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‣ Efficient gene tagging in Arabidopsis thaliana using a gene trap approach

Babiychuk, Elena; Fuangthong, Mayuree; Van Montagu, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; Kushnir, Sergei
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/11/1997 Português
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Large quantities of DNA sequence information about plant genes are rapidly accumulating in public databases, but to progress from DNA sequence to biological function a mutant allele for each of the genes ideally should be available. Here we describe a gene trap construct that allowed us to disrupt transcribed genes with a high efficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the T-DNA vector used, the expression of a bacterial reporter gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) depends on the in vivo generation of a translation fusion upon the T-DNA integration into the Arabidopsis genome. Analysis of 20 selected transgenic lines showed that 12 lines are T-DNA insertion mutants. The disrupted genes analyzed encoded ribosomal proteins (three lines), aspartate tRNA synthase, DNA ligase, basic-domain leucine zipper DNA binding protein, ATP-binding cassette transporter, and five proteins of unknown function. Four tagged genes were new for Arabidopsis. The results presented here suggest that gene trapping, using nptII as a reporter gene, can be as high as 80% and opens novel perspectives for systematic gene tagging in A. thaliana.

‣ Uracil-DNA glycosylase–DNA substrate and product structures: Conformational strain promotes catalytic efficiency by coupled stereoelectronic effects

Parikh, Sudip S.; Walcher, Gunter; Jones, Garry D.; Slupphaug, Geir; Krokan, Hans E.; Blackburn, G. Michael; Tainer, John A.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/05/2000 Português
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Enzymatic transformations of macromolecular substrates such as DNA repair enzyme/DNA transformations are commonly interpreted primarily by active-site functional-group chemistry that ignores their extensive interfaces. Yet human uracil–DNA glycosylase (UDG), an archetypical enzyme that initiates DNA base-excision repair, efficiently excises the damaged base uracil resulting from cytosine deamination even when active-site functional groups are deleted by mutagenesis. The 1.8-Å resolution substrate analogue and 2.0-Å resolution cleaved product cocrystal structures of UDG bound to double-stranded DNA suggest enzyme–DNA substrate-binding energy from the macromolecular interface is funneled into catalytic power at the active site. The architecturally stabilized closing of UDG enforces distortions of the uracil and deoxyribose in the flipped-out nucleotide substrate that are relieved by glycosylic bond cleavage in the product complex. This experimentally defined substrate stereochemistry implies the enzyme alters the orientation of three orthogonal electron orbitals to favor electron transpositions for glycosylic bond cleavage. By revealing the coupling of this anomeric effect to a delocalization of the glycosylic bond electrons into the uracil aromatic system...

‣ Detection and selective dissociation of intact ribosomes in a mass spectrometer

Rostom, Adam A.; Fucini, Paola; Benjamin, Dennis R.; Juenemann, Ralf; Nierhaus, Knud H.; Hartl, F. Ulrich; Dobson, Christopher M.; Robinson, Carol V.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/05/2000 Português
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Intact Escherichia coli ribosomes have been projected into the gas phase of a mass spectrometer by means of nanoflow electrospray techniques. Species with mass/charge ratios in excess of 20,000 were detected at the level of individual ions by using time-of-flight analysis. Once in the gas phase the stability of intact ribosomes was investigated and found to increase as a result of cross-linking ribosomal proteins to the rRNA. By lowering the Mg2+ concentration in solutions containing ribosomes the particles were found to dissociate into 30S and 50S subunits. The resolution of the charge states in the spectrum of the 30S subunit enabled its mass to be determined as 852,187 ± 3,918 Da, a value within 0.6% of that calculated from the individual proteins and the 16S RNA. Further dissociation into smaller macromolecular complexes and then individual proteins could be induced by subjecting the particles to increasingly energetic gas phase collisions. The ease with which proteins dissociated from the intact species was found to be related to their known interactions in the ribosome particle. The results show that emerging mass spectrometric techniques can be used to characterize a fully functional biological assembly as well as its isolated components.

