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‣ Msx1 Mutations: How Do They Cause Tooth Agenesis?

Wang, Y.; Kong, H.; Mues, G.; D’Souza, R.
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2011 Português
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Mutations in the transcription factors PAX9 and MSX1 cause selective tooth agenesis in humans. In tooth bud mesenchyme of mice, both proteins are required for the expression of Bmp4, which is the key signaling factor for progression to the next step of tooth development. We have previously shown that Pax9 can transactivate a 2.4-kb Bmp4 promoter construct, and that most tooth-agenesis-causing PAX9 mutations impair DNA binding and Bmp4 promoter activation. We also found that Msx1 by itself represses transcription from this proximal Bmp4 promoter, and that, in combination with Pax9, it acts as a potentiator of Pax9-induced Bmp4 transactivation. This synergism of Msx1 with Pax9 is significant, because it is currently the only documented mechanism for Msx1-mediated activation of Bmp4. In this study, we investigated whether the 5 known tooth-agenesis-causing MSX1 missense mutations disrupt this Pax9-potentiation effect, or if they lead to deficiencies in protein stability, protein-protein interactions, nuclear translocation, and DNA-binding. We found that none of the studied molecular mechanisms yielded a satisfactory explanation for the pathogenic effects of the Msx1 mutations, calling for an entirely different approach to the investigation of this step of odontogenesis on the molecular level.

‣ Mutations in GATA2 are associated with the autosomal dominant and sporadic monocytopenia and mycobacterial infection (MonoMAC) syndrome

Hsu, Amy P.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Khan, Javed; Calvo, Katherine R.; Lemieux, Jacob E.; Patel, Smita Y.; Frucht, David M.; Vinh, Donald C.; Auth, Roger D.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Uzel, Gulbu; Zerbe, Christa S.; Spalding, Christine; P
Fonte: American Society of Hematology Publicador: American Society of Hematology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/09/2011 Português
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The syndrome of monocytopenia, B-cell and NK-cell lymphopenia, and mycobacterial, fungal, and viral infections is associated with myelodysplasia, cytogenetic abnormalities, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and myeloid leukemias. Both autosomal dominant and sporadic cases occur. We identified 12 distinct mutations in GATA2 affecting 20 patients and relatives with this syndrome, including recurrent missense mutations affecting the zinc finger-2 domain (R398W and T354M), suggesting dominant interference of gene function. Four discrete insertion/deletion mutations leading to frame shifts and premature termination implicate haploinsufficiency as a possible mechanism of action as well. These mutations were found in hematopoietic and somatic tissues, and several were identified in families, indicating germline transmission. Thus, GATA2 joins RUNX1 and CEBPA not only as a familial leukemia gene but also as a cause of a complex congenital immunodeficiency that evolves over decades and combines predisposition to infection and myeloid malignancy.

‣ Frontotemporal Dementia Caused by CHMP2B Mutations

Isaacs, A.M; Johannsen, P; Holm, I; Nielsen, J.E; Consortium, FReJA
Fonte: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd Publicador: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2011 Português
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CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The best studied example is frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) which occurs in a large Danish family, with a further CHMP2B mutation identified in an unrelated Belgian familial FTD patient. These mutations lead to C-terminal truncations of the CHMP2B protein and we will review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular effects of these mutant truncated proteins on vesicular fusion events within the endosome-lysosome and autophagy degradation pathways. We will also review the clinical features of FTD caused by CHMP2B truncation mutations as well as new brain imaging and neuropathological findings. Finally, we collate the current data on CHMP2B missense mutations, which have been reported in FTD and motor neuron disease.

