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‣ Axonal transport of TDP-43 mRNA granules in neurons is impaired by ALS-causing mutations

Alami, Nael H.; Smith, Rebecca B.; Carrasco, Monica A.; Williams, Luis A.; Winborn, Christina S.; Han, Steve S. W.; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Winborn, Brett; Freibaum, Brian D.; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Clare, Alison J.; Badders, Nisha M.; Bilican, Bilada; Chaum,
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/02/2014 Português
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The RNA binding protein TDP-43 regulates RNA metabolism at multiple levels, including transcription, RNA splicing, and mRNA stability. TDP-43 is a major component of the cytoplasmic inclusions characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and some types of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The importance of TDP-43 in disease is underscored by the fact that dominant missense mutations are sufficient to cause disease, although the role of TDP-43 in pathogenesis is unknown. Here we show that TDP-43 forms cytoplasmic mRNP granules that undergo bidirectional, microtubule-dependent transport in neurons in vitro and in vivo and facilitate delivery of target mRNA to distal neuronal compartments. TDP-43 mutations impair this mRNA transport function in vivo and in vitro, including in stem cell-derived motor neurons from ALS patients bearing any one of three different TDP-43 ALS-causing mutations. Thus, TDP43 mutations that cause ALS lead to partial loss of a novel cytoplasmic function of TDP-43.

‣ Disease-causing mutations in the XIAP BIR2 domain impair NOD2-dependent immune signalling

Damgaard, Rune Busk; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Speckmann, Carsten; Yabal, Monica; zur Stadt, Udo; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Jost, Philipp J; Ehl, Stephan; Mailand, Niels; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) is an essential ubiquitin ligase for pro-inflammatory signalling downstream of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing (NOD)-1 and -2 pattern recognition receptors. Mutations in XIAP cause X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type-2 (XLP2), an immunodeficiency associated with a potentially fatal deregulation of the immune system, whose aetiology is not well understood. Here, we identify the XIAP baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR)2 domain as a hotspot for missense mutations in XLP2. We demonstrate that XLP2-BIR2 mutations severely impair NOD1/2-dependent immune signalling in primary cells from XLP2 patients and in reconstituted XIAP-deficient cell lines. XLP2-BIR2 mutations abolish the XIAP-RIPK2 interaction resulting in impaired ubiquitylation of RIPK2 and recruitment of linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) to the NOD2-complex. We show that the RIPK2 binding site in XIAP overlaps with the BIR2 IBM-binding pocket and find that a bivalent Smac mimetic compound (SMC) potently antagonises XIAP function downstream of NOD2 to limit signalling. These findings suggest that impaired immune signalling in response to NOD1/2 stimulation is a general defect in XLP2 and demonstrate that the XIAP BIR2-RIPK2 interaction may be targeted pharmacologically to modulate inflammatory signalling.

‣ Identification of Novel CELSR1 Mutations in Spina Bifida

Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M.; Finnell, Richard H.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/03/2014 Português
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Spina bifida is one of the most common neural tube defects (NTDs) with a complex etiology. Variants in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes have been associated with NTDs including spina bifida in both animal models and human cohorts. In this study, we sequenced all exons of CELSR1 in 192 spina bifida patients from a California population to determine the contribution of CELSR1 mutations in the studied population. Novel and rare variants identified in these patients were subsequently genotyped in 190 ethnically matched control individuals. Six missense mutations not found in controls were predicted to be deleterious by both SIFT and PolyPhen. Two TG dinucleotide repeat variants were individually detected in 2 spina bifida patients but not detected in controls. In vitro functional analysis showed that the two TG dinucleotide repeat variants not only changed subcellular localization of the CELSR1 protein, but also impaired the physical association between CELSR1 and VANGL2, and thus diminished the ability to recruit VANGL2 for cell-cell contact. In total, 3% of our spina bifida patients carry deleterious or predicted to be deleterious CELSR1 mutations. Our findings suggest that CELSR1 mutations contribute to the risk of spina bifida in a cohort of spina bifida patients from California.

