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‣ Human disease-causing NOG missense mutations: Effects on noggin secretion, dimer formation, and bone morphogenetic protein binding

Marcelino, Jose; Sciortino, Christopher M.; Romero, Michael F.; Ulatowski, Lynn M.; Ballock, R. Tracy; Economides, Aris N.; Eimon, Peter M.; Harland, Richard M.; Warman, Matthew L.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Secreted noggin protein regulates bone morphogenetic protein activity during development. In mice, a complete loss of noggin protein leads to multiple malformations including joint fusion, whereas mice heterozygous for Nog loss-of-function mutations are normal. In humans, heterozygous NOG missense mutations have been found in patients with two autosomal dominant disorders of joint development, multiple synostosis syndrome (SYNS1) and a milder disorder proximal symphalangism (SYM1). This study investigated the effect of one SYNS1 and two SYM1 disease-causing missense mutations on the structure and function of noggin. The SYNS1 mutation abolished, and the SYM1 mutations reduced, the secretion of functional noggin dimers in transiently transfected COS-7 cells. Coexpression of mutant noggin with wild-type noggin, to resemble the heterozygous state, did not interfere with wild-type noggin secretion. These data indicate that the human disease-causing mutations are hypomorphic alleles that reduce secretion of functional dimeric noggin. Therefore, we conclude that noggin has both species-specific and joint-specific dosage-dependent roles during joint formation. Surprisingly, in contrast to the COS-7 cell studies, the SYNS1 mutant was able to form dimers in Xenopus laevis oocytes. This finding indicates that there also exist species-specific differences in the ability to process mutant noggin polypeptides.

‣ Analyses of the Effects That Disease-Causing Missense Mutations Have on the Structure and Function of the Winged-Helix Protein FOXC1

Saleem, Ramsey A.; Banerjee-Basu, Sharmila; Berry, Fred B.; Baxevanis, Andreas D.; Walter, Michael A.
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2001 Português
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Five missense mutations of the winged-helix FOXC1 transcription factor, found in patients with Axenfeld-Rieger (AR) malformations, were investigated for their effects on FOXC1 structure and function. Molecular modeling of the FOXC1 forkhead domain predicted that the missense mutations did not alter FOXC1 structure. Biochemical analyses indicated that, whereas all mutant proteins correctly localize to the cell nucleus, the I87M mutation reduced FOXC1-protein levels. DNA-binding experiments revealed that, although the S82T and S131L mutations decreased DNA binding, the F112S and I126M mutations did not. However, the F112S and I126M mutations decrease the transactivation ability of FOXC1. All the FOXC1 mutations had the net effect of reducing FOXC1 transactivation ability. These results indicate that the FOXC1 forkhead domain contains separable DNA-binding and transactivation functions. In addition, these findings demonstrate that reduced stability, DNA binding, or transactivation, all causing a decrease in the ability of FOXC1 to transactivate genes, can underlie AR malformations.

‣ Missense mutations in disease genes: a Bayesian approach to evaluate causality.

Petersen, G M; Parmigiani, G; Thomas, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1998 Português
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The problem of interpreting missense mutations of disease-causing genes is an increasingly important one. Because these point mutations result in alteration of only a single amino acid of the protein product, it is often unclear whether this change alone is sufficient to cause disease. We propose a Bayesian approach that utilizes genetic information on affected relatives in families ascertained through known missense-mutation carriers. This method is useful in evaluating known disease genes for common disease phenotypes, such as breast cancer or colorectal cancer. The posterior probability that a missense mutation is disease causing is conditioned on the relationship of the relatives to the proband, the population frequency of the mutation, and the phenocopy rate of the disease. The approach is demonstrated in two cancer data sets: BRCA1 R841W and APC I1307K. In both examples, this method helps establish that these mutations are likely to be disease causing, with Bayes factors in favor of causality of 5.09 and 66.97, respectively, and posterior probabilities of .836 and .985. We also develop a simple approximation for rare alleles and consider the case of unknown penetrance and allele frequency.

‣ Nonsense and missense mutations in hemophilia A: estimate of the relative mutation rate at CG dinucleotides.