‣ Update of cylindromatosis gene (CYLD) mutations in Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: Novel insights into the role of deubiquitination in cell signaling

Blake, Patrick W.; Toro, Jorge R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2009 Português
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Germline mutations in the cylindromatosis (CYLD) gene have been described in families with cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and/or spiradenomas. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS) is the autosomal dominant predisposition to skin appendageal neoplasms including cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and/or spiradenomas. We review the clinical features, molecular genetics, and the animal models of BSS. To date, a total of 51 CYLD mutations have been reported, occurring in exons 9–20, in 73 families with diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. Of 51 mutations, 86% are expected to lead to truncated proteins. The seven missense mutations reported to date occur only within the ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) domain of the CYLD protein and most are associated exclusively with multiple familial trichoepithelioma. CYLD functions as a tumor suppressor gene. CYLD encodes a deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme that negatively regulates the NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways. CYLD DUB activity is highly specific for lysine 63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin (Ub) chains but has been shown to act on K48-linked Ub chains as well. In 2008 the CYLD USP domain was crystallized, revealing that the truncated Fingers subdomain confers CYLD’s unique specificity for K63-linked ubiquitin chains. Recent work using animal models revealed new roles for CYLD in immunity...

‣ Disease-Associated Mutations Prevent GPR56-Collagen III Interaction

Luo, Rong; Jin, Zhaohui; Deng, Yiyu; Strokes, Natalie; Piao, Xianhua
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/01/2012 Português
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GPR56 is a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Mutations in GPR56 cause a devastating human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP). Using the N-terminal fragment of GPR56 (GPR56N) as a probe, we have recently demonstrated that collagen III is the ligand of GPR56 in the developing brain. In this report, we discover a new functional domain in GPR56N, the ligand binding domain. This domain contains four disease-associated mutations and two N-glycosylation sites. Our study reveals that although glycosylation is not required for ligand binding, each of the four disease-associated mutations completely abolish the ligand binding ability of GPR56. Our data indicates that these four single missense mutations cause BFPP mostly by abolishing the ability of GPR56 to bind to its ligand, collagen III, in addition to affecting GPR56 protein surface expression as previously shown.

‣ Mutations affecting the cytoplasmic functions of the co-chaperone DNAJB6 cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy

Sarparanta, Jaakko; Jonson, Per Harald; Golzio, Christelle; Sandell, Satu; Luque, Helena; Screen, Mark; McDonald, Kristin; Stajich, Jeffrey M.; Mahjneh, Ibrahim; Vihola, Anna; Raheem, Olayinka; Penttilä, Sini; Lehtinen, Sara; Huovinen, Sanna; Palmio, Joh
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/02/2012 Português
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Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (LGMD1D) was linked to 7q36 over a decade ago1, but its genetic cause has remained elusive. We have studied nine LGMD families from Finland, the U.S., and Italy, and identified four dominant missense mutations leading to p.Phe93Leu or p.Phe89Ile changes in the ubiquitously expressed co-chaperone DNAJB6. Functional testing in vivo showed that the mutations have a dominant toxic effect mediated specifically by the cytoplasmic isoform of DNAJB6. In vitro studies demonstrated that the mutations increase the half-life of DNAJB6, extending this effect to the wild-type protein, and reduce its protective anti-aggregation effect. Further, we show that DNAJB6 interacts with members of the CASA complex, including the myofibrillar-myopathy-causing protein BAG3. Our data provide the genetic cause of LGMD1D, suggest that the pathogenesis is mediated by defective chaperone function, and highlight how mutations expressed ubiquitously can exert their effect in a tissue-, cellular compartment-, and isoform-specific manner.

‣ KIF1A missense mutations in SPG30, an autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia: distinct phenotypes according to the nature of the mutations

Klebe, Stephan; Lossos, Alexander; Azzedine, Hamid; Mundwiller, Emeline; Sheffer, Ruth; Gaussen, Marion; Marelli, Cecilia; Nawara, Magdalena; Carpentier, Wassila; Meyer, Vincent; Rastetter, Agnès; Martin, Elodie; Bouteiller, Delphine; Orlando, Laurent; G
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by progressive spasticity in the lower limbs. The nosology of autosomal recessive forms is complex as most mapped loci have been identified in only one or a few families and account for only a small percentage of patients. We used next-generation sequencing focused on the SPG30 chromosomal region on chromosome 2q37.3 in two patients from the original linked family. In addition, wide genome scan and candidate gene analysis were performed in a second family of Palestinian origin. We identified a single homozygous mutation, p.R350G, that was found to cosegregate with the disease in the SPG30 kindred and was absent in 970 control chromosomes while affecting a strongly conserved amino acid at the end of the motor domain of KIF1A. Homozygosity and linkage mapping followed by mutation screening of KIF1A allowed us to identify a second mutation, p.A255V, in the second family. Comparison of the clinical features with the nature of the mutations of all reported KIF1A families, including those reported recently with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, suggests phenotype–genotype correlations that may help to understand the mechanisms involved in motor neuron degeneration. We have shown that mutations in the KIF1A gene are responsible for SPG30 in two autosomal recessive HSP families. In published families...