‣ MEK kinase 1 is critically required for c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation by proinflammatory stimuli and growth factor-induced cell migration

Xia, Ying; Makris, Constantin; Su, Bing; Li, Erguang; Yang, Jianhua; Nemerow, Glen R.; Karin, Michael
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/05/2000 Português
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Exposure of eukaryotic cells to extracellular stimuli results in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades composed of MAPKs, MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks), and MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3Ks). Mammals possess a large number of MAP3Ks, many of which can activate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) MAPK cascade when overexpressed, but whose biological function is poorly understood. We examined the function of the MAP3K MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) in proinflammatory signaling. Using MEKK1-deficient embryonic stem cells prepared by gene targeting, we find that, in addition to its function in JNK activation by growth factors, MEKK1 is required for JNK activation by diverse proinflammatory stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1, double-stranded RNA, and lipopolysaccharide. MEKK1 is also essential for induction of embryonic stem cell migration by serum factors, but is not required for activation of other MAPKs or the IκB kinase signaling cascade.

‣ Xenopus Kielin: A dorsalizing factor containing multiple chordin-type repeats secreted from the embryonic midline

Matsui, Masaru; Mizuseki, Kenji; Nakatani, Jin; Nakanishi, Shigetada; Sasai, Yoshiki
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The midline tissues are important inductive centers of early vertebrate embryos. By signal peptide selection screening, we isolated a secreted factor, Kielin, which contains multiple cys-rich repeats similar to those in chordin (Chd). Expression of Kielin starts at midgastrula stages in the notochord and is detected in the floor plate of neurula embryos. Kielin is induced in mesoderm and in ectoderm by nodal-related genes. Chd is sufficient to activate Kielin expression in mesoderm whereas Shh or HNF-3β in addition to Chd is required for induction in ectoderm. Kielin has a distinct biological activity from that of Chd. Injection of Kielin mRNA causes dorsalization of ventral marginal zone explants and expansion of MyoD expression in neurula embryos. Unlike Chd, Kielin does not efficiently induce neural differentiation of animal cap ectoderm, suggesting that the activity of Kielin is not simply caused by BMP4 blockade. Kielin is a signaling molecule that mediates inductive activities of the embryonic midline.

‣ An ancestral MADS-box gene duplication occurred before the divergence of plants and animals

Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Pelaz, Soraya; Liljegren, Sarah J.; Gold, Scott E.; Burgeff, Caroline; Ditta, Gary S.; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluis; Martínez-Castilla, León; Yanofsky, Martin F.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/05/2000 Português
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Changes in genes encoding transcriptional regulators can alter development and are important components of the molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution. MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators of diverse and important biological functions. In plants, MADS-box genes regulate flower, fruit, leaf, and root development. Recent sequencing efforts in Arabidopsis have allowed a nearly complete sampling of the MADS-box gene family from a single plant, something that was lacking in previous phylogenetic studies. To test the long-suspected parallel between the evolution of the MADS-box gene family and the evolution of plant form, a polarized gene phylogeny is necessary. Here we suggest that a gene duplication ancestral to the divergence of plants and animals gave rise to two main lineages of MADS-box genes: TypeI and TypeII. We locate the root of the eukaryotic MADS-box gene family between these two lineages. A novel monophyletic group of plant MADS domains (AGL34 like) seems to be more closely related to previously identified animal SRF-like MADS domains to form TypeI lineage. Most other plant sequences form a clear monophyletic group with animal MEF2-like domains to form TypeII lineage. Only plant TypeII members have a K domain that is downstream of the MADS domain in most plant members previously identified. This suggests that the K domain evolved after the duplication that gave rise to the two lineages. Finally...

‣ Engineering the largest RNA virus genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome

Almazán, Fernando; González, José M.; Pénzes, Zoltan; Izeta, Ander; Calvo, Enrique; Plana-Durán, Juan; Enjuanes, Luis
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/05/2000 Português
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The construction of cDNA clones encoding large-size RNA molecules of biological interest, like coronavirus genomes, which are among the largest mature RNA molecules known to biology, has been hampered by the instability of those cDNAs in bacteria. Herein, we show that the application of two strategies, cloning of the cDNAs into a bacterial artificial chromosome and nuclear expression of RNAs that are typically produced within the cytoplasm, is useful for the engineering of large RNA molecules. A cDNA encoding an infectious coronavirus RNA genome has been cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome. The rescued coronavirus conserved all of the genetic markers introduced throughout the sequence and showed a standard mRNA pattern and the antigenic characteristics expected for the synthetic virus. The cDNA was transcribed within the nucleus, and the RNA translocated to the cytoplasm. Interestingly, the recovered virus had essentially the same sequence as the original one, and no splicing was observed. The cDNA was derived from an attenuated isolate that replicates exclusively in the respiratory tract of swine. During the engineering of the infectious cDNA, the spike gene of the virus was replaced by the spike gene of an enteric isolate. The synthetic virus replicated abundantly in the enteric tract and was fully virulent...

