in the suburban context, and the challenge of addressing regional forces on the local level. Within the Belmont community, there is considerable conflict over the redesign of the Trapelo corridor. On one side are advocates of narrowing the road to two lanes who see Trapelo as an opportunity to create a neighborhood "Main Street" with an enhanced sense of place. On the other side are advocates of maintaining the road in its current four- lane configuration who see the corridor as an important artery for local and regional traffic and are most concerned with traffic congestion. The thesis endeavors to learn from and inform the Trapelo Road planning debate and to answer the following research question: on suburban roads such as Trapelo, to what extent does there exist a trade-off between improving the pedestrian environment and neighborhood character, and preserving road capacity and traffic flow? In other words...

‣ Factors to improve project performance : lessons from a Chilean urban agriculture program

Scott, Maggie, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 91 leaves; 4249567 bytes; 4249375 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis investigates a Chilean urban agriculture project that has been underway for more than twenty years in Tome, a small coastal town located near the regional capital of Concepcion. Initiated in the early 1980s by the Chilean non-governmental organization, CET SUR, the program works on themes of food security and poverty alleviation, environmental issues and women's leadership development. In 1999, this project began to replicate the Tome experience to seven additional towns in and around the Greater Concepcion area with a new initiative entitled the Toward Sustainable Cities Project. Similar urban agriculture programs began at the same time in Santiago, but only remnants of those projects remain: a program for seniors here, a demonstration garden at the environment center there. The project in Tome, instead of shrinking as economic conditions improved from the crisis of the early 1980s, has recently spread to seven additional towns. This puzzle forms the crux of my research: what are some of the factors that may explain why this project has achieved this longevity and managed to grow its program, while similar programs in Chile have long since vanished? The investigation identifies two sets of factors that distinguish the Toward Sustainable Cities Project from other urban agriculture programs. The first is the high level of dedication to the job of its frontline workers. CET SUR motivates these workers in several ways: offering them opportunities to develop their personal skills...

‣ Wired / unwired : the urban geography of digital networks; Urban geography of digital networks

Townsend, Anthony M. (Anthony Michael), 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 208 p.; 9409295 bytes; 9409102 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This dissertation examines the development of digital network infrastructure in the world's great cities at the turn of the 20th century. Drawing upon the concept of cities as information systems and techniques of communications geography, it analyzes how the physical components of digital networks were deployed in major urban areas during the 1990s. It finds that historical processes and pre-existing differences between places shaped the evolution of this infrastructure at multiple spatial scales; global, metropolitan, and neighborhood. As a result, rather than bringing about the "death of distance", digital network infrastructure actually reinforced many of the pre-existing differences between connected and disconnected places. With the telecom bust of 2000-2002, these differences were likely to persist for a decade or more. Yet just as the development of wired digital network infrastructure slowed, wireless technologies emerged as a more flexible, intuitive, and efficient form of connecting users to networks in everyday urban settings. As a result, an untethered model for digital networks emerged which combining the capacity and security of wired networks over long distances with the flexibility and mobility of wireless networks over short distances. This new hybrid infrastructure provided the technology needed to begin widespread experimentation with the creation of digitally mediated spaces...

‣ Strategies for reclaiming urban postindustrial landscapes

Ekman, Eric W., 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 117 p.; 6482251 bytes; 6584411 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Expanding the primarily expert-driven and site-specific efforts to solve brownfield problems, this thesis develops a process framework for planners and developers to organize the brownfield redevelopment process through strategy formulation based on a site-context relationship with interacting social, economic, and ecological factors. This thesis explores the theory and practice associated with brownfield redevelopment and, through a broader perspective, postindustrial landscape reclamation. Key issues and ingredients for success in the brownfield redevelopment process are distilled from the investigation of two case studies, one of which is Nine Mile Run in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The process framework's design serves to recreate the general project context and scope represented by Nine Mile Run and promotes integrative planning and restorative redevelopment practice that augments brownfield redevelopment activity.; by Eric W. Ekman.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 110-117).

‣ Shifting urban priorities : the removal of inner city freeways in the United States

Napolitan, Francesca
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 136 p.
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The United States Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's cities and countryside, accelerating suburbanization and leading to unprecedented levels of motorized mobility. While the interstate highways brought undeniable benefits, they also imparted social, environmental and aesthetic costs. Growing opposition to the paving of cities in the name of improved mobility resulted in a "freeway revolt" movement. Much of the original interstate infrastructure built in the 1950s and 1960s is reaching or is past the end of its useful life - requiring large investments for rehabilitation. At the same time, the freeway revolt has evolved into a more widespread movement, underlined by values such as sustainability. Thus, the vigorous debate over the future of urban highways and mobility continues. This thesis examines this future from the perspective of a fairly recent phenomenon: urban freeway removal. By examining three different cases where urban freeway removal was a seriously considered option - two where the freeway was removed and replaced with a lower capacity at-grade boulevard (Park East Freeway, Milwaukee and Central Freeway, San Francisco) and one where the freeway ultimately was not removed (Whitehurst Freeway, Washington D.C.) this thesis works toward a theory of highway removal.; (cont.) The analysis suggests that freeway removal will only take place when: (1) the one precondition is met: the condition of the freeway must be such...

‣ Density bonuses and affordable housing in California : examining the economic impact on three cases

Skiles, Kevin, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 68 leaves; 2154173 bytes; 2153981 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The State of California faces a shortage of housing in many of its urban and suburban communities. This shortage has led to increasing home prices and there has been growing citizen demand to address housing affordability. The California State government recognized in 1992 that incentives were needed to stimulate the development of both housing that was designated for low-income residents and housing that was priced at market rate. The government understood that any law that acted as a further exaction on private developers would be counterproductive to their goals and thus adopted a density bonus program, to be implemented by local planning authorities, with the creation of California Government Code Sections 65915 through 65918. The paper will use three case studies to analyze the law's effectiveness as an incentive to private developers. By understanding the impact of the density bonus on individual projects, we will be able to make detailed insights into what is successful and what problems exist with the current program.; by Kevin Skiles.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2003.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 67-68).