‣ Calpain-5 Mutations Cause Autoimmune Uveitis, Retinal Neovascularization, and Photoreceptor Degeneration

Mahajan, Vinit B.; Skeie, Jessica M.; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Fingert, John H.; Braun, Terry A.; Daggett, Heather T.; Folk, James C.; Sheffield, Val C.; Stone, Edwin M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV) is an autoimmune condition of the eye that sequentially mimics uveitis, retinitis pigmentosa, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy as it progresses to complete blindness. We identified two different missense mutations in the CAPN5 gene in three ADNIV kindreds. CAPN5 encodes calpain-5, a calcium-activated cysteine protease that is expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells. Both mutations cause mislocalization from the cell membrane to the cytosol, and structural modeling reveals that both mutations lie within a calcium-sensitive domain near the active site. CAPN5 is only the second member of the large calpain gene family to cause a human Mendelian disorder, and this is the first report of a specific molecular cause for autoimmune eye disease. Further investigation of these mutations is likely to provide insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of common diseases ranging from autoimmune disorders to diabetic retinopathy.

‣ MED12 mutations link intellectual disability syndromes with dysregulated GLI3-dependent Sonic Hedgehog signaling

Zhou, Haiying; Spaeth, Jason M.; Kim, Nam Hee; Xu, Xuan; Friez, Michael J.; Schwartz, Charles E.; Boyer, Thomas G.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Recurrent missense mutations in the RNA polymerase II Mediator subunit MED12 are associated with X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) and multiple congenital anomalies, including craniofacial, musculoskeletal, and behavioral defects in humans with FG (or Opitz-Kaveggia) and Lujan syndromes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we report that MED12 mutations R961W and N1007S causing FG and Lujan syndromes, respectively, disrupt a Mediator-imposed constraint on GLI3-dependent Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. We show that the FG/R961W and Lujan/N1007S mutations disrupt the gene-specific association of MED12 with a second Mediator subunit, CDK8, identified herein to be a suppressor of GLI3 transactivation activity. In FG/R961W and Lujan/N1007S patient-derived cells, we document enhanced SHH pathway activation and GLI3-target gene induction coincident with impaired recruitment of CDK8 onto promoters of GLI3-target genes, but not non–GLI3-target genes. Together, these findings suggest that dysregulated GLI3-dependent SHH signaling contributes to phenotypes of individuals with FG and Lujan syndromes and further reveal a basis for the gene-specific manifestation of pathogenic mutations in a global transcriptional coregulator.

‣ Disease-causing mutations C277R and C277Y modify gating of human ClC-1 chloride channels in myotonia congenita

Weinberger, Sebastian; Wojciechowski, Daniel; Sternberg, Damien; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Becher, Toni; Begemann, Birgit; Fahlke, Christoph; Fischer, Martin
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Myotonia congenita is a genetic condition that is caused by mutations in the muscle chloride channel gene CLCN1 and characterized by delayed muscle relaxation and muscle stiffness. We here investigate the functional consequences of two novel disease-causing missense mutations, C277R and C277Y, using heterologous expression in HEK293T cells and patch clamp recording. Both mutations reduce macroscopic anion currents in transfected cells. Since hClC-1 is a double-barrelled anion channel, this reduction in current amplitude might be caused by altered gating of individual protopores or of joint openings and closing of both protopores. We used non-stationary noise analysis and single channel recordings to separate the mutants’ effects on individual and common gating processes. We found that C277Y inverts the voltage dependence and reduces the open probabilities of protopore and common gates resulting in decreases of absolute open probabilities of homodimeric channels to values below 3%. In heterodimeric channels, C277R and C277Y also reduce open probabilities and shift the common gate activation curve towards positive potentials. Moreover, C277Y modifies pore properties of hClC-1. It reduces single protopore current amplitudes to about two-thirds of wild-type values...