Youssoufian, H; Antonarakis, S E; Bell, W; Griffin, A M; Kazazian, H H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1988 Português
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Hemophilia A is an X-linked disease of coagulation caused by deficiency of factor VIII. Using cloned cDNA and synthetic oligonucleotide probes, we have now screened 240 patients and found CG-to-TG transitions in an exon in nine. We have previously reported four of these patients; and here we report the remaining five, all of whom were severely affected. In one patient a TaqI site was lost in exon 23, and in the other four it was lost in exon 24. The novel exon 23 mutation is a CG-to-TG substitution at the codon for amino acid residue 2166, producing a nonsense codon in place of the normal codon for arginine. Similarly, the exon 24 mutations are also generated by CG-to-TG transitions, either on the sense strand producing nonsense mutations or on the antisense strand producing missense mutations (Arg to Gln) at position 2228. The novel missense mutations are the first such mutations observed in association with severe hemophilia A. These results provide further evidence that recurrent mutations are not uncommon in hemophilia A, and they also allow us to estimate that the extent of hypermutability of CG dinucleotides is 10-20 times greater than the average mutation rate for hemophilia A.

‣ Mutations in the X-linked E1 alpha subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase: exon skipping, insertion of duplicate sequence, and missense mutations leading to the deficiency of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

Chun, K; MacKay, N; Petrova-Benedict, R; Federico, A; Fois, A; Cole, D E; Robertson, E; Robinson, B H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1995 Português
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Human pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)-complex deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism that is extremely heterogeneous in its presentation and clinical course. In a study of 14 patients (7 females and 7 males), we have found a mutation in the coding region of the E1 alpha gene in all 14 patients. Two female patients had the same 7-bp deletion at nt 927; another female patient had a 3-bp deletion at nt 931. Another female patient was found to have a deletion of exon 6 in her cDNA. Two other female patients were found to have insertions, one of 13 bp at nt 981 and one of 46 bp at nucleotide 1078. Two male patients were found to have a 4-bp insertion at nucleotide 1163. The remaining six patients all had missense mutations. A male patient and a female patient both had an A1133G mutation. The other missense mutations were C214T, C615A, and C787G (two patients). Five of these mutations are novel mutations, five have been previously reported in other patients, and two were published observations in other patients in an E1 alpha-mutation summary. In the four cases where parent DNA was available, only one mother was found to be a carrier of the same mutation as her child.

‣ Molecular characterization of minor gene rearrangements in Finnish patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: identification of two common missense mutations (Gly823-->Asp and Leu380-->His) and eight rare mutations of the LDL receptor gene.

Koivisto, U M; Viikari, J S; Kontula, K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1995 Português
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Two deletions of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene were previously shown to account for about two thirds of all mutations causing familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Finland. We screened the DNA samples from a cohort representing the remaining 30% of Finnish heterozygous FH patients by amplifying all the 18 exons of the receptor gene by PCR and searching for DNA variations with the SSCP technique. Ten novel mutations were identified, comprising two nonsense and seven missense mutations as well as one frameshift mutation caused by a 13-bp deletion. A single nucleotide change, substituting adenine for guanidine at position 2533 and resulting in an amino acid change of glycine to aspartic acid at codon 823, was found in DNA samples from 14 unrelated FH probands. This mutation (FH-Turku) affects the sequence encoding the putative basolateral sorting signal of the LDL receptor protein; however, the exact functional consequences of this mutation are yet to be examined. The FH-Turku gene and another point mutation (Leu380-->His or FH-Pori) together account for approximately 8% of the FH-causing genes in Finland and are particularly common among FH patients from the southwestern part of the country (combined, 30%). Primer-introduced restriction analysis was applied for convenient assay of the FH-Turku and FH-Pori point mutations. In conclusion...

‣ Structural and functional analyses of disease-causing missense mutations in Bloom syndrome protein

Guo, Rong-Bing; Rigolet, Pascal; Ren, Hua; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xing-Dong; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Wang, Peng-Ye; Amor-Gueret, Mounira; Xi, Xu Guang
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genomic instability and the early development of many types of cancer. Missense mutations have been identified in the BLM gene (encoding a RecQ helicase) in affected individuals, but the molecular mechanism and the structural basis of the effects of these mutations remain to be elucidated. We analysed five disease-causing missense mutations that are localized in the BLM helicase core region: Q672R, I841T, C878R, G891E and C901Y. The disease-causing mutants had low ATPase and helicase activities but their ATP binding abilities were normal, except for Q672, whose ATP binding activity was lower than that of the intact BLM helicase. Mutants C878R, mapping near motif IV, and G891E and C901Y, mapping in motif IV, displayed severe DNA-binding defects. We used molecular modelling to analyse these mutations. Our work provides insights into the molecular basis of BLM pathology, and reveals structural elements implicated in coupling DNA binding to ATP hydrolysis and DNA unwinding. Our findings will help to explain the mechanism underlying BLM catalysis and interpreting new BLM causing mutations identified in the future.