‣ Proton long-range migration along protein monolayers and its consequences on membrane coupling

Gabriel, B.; Teissié, J.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/12/1996 Português
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It has been shown with lipid layers and more recently with purple membranes that protons have slow surface-to-bulk transfer. This results in long-range proton lateral conduction along membranes. We report here that such lateral transfer can take place along a pure protein film. It is strongly controlled by the packing. Subtle reorganizations of the protein–protein contact can be biological switches between interfacial and delocalized proton pathways between sources and sinks.

‣ Leptin can induce proliferation, differentiation, and functional activation of hemopoietic cells

Gainsford, Timothy; Willson, Tracy A.; Metcalf, Donald; Handman, Emanuela; McFarlane, Clare; Ng, Ashley; Nicola, Nicos A.; Alexander, Warren S.; Hilton, Douglas J.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/12/1996 Português
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Many cytokines exert their biological effect through members of the hemopoietin receptor family. Using degenerate oligonucleotides to the common WSXWS motif, we have cloned from human hemopoietic cell cDNA libraries various forms of the receptor that was recently shown to bind the obesity hormone, leptin. mRNAs encoding long and short forms of the human leptin receptor were found to be coexpressed in a range of human and murine hemopoietic organs, and a subset of cells from these tissues bound leptin at the cell surface. Ectopic expression in murine Ba/F3 and M1 cell lines revealed that the long, but not the short, form of the leptin receptor can signal proliferation and differentiation, respectively. In cultures of murine or human marrow cells, human leptin exhibited no capacity to stimulate cell survival or proliferation, but it enhanced cytokine production and phagocytosis of Leishmania parasites by murine peritoneal macrophages. Our data provide evidence that, in addition to its role in fat regulation, leptin may also be able to regulate aspects of hemopoiesis and macrophage function.

‣ Synthesis and biological activity of DNA damaging agents that form decoy binding sites for the estrogen receptor

Rink, Stacia M.; Yarema, Kevin J.; Solomon, Marjorie S.; Paige, Lisa A.; Tadayoni-Rebek, B. Mitra; Essigmann, John M.; Croy, Robert G.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/12/1996 Português
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It is a goal of cancer chemotherapy to achieve the selective killing of tumor cells while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. We describe the design of selective toxins forming DNA adducts that attract the estrogen receptor (ER), a transcription factor that is overexpressed in many human breast and ovarian tumors. The compounds consist of 4-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-(2-chloroethyl)-aniline linked to 2-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-5-hydroxy-indole. The former moiety is a DNA damaging nitrogen mustard and the latter is a ligand for the ER. The connection between these groups was refined to permit DNA adducts formed by the mustard portion of the molecule to present the ligand domain so that it was able to interact efficiently with the ER. By using 16-mers containing specific DNA adducts, it was determined that monoadducts and putative intrastrand crosslinks were preferred targets for the ER over interstrand crosslinks. A series of structurally related 2-phenylindole mustards was prepared, some of which were selectively toxic to the ER-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7, as compared with the ER(−) negative line MDA-MB231. The ability both to bind to DNA and to interact significantly with the ER were essential to achieve selective lethality toward ER(+) cells. Compounds forming DNA adducts without the ability to bind receptor showed similar toxicities in the two cell lines. Several models could explain the selective toxicity of the mustard–phenylindole compounds toward ER(+) cells. The favored model suggests that a mustard–DNA adduct is shielded by the ER from DNA repair enzymes and hence cells possessing an abundance of the ER selectively retain the adduct and are killed.