‣ Frequent inactivating mutations of STAG2 in bladder cancer are associated with low tumour grade and stage and inversely related to chromosomal copy number changes

Taylor, Claire F.; Platt, Fiona M.; Hurst, Carolyn D.; Thygesen, Helene H.; Knowles, Margaret A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Inactivating mutations of STAG2 have been reported at low frequency in several cancers. In glioblastoma, the function of STAG2 has been related to maintenance of euploidy via its role in the cohesin complex. In a screen of a large series of bladder tumours and cell lines, we found inactivating mutations (nonsense, frameshift and splicing) in 67 of 307 tumours (21.8%) and 6 of 47 cell lines. Thirteen missense mutations of unknown significance were also identified. Inactivating mutation was associated with low tumour stage (P = 0.001) and low grade (P = 0.0002). There was also a relationship with female patient gender (P = 0.042). Examination of copy number profiles revealed an inverse relationship of mutation with both fraction of genome altered and whole chromosome copy number changes. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the majority of cases with inactivating mutations, STAG2 protein expression was absent. Strikingly, we identified a relatively large subset of tumours (12%) with areas of both positive and negative immunoreactivity, in only four of which a potentially function-altering mutation was detected. Regions of differential expression were contiguous and showed similar morphological phenotype in all cases. Microdissected positive and negative areas from one tumour showed an inactivating mutation to be present only in the negative area...

‣ TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients

Noel, Sekoni D.; Abreu, Ana Paula; Xu, Shuyun; Muyide, Titilayo; Gianetti, Elena; Tusset, Cintia; Carroll, Jessica; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Carroll, Rona S.; Kaiser, Ursula B.
Fonte: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Publicador: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 Português
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Neurokinin B (NKB) and its G-protein-coupled receptor, NK3R, have been implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH release; however, little is known about the structure-function relationship of this ligand-receptor pair. Moreover, loss-of-function NK3R mutations cause GnRH deficiency in humans. Using missense mutations in NK3R we previously identified in patients with GnRH deficiency, we demonstrate that Y256H and Y315C NK3R mutations in the fifth and sixth transmembrane domains (TM5 and TM6), resulted in reduced whole-cell (79.3±7.2%) or plasma membrane (67.3±7.3%) levels, respectively, compared with wild-type (WT) NK3R, with near complete loss of inositol phosphate (IP) signaling, implicating these domains in receptor trafficking, processing, and/or stability. We further demonstrate in a FRET-based assay that R295S NK3R, in the third intracellular loop (IL3), bound NKB but impaired dissociation of Gq-protein subunits from the receptor compared with WT NK3R, which showed a 10.0 ± 1.3% reduction in FRET ratios following ligand binding, indicating activation of Gq-protein signaling. Interestingly, R295S NK3R, identified in the heterozygous state in a GnRH-deficient patient, also interfered with dissociation of G proteins and IP signaling from wild-type NK3R...

‣ CNNM2 Mutations Cause Impaired Brain Development and Seizures in Patients with Hypomagnesemia

Arjona, Francisco J.; de Baaij, Jeroen H. F.; Schlingmann, Karl P.; Lameris, Anke L. L.; van Wijk, Erwin; Flik, Gert; Regele, Sabrina; Korenke, G. Christoph; Neophytou, Birgit; Rust, Stephan; Reintjes, Nadine; Konrad, Martin; Bindels, René J. M.; Hoender
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2014 Português
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Intellectual disability and seizures are frequently associated with hypomagnesemia and have an important genetic component. However, to find the genetic origin of intellectual disability and seizures often remains challenging because of considerable genetic heterogeneity and clinical variability. In this study, we have identified new mutations in CNNM2 in five families suffering from mental retardation, seizures, and hypomagnesemia. For the first time, a recessive mode of inheritance of CNNM2 mutations was observed. Importantly, patients with recessive CNNM2 mutations suffer from brain malformations and severe intellectual disability. Additionally, three patients with moderate mental disability were shown to carry de novo heterozygous missense mutations in the CNNM2 gene. To elucidate the physiological role of CNNM2 and explain the pathomechanisms of disease, we studied CNNM2 function combining in vitro activity assays and the zebrafish knockdown model system. Using stable Mg2+ isotopes, we demonstrated that CNNM2 increases cellular Mg2+ uptake in HEK293 cells and that this process occurs through regulation of the Mg2+-permeable cation channel TRPM7. In contrast, cells expressing mutated CNNM2 proteins did not show increased Mg2+ uptake. Knockdown of cnnm2 isoforms in zebrafish resulted in disturbed brain development including neurodevelopmental impairments such as increased embryonic spontaneous contractions and weak touch-evoked escape behaviour...