‣ Hereditary Cancer-associated Missense Mutations in hMSH6 Uncouple ATP Hydrolysis from DNA Mismatch Binding*S⃞

Cyr, Jennifer L.; Heinen, Christopher D.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2008 Português
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Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. The majority of cases are associated with mutations in hMSH2 or hMLH1; however, about 12% of cases are associated with alterations in hMSH6. The hMSH6 protein forms a heterodimer with hMSH2 that is capable of recognizing a DNA mismatch. The heterodimer then utilizes its adenosine nucleotide processing ability in an, as of yet, unclear mechanism to facilitate communication between the mismatch and a distant strand discrimination site. The majority of reported mutations in hMSH6 are deletions or truncations that entirely eliminate the function of the protein; however, nearly a third of the reported variations are missense mutations whose functional significance is unclear. We analyzed seven cancer-associated single amino acid alterations in hMSH6 distributed throughout the functional domains of the protein to determine their effect on the biochemical activity of the hMSH2-hMSH6 heterodimer. Five alterations affect mismatch-stimulated ATP hydrolysis activity providing functional evidence that missense variants of hMSH6 can disrupt mismatch repair function and may contribute to disease. Of the five mutants that affect mismatch-stimulated ATP hydrolysis...

‣ GJC2 Missense Mutations Cause Human Lymphedema

Ferrell, Robert E.; Baty, Catherine J.; Kimak, Mark A.; Karlsson, Jenny M.; Lawrence, Elizabeth C.; Franke-Snyder, Marlise; Meriney, Stephen D.; Feingold, Eleanor; Finegold, David N.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/06/2010 Português
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Lymphedema is the clinical manifestation of defects in lymphatic structure or function. Mutations identified in genes regulating lymphatic development result in inherited lymphedema. No mutations have yet been identified in genes mediating lymphatic function that result in inherited lymphedema. Survey microarray studies comparing lymphatic and blood endothelial cells identified expression of several connexins in lymphatic endothelial cells. Additionally, gap junctions are implicated in maintaining lymphatic flow. By sequencing GJA1, GJA4, and GJC2 in a group of families with dominantly inherited lymphedema, we identified six probands with unique missense mutations in GJC2 (encoding connexin [Cx] 47). Two larger families cosegregate lymphedema and GJC2 mutation (LOD score = 6.5). We hypothesize that missense mutations in GJC2 alter gap junction function and disrupt lymphatic flow. Until now, GJC2 mutations were only thought to cause dysmyelination, with primary expression of Cx47 limited to the central nervous system. The identification of GJC2 mutations as a cause of primary lymphedema raises the possibility of novel gap-junction-modifying agents as potential therapy for some forms of lymphedema.

‣ Orphan Missense Mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A Three-Step Biological Approach to Establishing a Correlation Between Genotype and Phenotype

Fresquet, Fleur; Clement, Romain; Norez, Caroline; Sterlin, Adélaïde; Melin, Patricia; Becq, Frédéric; Kitzis, Alain; Thoreau, Vincent; Bilan, Frédéric
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
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More than 1860 mutations have been found within the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene sequence. These mutations can be classified according to their degree of severity in CF disease. Although the most common mutations are well characterized, few data are available for rare mutations. Thus, genetic counseling is particularly difficult when fetuses or patients with CF present these orphan variations. We describe a three-step in vitro assay that can evaluate rare missense CFTR mutation consequences to establish a correlation between genotype and phenotype. By using a green fluorescent protein–tagged CFTR construct, we expressed mutated proteins in COS-7 cells. CFTR trafficking was visualized by confocal microscopy, and the cellular localization of CFTR was determined using intracellular markers. We studied the CFTR maturation process using Western blot analysis and evaluated CFTR channel activity by automated iodide efflux assays. Of six rare mutations that we studied, five have been isolated in our laboratory. The cellular and functional impact that we observed in each case was compared with the clinical data concerning the patients in whom we encountered these mutations. In conclusion, we propose that performing this type of analysis for orphan CFTR missense mutations can improve CF genetic counseling.

