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‣ Prenatal RhD Testing: A Review of Studies Published from 2006 to 2008*

Legler, Tobias Jörg; Müller, Sina Patricia; Haverkamp, Alexander; Grill, Simon; Hahn, Sinuhe
Fonte: S. Karger GmbH Publicador: S. Karger GmbH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The availability of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for the fetal RhD status (NIPD RhD) is an obvious benefit for alloimmunized pregnant women. This review gives information about the performance characteristics of current diagnostic technologies and recent promising proof-of-principle studies. Notably, during the past 3 years almost twice as much samples have been investigated with NIPD RhD compared with the studies from 1998 to 2005. Thus we have now a lot more information compared with the knowledge before 2006. There is no doubt that funding of the SAFE Network of Excellence (2004–2009) from the European Commission within the framework 6 program has massively increased the worldwide experience in NIPD RhD. In 2009 European funding has been stopped. Because of this large investment from public funding sources, it is now the duty of policy makers (scientific boards, patient groups, physician organizations, and health assurances) to discuss if targeted antenatal Rh prophylaxis should be introduced in German-speaking countries or which additional data are required to make a decision and how these additional studies should be funded.

‣ The effectiveness of walking as an intervention for low back pain: a systematic review

Hendrick, P.; Te Wake, A. M.; Tikkisetty, A. S.; Wulff, L.; Yap, C.; Milosavljevic, S.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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As current low back pain (LBP) guidelines do not specifically advocate walking as an intervention, this review has explored for the effectiveness of walking in managing acute and chronic LBP. CINAHL, Medline, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases, as well as a hand search of reference lists of retrieved articles, were searched. The search was restricted to studies in the English language. Studies were included when walking was identified as an intervention. Four studies met inclusion criteria, and were assessed with a quality checklist. Three lower ranked studies reported a reduction in LBP from a walking intervention, while the highest ranked study observed no effect. Heterogeneity of study design made it difficult to draw comparisons between studies. There is only low–moderate evidence for walking as an effective intervention strategy for LBP. Further investigation is required to investigate the strength of effect for walking as a primary intervention in the management of acute and chronic LBP.

‣ Adalimumab (Humira™) in Ophthalmology: A Review of the Literature

Neri, Piergiorgio; Lettieri, Marta; Fortuna, Cinzia; Zucchi, Manuela; Manoni, Mara; Celani, Silvia; Giovannini, Alfonso
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine which plays a primary role in the induction of inflammation in autoimmune diseases. The newest anti-TNF-α agent is adalimumab (Humira, Abbott Pharmaceutical Inc.), a human-derived antibody. This review summarizes the characteristics of adalimumab, highlighting its clinical use in systemic and ocular inflammatory disorders, and the possible therapeutic strategies. Adalimumab has been successfully used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis arthritis. More recently, adalimumab has shown promising qualities in controlling intraocular inflammations, even though this has been used prevalently as a rescue therapy for unresponsive cases. This biologic agent was also used in pediatric cases, showing a good safety and efficacy profile. Albeit no direct comparison with other biologics has been done, and adalimumab seems to be equivalent to the other anti-TNF-α, the switching to adalimumab can offer a better uveitic control. Adalimumab is a promising drug for the treatment of uveitis, even though further studies are needed on its application as a primary therapy in uveitis.

‣ Sensory Input Pathways and Mechanisms in Swallowing: A Review

Steele, Catriona M.; Miller, Arthur J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Over the past 20 years, research on the physiology of swallowing has confirmed that the oropharyngeal swallowing process can be modulated, both volitionally and in response to different sensory stimuli. In this review we identify what is known regarding the sensory pathways and mechanisms that are now thought to influence swallowing motor control and evoke its response. By synthesizing the current state of research evidence and knowledge, we identify continuing gaps in our knowledge of these mechanisms and pose questions for future research.

‣ The clinical features of the piriformis syndrome: a systematic review

Hopayian, Kevork; Song, Fujian; Riera, Ricardo; Sambandan, Sidha
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Piriformis syndrome, sciatica caused by compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle, has been described for over 70 years; yet, it remains controversial. The literature consists mainly of case series and narrative reviews. The objectives of the study were: first, to make the best use of existing evidence to estimate the frequencies of clinical features in patients reported to have PS; second, to identify future research questions. A systematic review was conducted of any study type that reported extractable data relevant to diagnosis. The search included all studies up to 1 March 2008 in four databases: AMED, CINAHL, Embase and Medline. Screening, data extraction and analysis were all performed independently by two reviewers. A total of 55 studies were included: 51 individual and 3 aggregated data studies, and 1 combined study. The most common features found were: buttock pain, external tenderness over the greater sciatic notch, aggravation of the pain through sitting and augmentation of the pain with manoeuvres that increase piriformis muscle tension. Future research could start with comparing the frequencies of these features in sciatica patients with and without disc herniation or spinal stenosis.