‣ Mutations in AP2S1 cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3

Nesbit, M. Andrew; Hannan, Fadil M.; Howles, Sarah A.; Reed, Anita A.C.; Cranston, Treena; Thakker, Clare E.; Gregory, Lorna; Rimmer, Andrew J.; Rust, Nigel; Graham, Una; Morrison, Patrick J.; Hunter, Steven J.; Whyte, Michael P.; McVean, Gil; Buck, David
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Adaptor protein-2 (AP2), a central component of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), is pivotal in clathrin-mediated endocytosis which internalises plasma membrane constituents such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)1-3 . AP2, a heterotetramer of alpha, beta, mu and sigma subunits, links clathrin to vesicle membranes and binds to tyrosine-based and dileucine-based motifs of membrane-associated cargo proteins1,4. Here, we show that AP2 sigma subunit (AP2S1) missense mutations, which all involved the Arg15 residue (Arg15Cys, Arg15His and Arg15Leu) that forms key contacts with dileucine-based motifs of CCV cargo proteins4, result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 (FHH3), an extracellular-calcium homeostasis disorder affecting parathyroids, kidneys and bone5-7 These AP2S1 mutations occurred in >20% of FHH patients without calcium-sensing GPCR (CaSR) mutations which cause FHH18-12. AP2S1 mutations decreased the sensitivity of CaSR-expressing cells to extracellular-calcium and reduced CaSR endocytosis, likely through a loss of interaction with a C-terminus CaSR dileucine-based motif whose disruption also decreased intracellular signalling. Thus, our results reveal a new role for AP2 in extracellular-calcium homeostasis.

‣ Novel COL4A1 mutations cause cerebral small vessel disease by haploinsufficiency

Lemmens, Robin; Maugeri, Alessandra; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Goris, An; Tousseyn, Thomas; Demaerel, Philippe; Corveleyn, Anniek; Robberecht, Wim; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Thijs, Vincent N.; Zwijnenburg, Petra J.G.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mutations in COL4A1 have been identified in families with hereditary small vessel disease of the brain presumably due to a dominant-negative mechanism. Here, we report on two novel mutations in COL4A1 in two families with porencephaly, intracerebral hemorrhage and severe white matter disease caused by haploinsufficiency. Two families with various clinical presentations of cerebral microangiopathy and autosomal dominant inheritance were examined. Clinical, neuroradiological and genetic investigations were performed. Electron microscopy of the skin was also performed. In one of the families, sequence analysis revealed a one base deletion, c.2085del, leading to a frameshift and a premature stopcodon, p.(Gly696fs). In the other family, a splice site mutation was identified, c.2194-1G>A, which most likely leads to skipping of an exon with a frameshift and premature termination as a result. In fibroblasts of affected individuals from both the families, nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the mutant COL4A1 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and a clear reduction of COL4A1 protein expression were demonstrated, indicating haploinsufficiency of COL4A1. Moreover, thickening of the capillary basement membrane in the skin was documented, similar to reports in patients with COL4A1 missense mutations. These findings suggest haploinsufficiency...