‣ Prediction of phenotypes of missense mutations in human proteins from biological assemblies

Wei, Qiong; Xu, Qifang; Dunbrack, Roland L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) are the most frequent variation in the human genome. Non-synonymous SNPs that lead to missense mutations can be neutral or deleterious, and several computational methods have been presented that predict the phenotype of human missense mutations. These methods employ sequence-based and structure-based features in various combinations, relying on different statistical distributions of these features for deleterious and neutral mutations. One structure-based feature that has not been studied significantly is the accessible surface area within biologically relevant oligomeric assemblies. These assemblies are different from the crystallographic asymmetric unit for more than half of X-ray crystal structures. We find that mutations in the core of proteins or in the interfaces in biological assemblies are significantly more likely to be disease-associated than those on the surface of the biological assemblies. For structures with more than one protein in the biological assembly (whether the same sequence or different), we find the accessible surface area from biological assemblies provides a statistically significant improvement in prediction over the accessible surface area of monomers from protein crystal structures (p=6e-5). When adding this information to sequence-based features such as the difference between wildtype and mutant position-specific profile scores...

‣ New TRPM6 missense mutations linked to hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia

Lainez, Sergio; Schlingmann, Karl Peter; van der Wijst, Jenny; Dworniczak, Bernd; van Zeeland, Femke; Konrad, Martin; Bindels, René J; Hoenderop, Joost G
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Despite recent progress in our understanding of renal magnesium (Mg2+) handling, the molecular mechanisms accounting for transepithelial Mg2+ transport are still poorly understood. Mutations in the TRPM6 gene, encoding the epithelial Mg2+ channel TRPM6 (transient receptor potential melastatin 6), have been proven to be the molecular cause of hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH; OMIM 602014). HSH manifests in the newborn period being characterized by very low serum Mg2+ levels (<0.4 mmol/l) accompanied by low serum calcium (Ca2+) concentrations. A proportion of previously described TRPM6 mutations lead to a truncated TRPM6 protein resulting in a complete loss-of-function of the ion channel. In addition, five-point mutations have been previously described. The aim of this study was to complement the current clinical picture by adding the molecular data from five new missense mutations found in five patients with HSH. To this end, patch-clamp analysis and cell surface measurements were performed to assess the effect of the various mutations on TRPM6 channel function. All mutant channels, expressed in HEK293 cells, showed loss-of-function, whereas no severe trafficking impairment to the plasma membrane surface was observed. We conclude that the new TRPM6 missense mutations lead to dysregulated intestinal/renal Mg2+ (re)absorption as a consequence of loss of TRPM6 channel function.

‣ Structure-Function Correlation Analysis of Connexin50 Missense Mutations Causing Congenital Cataract: Electrostatic Potential Alteration Could Determine Intracellular Trafficking Fate of Mutants

Sarkar, Devroop; Ray, Kunal; Sengupta, Mainak
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Connexin50 (Cx50) mutations are reported to cause congenital cataract probably through the disruption of intercellular transport in the lens. Cx50 mutants that undergo mistrafficking have generally been associated with failure to form functional gap junction channels; however, sometimes even properly trafficked mutants were found to undergo similar consequences. We hereby wanted to elucidate any structural bases of the varied functional consequences of Cx50 missense mutations through in silico approach. Computational studies have been done based on a Cx50 homology model to assess conservation, solvent accessibility, and 3-dimensional localization of mutated residues as well as mutation-induced changes in surface electrostatic potential, H-bonding, and steric clash. This was supplemented with meta-analysis of published literature on the functional properties of connexin missense mutations. Analyses revealed that the mutation-induced critical alterations of surface electrostatic potential in Cx50 mutants could determine their fate in intracellular trafficking. A similar pattern was observed in case of mutations involving corresponding conserved residues in other connexins also. Based on these results the trafficking fates of 10 uncharacterized Cx50 mutations have been predicted. Further experimental analyses are needed to validate the observed correlation.