‣ Homocysteine induces congenital defects of the heart and neural tube: Effect of folic acid

Rosenquist, Thomas H.; Ratashak, S. Anne; Selhub, Jacob
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/12/1996 Português
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The biological basis or mechanism whereby folate supplementation protects against heart and neural tube defects is unknown. It has been hypothesized that the amino acid homocysteine may be the teratogenic agent, since serum homocysteine increases in folate depletion; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. In this study, avian embryos were treated directly with d,l-homocysteine or with l-homocysteine thiolactone, and a dose response was established. Of embryos treated with 50 μl of the teratogenic dose (200 mM d,l-homocysteine or 100 mM l-homocysteine thiolactone) on incubation days 0, 1, and 2 and harvested at 53 h (stage 14), 27% showed neural tube defects. To determine the effect of the teratogenic dose on the process of heart septation, embryos were treated during incubation days 2, 3, and 4; then they were harvested at day 9 following the completion of septation. Of surviving embryos, 23% showed ventricular septal defects, and 11% showed neural tube defects. A high percentage of the day 9 embryos also showed a ventral closure defect. The teratogenic dose was shown to raise serum homocysteine to over 150 nmol/ml, compared with a normal level of about 10 nmol/ml. Folate supplementation kept the rise in serum homocysteine to ≈45 nmol/ml...

‣ Definition of HLA-DQ as a transplantation antigen

Petersdorf, Effie W.; Longton, Gary M.; Anasetti, Claudio; Mickelson, Eric M.; Smith, Anajane G.; Martin, Paul J.; Hansen, John A.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/12/1996 Português
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Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of recipient HLA-DRB1 allele disparity in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after unrelated donor marrow transplantation. The role of HLA-DQB1 allele disparity in this clinical setting is unknown. To elucidate the biological importance of HLA-DQB1, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 449 HLA-A, -B, and -DR serologically matched unrelated donor transplants. Molecular typing of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles revealed 335 DRB1 and DQB1 matched pairs; 41 DRB1 matched and DQB1 mismatched pairs; 48 DRB1 mismatched and DQB1 matched pairs; and 25 DRB1 and DQB1 mismatched pairs. The conditional probabilities of grades III-IV acute GVHD were 0.42, 0.61, 0.55, and 0.71, respectively. The relative risk of acute GVHD associated with a single locus HLA-DQB1 mismatch was 1.8 (1.1, 2.7; P = 0.01), and the risk associated with any HLA-DQB1 and/or HLA-DRB1 mismatch was 1.6 (1.2, 2.2; P = 0.003). These results provide evidence that HLA-DQ is a transplant antigen and suggest that evaluation of both HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 is necessary in selecting potential donors.

‣ Self-assembly of large, ordered lamellae from non-bilayer lipids and integral membrane proteins in vitro

Simidjiev, Ilian; Stoylova, Svetla; Amenitsch, Heinz; Jávorfi, Tamás; Mustárdy, László; Laggner, Peter; Holzenburg, Andreas; Garab, Győző
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2000 Português
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In many biological membranes, the major lipids are “non-bilayer lipids,” which in purified form cannot be arranged in a lamellar structure. The structural and functional roles of these lipids are poorly understood. This work demonstrates that the in vitro association of the two main components of a membrane, the non-bilayer lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and the chlorophyll-a/b light-harvesting antenna protein of photosystem II (LHCII) of pea thylakoids, leads to the formation of large, ordered lamellar structures: (i) thin-section electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy reveal that the addition of MGDG induces the transformation of isolated, disordered macroaggregates of LHCII into stacked lamellar aggregates with a long-range chiral order of the complexes; (ii) small-angle x-ray scattering discloses that LHCII perturbs the structure of the pure lipid and destroys the inverted hexagonal phase; and (iii) an analysis of electron micrographs of negatively stained 2D crystals indicates that in MGDG-LHCII the complexes are found in an ordered macroarray. It is proposed that, by limiting the space available for MGDG in the macroaggregate, LHCII inhibits formation of the inverted hexagonal phase of lipids; in thylakoids...