‣ PGAP2 Mutations, Affecting the GPI-Anchor-Synthesis Pathway, Cause Hyperphosphatasia with Mental Retardation Syndrome

Krawitz, Peter M.; Murakami, Yoshiko; Rieß, Angelika; Hietala, Marja; Krüger, Ulrike; Zhu, Na; Kinoshita, Taroh; Mundlos, Stefan; Hecht, Jochen; Robinson, Peter N.; Horn, Denise
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/04/2013 Português
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Recently, mutations in genes involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor have been identified in a new subclass of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) with a distinct spectrum of clinical features. To date, mutations have been identified in six genes (PIGA, PIGL, PIGM, PIGN, PIGO, and PIGV) encoding proteins in the GPI-anchor-synthesis pathway in individuals with severe neurological features, including seizures, muscular hypotonia, and intellectual disability. We developed a diagnostic gene panel for targeting all known genes encoding proteins in the GPI-anchor-synthesis pathway to screen individuals matching these features, and we detected three missense mutations in PGAP2, c.46C>T, c.380T>C, and c.479C>T, in two unrelated individuals with hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS). The mutations cosegregated in the investigated families. PGAP2 is involved in fatty-acid GPI-anchor remodeling, which occurs in the Golgi apparatus and is required for stable association between GPI-anchored proteins and the cell-surface membrane rafts. Transfection of the altered protein constructs, p.Arg16Trp (NP_001243169.1), p.Leu127Ser, and p.Thr160Ile, into PGAP2-null cells showed only partial restoration of GPI-anchored marker proteins...

‣ Prostate cancer-associated mutations in speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) regulate steroid receptor coactivator 3 protein turnover

Geng, Chuandong; He, Bin; Xu, Limei; Barbieri, Christopher E.; Eedunuri, Vijay Kumar; Chew, Sue Anne; Zimmermann, Martin; Bond, Richard; Shou, John; Li, Chao; Blattner, Mirjam; Lonard, David M.; Demichelis, Francesca; Coarfa, Cristian; Rubin, Mark A.; Zho
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The p160 steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) SRC-1, SRC-2 [nuclear receptor coactivator (NCOA)2], and SRC-3 [amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1)/NCOA3] are key pleiotropic “master regulators” of transcription factor activity necessary for cancer cell proliferation, survival, metabolism, and metastasis. SRC overexpression and overactivation occur in numerous human cancers and are associated with poor clinical outcomes and resistance to therapy. In prostate cancer (PC), the p160 SRCs play critical roles in androgen receptor transcriptional activity, cell proliferation, and resistance to androgen deprivation therapy. We recently demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor speckle-type poxvirus and zinc finger (POZ) domain protein (SPOP) interacts directly with SRC-3 and promotes its cullin 3-dependent ubiquitination and proteolysis in breast cancer, thus functioning as a potential tumor suppressor. Interestingly, somatic heterozygous missense mutations in the SPOP substrate-binding cleft recently were identified in up to 15% of human PCs (making SPOP the gene most commonly affected by nonsynonymous point mutations in PC), but their contribution to PC pathophysiology remains unknown. We now report that PC-associated SPOP mutants cannot interact with SRC-3 protein or promote its ubiquitination and degradation. Our data suggest that wild-type SPOP plays a critical tumor suppressor role in PC cells...

‣ ZC4H2 Mutations Are Associated with Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita and Intellectual Disability through Impairment of Central and Peripheral Synaptic Plasticity

Hirata, Hiromi; Nanda, Indrajit; van Riesen, Anne; McMichael, Gai; Hu, Hao; Hambrock, Melanie; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Fischer, Ute; Marouillat, Sylviane; Ding, Can; Alirol, Servane; Bienek, Melanie; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Grimme, Astrid; Seelow, Dominik;
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/05/2013 Português
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Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is caused by heterogeneous pathologies leading to multiple antenatal joint contractures through fetal akinesia. Understanding the pathophysiology of this disorder is important for clinical care of the affected individuals and genetic counseling of the families. We thus aimed to establish the genetic basis of an AMC subtype that is associated with multiple dysmorphic features and intellectual disability (ID). We used haplotype analysis, next-generation sequencing, array comparative genomic hybridization, and chromosome breakpoint mapping to identify the pathogenic mutations in families and simplex cases. Suspected disease variants were verified by cosegregation analysis. We identified disease-causing mutations in the zinc-finger gene ZC4H2 in four families affected by X-linked AMC plus ID and one family affected by cerebral palsy. Several heterozygous females were also affected, but to a lesser degree. Furthermore, we found two ZC4H2 deletions and one rearrangement in two female and one male unrelated simplex cases, respectively. In mouse primary hippocampal neurons, transiently produced ZC4H2 localized to the postsynaptic compartment of excitatory synapses, and the altered protein influenced dendritic spine density. In zebrafish...