‣ Contact Endoscopy as a Novel Technique in the Detection and Diagnosis of Mucosal Lesions in the Head and Neck: A Brief Review

Szeto, Christopher; Wehrli, Bret; Whelan, Fiona; Franklin, Jason; Nichols, Anthony; Yoo, John; Fung, Kevin
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background. There are a variety of described noninvasive optical detection techniques for evaluation of head and neck mucosal lesions. Contact endoscopy is a promising method of in vivo microscopic examination whereby a rigid telescope is placed on a previously dye-stained mucosa allowing evaluation of the superficial cell layers of the epithelium. This technique produces real-time, magnified images of cellular architecture of surface mucosa comparable to histology without the need for biopsy. In this review, we will briefly summarize the efficacy of CE in the detection of precancerous and cancerous mucosal lesions and its potential as a novel technique in early diagnosis, monitoring, and preoperative assessment of mucosal lesions of the head and neck. Methods. PUBMED, MEDLINE, and COCHRANE search revealed five prospective articles on contact endoscopy for the diagnosis of mucosal lesions in the head and neck. Results. The literature search yielded five prospective studies examining contact endoscopy for the diagnosis of benign versus malignant head and neck mucosal lesions. These reported a sensitivity and specificity of 77–100%, specificity of 66–100% and an accuracy of 72–92%. Conclusion. Contact endoscopy is a promising optical technology that may be a useful adjunct in the evaluation and diagnosis of benign and malignant head and neck mucosal lesions. Future prospective randomized double-blind studies of this detection method are required.

‣ The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials

Onakpoya, Igho; Hung, Shao Kang; Perry, Rachel; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The aim of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of Garcinia extract, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) as a weight reduction agent, using data from randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant articles, with no restrictions in language or time. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified and twelve were included. Nine trials provided data suitable for statistical pooling. The meta-analysis revealed a small, statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring HCA over placebo (MD: −0.88 kg; 95% CI: −1.75, −0.00). Gastrointestinal adverse events were twice as common in the HCA group compared with placebo in one included study. It is concluded that the RCTs suggest that Garcinia extracts/HCA can cause short-term weight loss. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should be more rigorous and better reported.

‣ Incidence of Stroke in Young Adults: A Review

Marini, Carmine; Russo, Tommasina; Felzani, Giorgio
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/12/2010 Português
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Introduction. Stroke in the young may have a dramatic impact on the quality of life in survivors. This study was aimed to evaluate incidence of first-ever stroke in the young by means of a systematic review. Materials and Methods. All papers on incidence of stroke in the young published after 1980, were identified by electronic search of Medline and manual search of reference lists. Only studies recruiting subjects under 44 years of age and with a lower age limit not higher than 20 years were included. Incidence rates were standardized to the 2000 European population according to the direct method. Poisson regression analysis was used to compare studies. Results. 29 studies including 3548 participants were identified. Incidence rates, after excluding a few outliers, ranged between 8.63 and 19.12 for crude rates and between 8.70 and 21.02 for standardized rates. Heterogeneity among studies was statistically significant but improved after excluding 4 studies. Few studies reported the proportions of stroke subtypes. Conclusions. Stroke in subjects under 45 years of age is not such a rare disease and requires specific preventive programs.

‣ Case Report and Mini Literature Review: Anesthetic Management for Severe Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Complicated with Preeclampsia Using Sufetanil in Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia

Bhakta, Pradipta; Mishra, Pragnyadipta; Bakshi, Anamika; Langer, Vijay
Fonte: Yonsei University College of Medicine Publicador: Yonsei University College of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare entity, and anesthetic management for cesarean section of a patient with this condition can be challenging. We hereby present the anesthetic management of a patient with PPCM complicated with preeclampsia scheduled for cesarean section, along with a mini review of literature. A 24 year-old primigravida with twin gestation was admitted to our hospital with severe PPCM and preeclampsia for peripartum care, which finally required a cesarean section. Preoperative optimization was done according to the goal of managing left ventricular failure. Combined spinal epidural (CSE) anaesthesia with bupivacaine and sufentanil was used for cesarean section under optimal monitoring. The surgery was completed without event or complication. Postoperative pain relief was adequate and patient required only one epidural top up with sufentanil 6 hours after operation. To the best of our knowledge there is no report in literature of the use of sufentanil as a neuraxial opioid in the anesthetic management of cesarean section in a patient with PPCM. CSE with sufentanil may be a safer and more effective alternative in such cases.