‣ The ZZ Domain of Dystrophin in DMD: Making Sense of Missense Mutations

Vulin, Adeline; Wein, Nicolas; Strandjord, Dana M.; Johnson, Eric K.; Findlay, Andrew R.; Maiti, Baijayanta; Howard, Michael T.; Kaminoh, Yuuki J.; Taylor, Laura E.; Simmons, Tabatha R.; Ray, Will C.; Montanaro, Federica; Ervasti, Jim M.; Flanigan, Kevin
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is associated with the loss of dystrophin, which plays an important role in myofiber integrity via interactions with β-dystroglycan and other members of the transmembrane dystrophin-associated protein complex. The ZZ domain, a cysteine-rich zinc-finger domain near the dystrophin C-terminus, is implicated in forming a stable interaction between dystrophin and β-dystroglycan, but the mechanism of pathogenesis of ZZ missense mutations has remained unclear because not all such mutations have been shown to alter β-dystroglycan binding in previous experimental systems. We engineered three ZZ mutations (p.Cys3313Phe, p.Asp3335His, and p.Cys3340Tyr) into a short construct similar to the Dp71 dystrophin isoform for in vitro and in vivo studies and delineated their effect on protein expression, folding properties, and binding partners. Our results demonstrate two distinct pathogenic mechanisms for ZZ missense mutations. The cysteine mutations result in diminished or absent subsarcolemmal expression because of protein instability, likely due to misfolding. In contrast, the aspartic acid mutation disrupts binding with β-dystroglycan despite an almost normal expression at the membrane, confirming a role for the ZZ domain in β-dystroglycan binding but surprisingly demonstrating that such binding is not required for subsarcolemmal localization of dystrophin...

‣ Three Epilepsy-Associated GABRG2 Missense Mutations at the γ+/β− interface Disrupt GABAA Receptor Assembly and trafficking by Similar MeChanisms but to Different Extents

Huang, Xuan; Hernandez, Ciria C.; Hu, Ningning; Macdonald, Robert L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We compared the effects of three missense mutations in the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit on GABAA receptor assembly, trafficking and function in HEK293T cells cotransfected with α1, β2, and wildtype or mutant γ2 subunits. The mutations R82Q and P83S were identified in families with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), and N79S was found in a single patient with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). Although all three mutations were located in an N terminal loop that contributes to the γ+/β− subunit-subunit interface, we found that each mutation impaired GABAA receptor assembly to a different extent. The γ2(R82Q) and γ2(P83S) subunits had reduced α1β2γ2 receptor surface expression due to impaired assembly into pentamers, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and degradation. In contrast, γ2(N79S) subunits were efficiently assembled into GABAA receptors with only minimally altered receptor trafficking, suggesting that N79S was a rare or susceptibility variant rather than an epilepsy mutation. Increased structural variability at assembly motifs was predicted by R82Q and P83S, but not N79S, substitution, suggesting that R82Q and P83S substitutions were less tolerated. Membrane proteins with missense mutations that impair folding and assembly often can be “rescued” by decreased temperatures. We coexpressed wildtype or mutant γ2 subunits with α1 and β2 subunits and found increased surface and total levels of both wildtype and mutant γ2 subunits after decreasing the incubation temperature to 30 °C for 24 hours...

‣ Structure‐energy‐based predictions and network modelling of RASopathy and cancer missense mutations

Kiel, Christina; Serrano, Luis
Fonte: European Molecular Biology Organization Publicador: European Molecular Biology Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2014 Português
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The Ras/MAPK syndromes (‘RASopathies’) are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in 15 genes encoding proteins of the Ras/mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway frequently involved in cancer. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in mutations of the same protein causing either cancer or RASopathies. Here, we shed light on 956 RASopathy and cancer missense mutations by combining protein network data with mutational analyses based on 3D structures. Using the protein design algorithm FoldX, we predict that most of the missense mutations with destabilising energies are in structural regions that control the activation of proteins, and only a few are predicted to compromise protein folding. We find a trend that energy changes are higher for cancer compared to RASopathy mutations. Through network modelling, we show that partly compensatory mutations in RASopathies result in only minor downstream pathway deregulation. In summary, we suggest that quantitative rather than qualitative network differences determine the phenotypic outcome of RASopathy compared to cancer mutations.

‣ Temporal lobe epilepsy and GEFS(+) phenotypes associated with SCN1B mutations

Scheffer, I.; Harkin, L.; Grinton, B.; Dibbens, L.; Turner, S.; Zielinski, M.; Xu, R.; Jackson, G.; Adams, J.; Connellan, M.; Petrou, S.; Wellard, R.; Briellmann, R.; Wallace, R.; Mulley, J.; Berkovic, S.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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SCN1B, the gene encoding the sodium channel ß 1 subunit, was the first gene identified for generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Only three families have been published with SCN1B mutations. Here, we present four new families with SCN1B mutations and characterize the associated phenotypes. Analysis of SCN1B was performed on 402 individuals with various epilepsy syndromes. Four probands with missense mutations were identified. Detailed electroclinical phenotyping was performed on all available affected family members including quantitative MR imaging in those with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Two new families with the original C121W SCN1B mutation were identified; novel mutations R85C and R85H were each found in one family. The following phenotypes occurred in the six families with SCN1B missense mutations: 22 febrile seizures, 20 febrile seizures plus, five TLE, three other GEFS+ phenotypes, two unclassified and ten unaffected individuals. All individuals with confirmed TLE had the C121W mutation; two underwent temporal lobectomy (one with hippocampal sclerosis and one without) and both are seizure free. We confirm the role of SCN1B in GEFS+ and show that the GEFS+ spectrum may include TLE alone. TLE with an SCN1B mutation is not a contraindication to epilepsy surgery.; Ingrid E. Scheffer...