‣ Positive and negative regulation of endogenous genes by designed transcription factors

Beerli, Roger R.; Dreier, Birgit; Barbas, Carlos F.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Gene regulation by imposed localization was studied by using designed zinc finger proteins that bind 18-bp DNA sequences in the 5′ untranslated regions of the protooncogenes erbB-2 and erbB-3. Transcription factors were generated by fusion of the DNA-binding proteins to repression or activation domains. When introduced into cells these transcription factors acted as dominant repressors or activators of, respectively, endogenous erbB-2 or erbB-3 gene expression. Significantly, imposed regulation of the two genes was highly specific, despite the fact that the transcription factor binding sites targeted in erbB-2 and erbB-3 share 15 of 18 nucleotides. Regulation of erbB-2 gene expression was observed in cells derived from several species that conserve the DNA target sequence. Repression of erbB-2 in SKBR3 breast cancer cells inhibited cell-cycle progression by inducing a G1 accumulation, suggesting the potential of designed transcription factors for cancer gene therapy. These results demonstrate the willful up- and down-regulation of endogenous genes, and provide an additional means to alter biological systems.

‣ In vitro cloning of complex mixtures of DNA on microbeads: Physical separation of differentially expressed cDNAs

Brenner, Sydney; Williams, Steven R.; Vermaas, Eric H.; Storck, Thorsten; Moon, Keith; McCollum, Christie; Mao, Jen-I; Luo, Shujun; Kirchner, James J.; Eletr, Sam; DuBridge, Robert B.; Burcham, Timothy; Albrecht, Glenn
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2000 Português
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We describe a method for cloning nucleic acid molecules onto the surfaces of 5-μm microbeads rather than in biological hosts. A unique tag sequence is attached to each molecule, and the tagged library is amplified. Unique tagging of the molecules is achieved by sampling a small fraction (1%) of a very large repertoire of tag sequences. The resulting library is hybridized to microbeads that each carry ≈106 strands complementary to one of the tags. About 105 copies of each molecule are collected on each microbead. Because such clones are segregated on microbeads, they can be operated on simultaneously and then assayed separately. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we show how to label and extract microbeads bearing clones differentially expressed between two libraries by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Because no prior information about the cloned molecules is required, this process is obviously useful where sequence databases are incomplete or nonexistent. More importantly, the process also permits the isolation of clones that are expressed only in given tissues or that are differentially expressed between normal and diseased states. Such clones then may be spotted on much more cost-effective, tissue- or disease-directed...

‣ Human cytomegalovirus harbors its own unique IL-10 homolog (cmvIL-10)

Kotenko, Sergei V.; Saccani, Simona; Izotova, Lara S.; Mirochnitchenko, Olga V.; Pestka, Sidney
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2000 Português
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We identified a viral IL-10 homolog encoded by an ORF (UL111a) within the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome, which we designated cmvIL-10. cmvIL-10 can bind to the human IL-10 receptor and can compete with human IL-10 for binding sites, despite the fact that these two proteins are only 27% identical. cmvIL-10 requires both subunits of the IL-10 receptor complex to induce signal transduction events and biological activities. The structure of the cmvIL-10 gene is unique by itself. The gene retained two of four introns of the IL-10 gene, but the length of the introns was reduced. We demonstrated that cmvIL-10 is expressed in CMV-infected cells. Thus, expression of cmvIL-10 extends the range of counter measures developed by CMV to circumvent detection and destruction by the host immune system.

‣ Clustered DNA damages induced in isolated DNA and in human cells by low doses of ionizing radiation

Sutherland, Betsy M.; Bennett, Paula V.; Sidorkina, Olga; Laval, Jacques
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/01/2000 Português
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Clustered DNA damages—two or more closely spaced damages (strand breaks, abasic sites, or oxidized bases) on opposing strands—are suspects as critical lesions producing lethal and mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation. However, as a result of the lack of methods for measuring damage clusters induced by ionizing radiation in genomic DNA, neither the frequencies of their production by physiological doses of radiation, nor their repairability, nor their biological effects are known. On the basis of methods that we developed for quantitating damages in large DNAs, we have devised and validated a way of measuring ionizing radiation-induced clustered lesions in genomic DNA, including DNA from human cells. DNA is treated with an endonuclease that induces a single-strand cleavage at an oxidized base or abasic site. If there are two closely spaced damages on opposing strands, such cleavage will reduce the size of the DNA on a nondenaturing gel. We show that ionizing radiation does induce clustered DNA damages containing abasic sites, oxidized purines, or oxidized pyrimidines. Further, the frequency of each of these cluster classes is comparable to that of frank double-strand breaks; among all complex damages induced by ionizing radiation...