‣ Histopathological Variants of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Review

Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Mercer, Stephen E.; Phelps, Robert G.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the Caucasian population, with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounting for the majority of NMSC-related metastases and death. While most SCC lesions are indolent tumors with low malignant potential, a wide diversity of SCC subtypes exist, several of which are associated with markedly more aggressive behaviors. Distinguishing these high-risk variants from their counterparts is possible through microscopic analysis, since each subtype possesses unique histopathological features. Early identification of high-risk lesions can allow for more rapid therapeutic intervention, reducing the likelihood of metastasis and death. The authors review specific histopathological features and associated clinical outcomes of the primary subdivisions of SCC.

‣ Clinical results of coracoacromial ligament transfer in acromioclavicular dislocations: A review of published literature

Sood, Aman; Wallwork, Nicholas; Bain, Gregory Ian
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Acromioclavicular joint dislocations are common injuries, which typically occur with trauma in young men. Treatment recommendations for these injuries are highly variable and controversial. There are greater than 100 surgical techniques described for operative treatment of this injury. One of the most widely recommended methods of surgical reconstruction for acromioclavicular joint dislocations is to utilize the coracoacromial ligament for stabilization of the distal clavicle. Several modifications of this procedure have been described which have involved adjunct coracoclavicular fixation or fixation across acromioclavicular joint. Although the literature is replete with descriptive papers, there is paucity of studies evaluating the surgical outcome of this procedure. We systematically reviewed the English language published literature in peer reviewed journals (Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS) and assigned a level of evidence for available studies. We critically reviewed each paper for the flaws and biases and then evaluated the comparable clinical outcomes for various procedures and their modifications. The published literature consists entirely of case series (Level IV evidence) with variability in surgical technique and outcome measures. On review there is low level evidence to support the use of coracoacromial ligament for acromioclavicular dislocation but it has been associated with high rate of deformity recurrence. Adjunct fixation does not improve clinical results when compared to isolated coracoacromial ligament transfer. This is in part because of the high incidence of fixation related complications. Similar results are reported with coracoacromial ligament reconstruction for acute and chronic cases. The development of secondary acromioclavicular joint symptoms with distal clavicle retention is poorly reported with the incidence rate varying from 12% to 32%. Despite this...

‣ Glycemic Index and Pregnancy: A Systematic Literature Review

Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.; Markovic, Tania P.; Ross, Glynis P.; Moses, Robert G.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background/Aim. Dietary glycemic index (GI) has received considerable research interest over the past 25 years although its application to pregnancy outcomes is more recent. This paper critically evaluates the current evidence regarding the effect of dietary GI on maternal and fetal nutrition. Methods. A systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science, from 1980 through September 2010, was conducted. Results. Eight studies were included in the systematic review. Two interventional studies suggest that a low-GI diet can reduce the risk of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants in healthy pregnancies, but one epidemiological study reported an increase in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Evidence in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), though limited (n = 3), consistently supports the advantages of a low-GI diet. Conclusion. There is insufficient evidence to recommend a low-GI diet during normal pregnancy. In pregnancy complicated by GDM, a low-GI diet may reduce the need for insulin without adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Until larger-scale intervention trials are completed, a low-GI diet should not replace the current recommended pregnancy diets from government and health agencies. Further research regarding the optimal time to start a low-GI diet for maximum protection against adverse pregnancy outcomes is warranted.