‣ The deleterious effect of missense mutations on pre-mRNA splicing

Gonçalves, Vânia; Jordan, Peter
Fonte: Nova Science Publishers Inc Publicador: Nova Science Publishers Inc
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2011 Português
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The presence of missense mutations detected during genetic testing makes it difficult to classify their pathogenic effect. It is possible that the predicted amino acid change affects protein function; however, it is also possible that a missense mutation does not act at the protein level but rather at the nucleotide level by interfering with the correct assembly of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. In this chapter we describe that short 6 to 9 nucleotides-containing sequence motifs act as exonic splicing regulatory elements. They are specifically recognized by corresponding splicing factors, which then assist in the recognition of the conserved splice site motifs by the spliceosome. Many examples show that a point mutation in these exonic splicing regulatory elements is sufficient to change splicing factor binding, which impairs inclusion of an exon during the splicing reaction. Thus, the molecular consequence of a missense mutation can be exon skipping and thus cause a frameshift in the messenger RNA that results in a premature stop codon and loss of function of the affected allele. Although several bioinformatic tools exist to predict splicing factor binding to mRNA, this effect of a missense mutation on splicing cannot yet be accurately predicted by sequence analysis alone. In order to determine whether a missense mutation has a deleterious effect on splicing of the corresponding mRNA...

‣ Deletions and missense mutations of EPM2A exacerbate unfolded protein response and apoptosis of neuronal cells induced by endoplasm reticulum stress

Liu, Yan; Wang, Yin; Wu, Cindy; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Pan
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The majority of the Lafora's disease (LD) is caused by defect in the EPM2A gene, including missense and nonsense mutations and deletions. These defects mainly occur in the carbohydrate-binding domain, and how these mutations cause neuronal defects is under active investigation. Here, we report that the mutant proteins encoded by all missense mutations and most deletions tested are unstable, insoluble and ubiquitinated, and are accumulated in aggresome-like structures. The effect of apparent ‘gain-of-function’ mutations can be corrected by co-transfection of wild-type EPM2A cDNA, which is consistent with the recessive nature of these mutations in LD patients. In a neuronal cell line, these mutant aggregates exacerbate endoplasm reticulum (ER) stress and make the cells susceptible to the apoptosis induced by ER stressor, thapsigargin. The chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyrate, increased the mutant solubility, reduced the ER stress and dulled the sensitivity of mutant neuronal cells to apoptosis induced by thapsigargin and the mutant laforin proteins. The increased sensitivity to ER stress-induced apoptosis may contribute to LD pathogenesis.

‣ Nonsense but not missense mutations can decrease the abundance of nuclear mRNA for the mouse major urinary protein, while both types of mutations can facilitate exon skipping.

Belgrader, P; Maquat, L E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1994 Português
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In an effort to understand the mechanisms by which nonsense codons affect RNA metabolism in mammalian cells, nonsense mutations were generated within the gene for the secretory major urinary protein (MUP) of mice. The translation of MUP mRNA normally begins within exon 1 and terminates within exon 6, the penultimate exon. Through the use of Northern (RNA) blot hybridization and assays that couple reverse transcription and PCR, a nonsense mutation within codon 50 of exon 2 or codon 143 of exon 5 was found to reduce the abundance of fully spliced, nuclear MUP mRNA to 10 to 20% of normal without an additional reduction in the abundance of cytoplasmic mRNA. In contrast, a nonsense mutation within codon 172 of exon 5 was found to have no effects on the abundance of MUP mRNA. These findings suggest that a boundary between nonsense mutations that do and do not reduce the abundance of nuclear mRNA exists within the exon preceding the exon that harbors the normal site of translation termination. In this way, the boundary is analogous to the boundary that exists within the penultimate exon of the human gene for the cytosolic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase. Assays for exon skipping, i.e., the removal of an exon as a part of the flanking introns during the process of splicing...