‣ Tumor Derived Mutations of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type K Affect Its Function and Alter Sensitivity to Chemotherapeutics in Glioma

Agarwal, Supreet; Al-Keilani, Maha S.; Alqudah, Mohammad A. Y.; Sibenaller, Zita A.; Ryken, Timothy C.; Assem, Mahfoud
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/05/2013 Português
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Poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in malignant gliomas is mainly due to the highly dispersive nature of glioma cells. This dispersive characteristic results from genetic alterations in key regulators of cell migration and diffusion. A better understanding of these regulatory signals holds promise to improve overall survival and response to therapy. Using mapping arrays to screen for genomic alterations in gliomas, we recently identified alterations of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type kappa gene (PTPRK) that correlate to patient outcomes. These PTPRK alterations are very relevant to glioma biology as PTPRK can directly sense cell–cell contact and is a dephosphorylation regulator of tyrosine phosphorylation signaling, which is a major driving force behind tumor development and progression. Subsequent sequencing of the full length PTPRK transcripts revealed novel PTPRK gene deletion and missense mutations in numerous glioma biopsies. PTPRK mutations were cloned and expressed in PTPRK-null malignant glioma cells. The effect of these mutations on PTPRK anti-oncogenic function and their association with response to anti-glioma therapeutics, such as temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, was subsequently analyzed using in vitro cell-based assays. These genetic variations altered PTPRK activity and its post-translational processing. Reconstitution of wild-type PTPRK in malignant glioma cell lines suppressed cell growth and migration by inhibiting EGFR and β-catenin signaling and improved the effect of conventional therapies for glioma. However...

‣ Mutations in GDP-Mannose Pyrophosphorylase B Cause Congenital and Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies Associated with Hypoglycosylation of α-Dystroglycan

Carss, Keren J.; Stevens, Elizabeth; Foley, A. Reghan; Cirak, Sebahattin; Riemersma, Moniek; Torelli, Silvia; Hoischen, Alexander; Willer, Tobias; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Moore, Steven A.; Messina, Sonia; Bertini, Enrico; Bönnemann, Carsten G.; A
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/07/2013 Português
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Congenital muscular dystrophies with hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) are a heterogeneous group of disorders often associated with brain and eye defects in addition to muscular dystrophy. Causative variants in 14 genes thought to be involved in the glycosylation of α-DG have been identified thus far. Allelic mutations in these genes might also cause milder limb-girdle muscular dystrophy phenotypes. Using a combination of exome and Sanger sequencing in eight unrelated individuals, we present evidence that mutations in guanosine diphosphate mannose (GDP-mannose) pyrophosphorylase B (GMPPB) can result in muscular dystrophy variants with hypoglycosylated α-DG. GMPPB catalyzes the formation of GDP-mannose from GTP and mannose-1-phosphate. GDP-mannose is required for O-mannosylation of proteins, including α-DG, and it is the substrate of cytosolic mannosyltransferases. We found reduced α-DG glycosylation in the muscle biopsies of affected individuals and in available fibroblasts. Overexpression of wild-type GMPPB in fibroblasts from an affected individual partially restored glycosylation of α-DG. Whereas wild-type GMPPB localized to the cytoplasm, five of the identified missense mutations caused formation of aggregates in the cytoplasm or near membrane protrusions. Additionally...