‣ Type II odontoid fractures in the elderly: an evidence-based narrative review of management

Pal, D.; Sell, P.; Grevitt, M.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Considerable controversy exists regarding the optimal management of elderly patients with type II odontoid fractures. There is uncertainty regarding the consequences of non-union. The best treatment remains unclear because of the morbidity associated with prolonged cervical immobilisation versus the risks of surgical intervention. The objective of the study was to evaluate the published literature and determine the current evidence for the management of type II odontoid fractures in elderly. A search of the English language literature from January 1970 to date was performed using Medline and the following keywords: odontoid, fractures, cervical spine and elderly. The search was supplemented by cross-referencing between articles. Case reports and review articles were excluded although some were referred to in the discussion. Studies in patients aged 65 years with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were selected. One-hundred twenty-six articles were reviewed. No class I study was identified. There were two class II studies and the remaining were class III. Significant variability was found in the literature regarding mortality and morbidity rates in patients treated with and without halo vest immobilisation. In recent years several authors have claimed satisfactory results with anterior odontoid screw fixation while others have argued that this may lead to increased complications in this age group. Lately...

‣ Artificial total disc replacement versus fusion for the cervical spine: a systematic review

Zechmeister, Ingrid; Winkler, Roman; Mad, Philipp
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cervical total disc replacement (CTDR) has been increasingly used as an alternative to fusion surgery in patients with pain or neurological symptoms in the cervical spine who do not respond to non-surgical treatment. A systematic literature review has been conducted to evaluate whether CTDR is more efficacious and safer than fusion or non-surgical treatment. Published evidence up to date is summarised qualitatively according to the GRADE methodology. After 2 years of follow-up, studies demonstrated statistically significant non-inferiority of CTDR versus fusion with respect to the composite outcome ‘overall success’. Single patient relevant endpoints such as pain, disability or quality of life improved in both groups with no superiority of CTDR. Both technologies showed similar complication rates. No evidence is available for the comparison between CTDR and non-surgical treatment. In the long run improvement of health outcomes seems to be similar in CTDR and fusion, however, the study quality is often severely limited. After both interventions, many patients still face problems. A difficulty per se is the correct diagnosis and indication for surgical interventions in the cervical spine. CTDR is no better than fusion in alleviating symptoms related to disc degeneration in the cervical spine. In the context of limited resources...

‣ Relationship of Physical Performance with Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Individuals over 60 Years of Age: A Systematic Review

Shin, Hyehyung; Panton, Lynn B.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Ilich, Jasminka Z.
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/01/2011 Português
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The purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between physical performance and body composition measurements, including fat/muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD) in individuals ≥60 years of age. Various measurements used to assess body composition, BMD, and physical performance (PP) were discussed as well. Medline/PubMed, CINAHL, and SCIE were used to identify articles. After limiting the search for age and kind of physical performance measures, 33 articles were evaluated. Higher fat mass was associated with poorer physical performance while higher muscle mass was a predictor of better physical performance, especially in the lower extremities. Additionally, evidence showed that higher muscle fat infiltration was a determinant of poorer physical performance. BMD was shown to be a good predictor of physical performance although the relationship was stronger in women than in men. Developing standardized methods for PP measurements could help in further investigation and conclusions of its relationship with body composition.

‣ A systematic review on the effectiveness of physical and rehabilitation interventions for chronic non-specific low back pain

van Middelkoop, Marienke; Rubinstein, Sidney M.; Kuijpers, Ton; Verhagen, Arianne P.; Ostelo, Raymond; Koes, Bart W.; van Tulder, Maurits W.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Low back pain (LBP) is a common and disabling disorder in western society. The management of LBP comprises a range of different intervention strategies including surgery, drug therapy, and non-medical interventions. The objective of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of physical and rehabilitation interventions (i.e. exercise therapy, back school, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), low level laser therapy, education, massage, behavioural treatment, traction, multidisciplinary treatment, lumbar supports, and heat/cold therapy) for chronic LBP. The primary search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and PEDro up to 22 December 2008. Existing Cochrane reviews for the individual interventions were screened for studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. The search strategy outlined by the Cochrane Back Review Groups (CBRG) was followed. The following were included for selection criteria: (1) randomized controlled trials, (2) adult (≥18 years) population with chronic (≥12 weeks) non-specific LBP, and (3) evaluation of at least one of the main clinically relevant outcome measures (pain, functional status, perceived recovery, or return to work). Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data on study characteristics...