‣ Yeast flavin-containing monooxygenase is induced by the unfolded protein response

Suh, Jung-Keun; Robertus, Jon D.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/01/2000 Português
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Flavin-containing monooxygenase from yeast (yFMO) carries out the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of biological thiols, including oxidizing glutathione to glutathione disulfide. FMO provides a large fraction of the oxidizing necessary for proper folding of disulfide bond-containing proteins; deletion of the enzyme reduces proper folding of endogenous carboxypeptidase Y by about 40%. The enzyme is not essential to cell viability because other enzymes can generate a significant fraction of the oxidizing equivalents required by the cell. However, yFMO is vital to the yeast response to reductive stress. FMO1 deletion mutants grow poorly under reductive stress, and carboxypeptidase Y activity is less than 10% of that in a stressed wild type. The FMO1 gene appears to be under control of an unfolded protein response element and is inducible by factors, such as reductive stress, that elicit the unfolded protein response. Reductive stress can increase yFMO activity at least 6-fold. This increased activity allows the cell to process endogenous disulfide bond-containing proteins and also to allow correct folding of disulfide-bonded proteins expressed from multicopy plasmids. The unfolded protein response is mediated by the Hac1p transcription factor that mediates virtually all of the induction of yFMO triggered by exogenous reducing agents.

‣ Phosphorylation of the Neurospora clock protein FREQUENCY determines its degradation rate and strongly influences the period length of the circadian clock

Liu, Yi; Loros, Jennifer; Dunlap, Jay C.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/01/2000 Português
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Under free running conditions, FREQUENCY (FRQ) protein, a central component of the Neurospora circadian clock, is progressively phosphorylated, becoming highly phosphorylated before its degradation late in the circadian day. To understand the biological function of FRQ phosphorylation, kinase inhibitors were used to block FRQ phosphorylation in vivo and the effects on FRQ and the clock observed. 6-dimethylaminopurine (a general kinase inhibitor) is able to block FRQ phosphorylation in vivo, reducing the rate of phosphorylation and the degradation of FRQ and lengthening the period of the clock in a dose-dependent manner. To confirm the role of FRQ phosphorylation in this clock effect, phosphorylation sites in FRQ were identified by systematic mutagenesis of the FRQ ORF. The mutation of one phosphorylation site at Ser-513 leads to a dramatic reduction of the rate of FRQ degradation and a very long period (>30 hr) of the clock. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that FRQ phosphorylation triggers its degradation, and the degradation rate of FRQ is a major determining factor for the period length of the Neurospora circadian clock.

‣ The long cytoplasmic tail of gp41 is required in a cell type-dependent manner for HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein incorporation into virions

Murakami, Tsutomu; Freed, Eric O.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/01/2000 Português
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Lentiviruses, including HIV-1, have transmembrane envelope (Env) glycoproteins with cytoplasmic tails that are quite long compared with those of other retroviruses. However, mainly because of the lack of biochemical studies performed in cell types that are targets for HIV-1 infection, no clear consensus exists regarding the function of the long lentiviral Env cytoplasmic tail in virus replication. In this report, we characterize the biological and biochemical properties of an HIV-1 mutant lacking the gp41 cytoplasmic tail. We find that the gp41 cytoplasmic tail is necessary for the efficient establishment of a productive, spreading infection in the majority of T cell lines tested, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Biochemical studies using a high-level, transient HIV-1 expression system based on pseudotyping with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein demonstrate that in HeLa and MT-4 cells, mutant Env incorporation into virions is reduced only 3-fold relative to wild type. In contrast, gp120 levels in virions produced from a number of other T cell lines and primary macrophages are reduced more than 10-fold by the gp41 truncation. The Env incorporation defect imposed by the cytoplasmic tail truncation is not the result of increased shedding of gp120 from virions or reduced cell-surface Env expression. These results demonstrate that in the majority of T cell lines...