‣ WDR34 Mutations that Cause Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome Type III/Severe Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia Reveal a Role for the NF-κB Pathway in Cilia

Huber, Céline; Wu, Sulin; Kim, Ashley S.; Sigaudy, Sabine; Sarukhanov, Anna; Serre, Valérie; Baujat, Genevieve; Le Quan Sang, Kim-Hanh; Rimoin, David L.; Cohn, Daniel H.; Munnich, Arnold; Krakow, Deborah; Cormier-Daire, Valérie
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/11/2013 Português
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Short-rib polydactyly (SRP) syndrome type III, or Verma-Naumoff syndrome, is an autosomal-recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by short ribs, a narrow thorax, short long bones, an abnormal acetabulum, and numerous extraskeletal malformations and is lethal in the perinatal period. Presently, mutations in two genes, IFT80 and DYNC2H1, have been identified as being responsible for SRP type III. Via homozygosity mapping in three affected siblings, a locus for the disease was identified on chromosome 9q34.11, and homozygosity for three missense mutations in WDR34 were found in three independent families, as well as compound heterozygosity for mutations in one family. WDR34 encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family with five WD40 domains, which acts as a TAK1-associated suppressor of the IL-1R/TLR3/TLR4-induced NF-κB activation pathway. We showed, through structural modeling, that two of the three mutations altered specific structural domains of WDR34. We found that primary cilia in WDR34 mutant fibroblasts were significantly shorter than normal and had a bulbous tip. This report expands on the pathogenesis of SRP type III and demonstrates that a regulator of the NF-κB activation pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of the skeletal ciliopathies.

‣ Mutations in TUBG1, DYNC1H1, KIF5C and KIF2A cause malformations of cortical development and microcephaly

Poirier, Karine; Lebrun, Nicolas; Broix, Loic; Tian, Guoling; Saillour, Yoann; Boscheron, Cécile; Parrini, Elena; Valence, Stephanie; SaintPierre, Benjamin; Oger, Madison; Lacombe, Didier; Geneviève, David; Fontana, Elena; Darra, Franscesca; Cances, Cla
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The genetic causes of malformations of cortical development (MCD) remain largely unknown. Here we report the discovery of multiple disease-causing missense mutations in TUBG1, DYNC1H1 and KIF2A, as well as a single germline mosaic mutation in KIF5C. We find a frequent recurrence of mutations in DYNC1H1, implying that this gene is a major locus implicated in unexplained MCD. The mutations in KIF5C, KIF2A and DYNC1H1 drastically affect ATP hydrolysis, productive protein folding or microtubule binding, while suppression of Tubg1 expression in vivo interferes with proper neuronal migration and expression of Tubg1 mutations in S. cerevisiae results in disruption of normal microtubule behaviour. Our data reinforce the importance of centrosome- and microtubule-related proteins in cortical development and strongly suggest that microtubule-dependent mitotic and post-mitotic processes are major contributors to the pathogenesis of MCD.

‣ Allelic background of LEPRE1 mutations that cause recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta in different populations

Pepin, Melanie G; Schwarze, Ulrike; Singh, Virendra; Romana, Marc; Jones-LeCointe, Altheia; Byers, Peter H
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Biallelic mutations in LEPRE1 result in recessively inherited forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) that are often lethal in the perinatal period. A mutation (c.1080+1G>T, IVS5+1G>T) in African Americans has a carrier frequency of about 1/240. The mutant allele originated in West Africa in tribes of Ghana and Nigeria where the carrier frequencies are 2% and 5%. By examining 200 samples from an African-derived population in Tobago and reviewing hospital neonatal death records, we determined that the carrier frequency of c.1080+1G>T was about one in 200 and did not contribute to the neonatal deaths recorded over a 3-year period of time in Trinidad. In the course of sequence analysis, we found surprisingly high LEPRE1 allelic diversity in the Tobago DNA samples in which there were 11 alleles distinguished by a single basepair variant in or near exon 5. All the alleles found in the Tobago population that were within the sequence analysis region were found in the African American population in the Exome Variant Project. This diversity appeared to reflect the geographic origin of the original population in Tobago. In 44 individuals with biallelic LEPRE1 mutations identified by clinical diagnostic testing, we found the sequence alterations occurred on seven of the 11 variant alleles. All but one of the mutations identified resulted in mRNA or protein instability for the majority of the transcripts from the altered allele. These findings suggest that the milder end of the clinical spectrum could be due to as yet unidentified missense mutations in LEPRE1.