‣ A systematic review on the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for chronic non-specific low-back pain

Kuijpers, T.; van Middelkoop, M.; Rubinstein, S. M.; Ostelo, R.; Verhagen, A.; Koes, B. W.; van Tulder, M. W.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions [i.e., non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), muscle relaxants, antidepressants, and opioids] for non-specific chronic low-back pain (LBP). Existing Cochrane reviews for the four interventions were screened for studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Then, the literature searches were updated. Only randomized controlled trials on adults (≥18 years) with chronic (≥12 weeks) non-specific LBP and evaluation of at least one of the main clinically relevant outcome measures (pain, functional status, perceived recovery, or return to work) were included. The GRADE approach was used to determine the quality of evidence. A total of 17 randomized controlled trials was included: NSAIDs (n = 4), antidepressants (n = 5), and opioids (n = 8). No studies were found for muscle relaxants; 14 studies had a low risk of bias. The studies only reported effects on the short term (<3 months). The overall quality of the evidence was low. NSAIDs and opioids seem to lead to a somewhat higher relief in pain on the short term, as compared to placebo, in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain; opioids seem to have a small effect in improving function for a selection of patients who responded with an exacerbation of their symptoms after stopping their medication. However...

‣ How is recovery from low back pain measured? A systematic review of the literature

Kamper, Steven J.; Stanton, Tasha R.; Williams, Christopher M.; Maher, Christopher G.; Hush, Julia M.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Recovery is commonly used as an outcome measure in low back pain (LBP) research. There is, however, no accepted definition of what recovery involves or guidance as to how it should be measured. The objective of the study was designed to appraise the LBP literature from the last 10 years to review the methods used to measure recovery. The research design includes electronic searches of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane database of clinical trials and PEDro from the beginning of 1999 to December 2008. All prospective studies of subjects with non-specific LBP that measured recovery as an outcome were included. The way in which recovery was measured was extracted and categorised according to the domain used to assess recovery. Eighty-two included studies used 66 different measures of recovery. Fifty-nine of the measures did not appear in more than one study. Seventeen measures used pain as a proxy for recovery, seven used disability or function and seventeen were based on a combination of two or more constructs. There were nine single-item recovery rating scales. Eleven studies used a global change scale that included an anchor of ‘completely recovered’. Three measures used return to work as the recovery criterion, two used time to insurance claim closure and six used physical performance. In conclusion...

‣ Review of therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and protocols for management in adult and paediatric patients using the GRADE classification

Goutos, Ioannis; Clarke, Maria; Upson, Clara; Richardson, Patricia M.; Ghosh, Sudip J.
Fonte: Medknow Publication Publicador: Medknow Publication
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2010 Português
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To review the current evidence on therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and use the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification to propose therapeutic protocols for adult and paediatric patients. All published interventions for burns pruritus were analysed by a multidisciplinary panel of burns specialists following the GRADE classification to rate individual agents. Following the collation of results and panel discussion, consensus protocols are presented. Twenty-three studies appraising therapeutic agents in the burns literature were identified. The majority of these studies (16 out of 23) are of an observational nature, making an evidence-based approach to defining optimal therapy not feasible. Our multidisciplinary approach employing the GRADE classification recommends the use of antihistamines (cetirizine and cimetidine) and gabapentin as the first-line pharmacological agents for both adult and paediatric patients. Ondansetron and loratadine are the second-line medications in our protocols. We additionally recommend a variety of non-pharmacological adjuncts for the perusal of clinicians in order to maximise symptomatic relief in patients troubled with postburn itch. Most studies in the subject area lack sufficient statistical power to dictate a ‘gold standard’ treatment agent for burns itch. We encourage clinicians to employ the GRADE system in order to delineate the most appropriate therapeutic approach for burns pruritus until further research elucidates the most efficacious interventions. This widely adopted classification empowers burns clinicians to tailor therapeutic regimens according to current evidence...

‣ Brucellosis: Review on the Recent Trends in Pathogenicity and Laboratory Diagnosis

Christopher, Supriya; Umapathy, B L; Ravikumar, K L
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmitted from animals to humans by the ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal or inhalation of aerosols. The last method is remarkably efficient given the relatively low concentration of organisms (10 – 100 bacteria) needed to establish infection in humans, and has brought renewed attention to this old disease. Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that has the ability to survive and multiply in the phagocytes and cause abortion in cattle and undulant fever in humans. Brucella spp particularly B. melitensis, B. abortus, and B. suis represent a significant public health concern. At present, B. melitensis is the principle cause of human brucellosis in India. Molecular studies have demonstrated the phylogenetic affiliation of Brucella to Agrobacterium, Ochrobactrum, and Rhizobium. Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, with regard to the understanding of its pathogenic mechanism, severity, progression, and development of improved treatment regimens. Molecular studies have now highlighted the pathogenesis of Brucella, for the development of newer diagnostic tools that will be useful in developing countries where brucellosis is a common...