‣ Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome Is Caused by IFIH1 Mutations

Oda, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Kenji; Abe, Junya; Awaya, Tomonari; Funabiki, Masahide; Hijikata, Atsushi; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Funatsuka, Makoto; Ohshima, Yusei; Sugawara, Yuji; Yasumi, Takahiro; Kato, Hiroki; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ohara, Osamu; Fujita, Takashi; He
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/07/2014 Português
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Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare, genetically determined early-onset progressive encephalopathy. To date, mutations in six genes have been identified as etiologic for AGS. Our Japanese nationwide AGS survey identified six AGS-affected individuals without a molecular diagnosis; we performed whole-exome sequencing on three of these individuals. After removal of the common polymorphisms found in SNP databases, we were able to identify IFIH1 heterozygous missense mutations in all three. In vitro functional analysis revealed that IFIH1 mutations increased type I interferon production, and the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes were elevated. IFIH1 encodes MDA5, and mutant MDA5 lacked ligand-specific responsiveness, similarly to the dominant Ifih1 mutation responsible for the SLE mouse model that results in type I interferon overproduction. This study suggests that the IFIH1 mutations are responsible for the AGS phenotype due to an excessive production of type I interferon.

‣ Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer

Ju, Young Seok; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Gerstung, Moritz; Martincorena, Inigo; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Davies, Helen R; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Gundem, Gunes; Shlien, Adam; Bolli, Niccolo; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Nangalia, Jyoti; Massi
Fonte: eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd Publicador: eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
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Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic substitutions, which exhibited dramatic replicative strand bias, predominantly C > T and A > G on the mitochondrial heavy strand. This strand-asymmetric signature differs from those found in nuclear cancer genomes but matches the inferred germline process shaping primate mtDNA sequence content. A number of mtDNA mutations showed considerable heterogeneity across tumor types. Missense mutations were selectively neutral and often gradually drifted towards homoplasmy over time. In contrast, mutations resulting in protein truncation undergo negative selection and were almost exclusively heteroplasmic. Our findings indicate that the endogenous mutational mechanism has far greater impact than any other external mutagens in mitochondria and is fundamentally linked to mtDNA replication.

‣ Congenital Heart Defects Are Rarely Caused by Mutations in Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Actin Genes

Khodyuchenko, Tatiana; Zlotina, Anna; Pervunina, Tatiana; Zverev, Dmitry; Malashicheva, Anna; Kostareva, Anna
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) often have genetic background due to missense mutations in cardiomyocyte-specific genes. For example, cardiac actin was shown to be involved in pathogenesis of cardiac septum defects and smooth muscle actin in pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm in combination with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). In the present study, we further searched for mutations in human α-cardiac actin (ACTC1) and smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) genes as a possible cause of atrial septum defect type II (ASDII) and PDA. Findings. Total genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 86 individuals with ASDs and 100 individuals with PDA. Coding exons and flanking intron regions of ACTC1 (NM_005159.4) and ACTA2 (NM_001613) were amplified by PCR with specific primers designed according to the corresponding gene reference sequences. PCR fragments were directly sequenced and analyzed. Sequence analysis of ACTC1 and ACTA2 did not identify any nucleotide changes that altered the coding sense of the genes. In ACTC1 gene, we were able to detect one previously described nucleotide polymorphism (rs2307493) resulting in a synonymous substitution. The frequency of this SNP was similar in the study and control group, thus excluding it from the possible disease-associated variants. Conclusions. Our results confirmed that the mutations in ACTC1 gene are rare (at least <1%) cause of ASDII. Mutations in ACTA2 gene were not detected in patients with PDA...

‣ Mutations in RECQL Gene Are Associated with Predisposition to Breast Cancer

Sun, Jie; Wang, Yuxia; Xia, Yisui; Xu, Ye; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Lou, Huiqiang; Xie, Yuntao
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2015 Português
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The genetic cause for approximately 80% of familial breast cancer patients is unknown. Here, by sequencing the entire exomes of nine early-onset familial breast cancer patients without BRCA1/2 mutations (diagnosed with breast cancer at or before the age of 35) we found that two index cases carried a potentially deleterious mutation in the RECQL gene (RecQ helicase-like; chr12p12). Recent studies suggested that RECQL is involved in DNA double-strand break repair and it plays an important role in the maintenance of genomic stability. Therefore, we further screened the RECQL gene in an additional 439 unrelated familial breast cancer patients. In total, we found three nonsense mutations leading to a truncated protein of RECQL (p.L128X, p.W172X, and p.Q266X), one mutation affecting mRNA splicing (c.395-2A>G), and five missense mutations disrupting the helicase activity of RECQL (p.A195S, p.R215Q, p.R455C, p.M458K, and p.T562I), as evaluated through an in vitro helicase assay. Taken together, 9 out of 448 BRCA-negative familial breast cancer patients carried a pathogenic mutation of the RECQL gene compared with one of the 1,588 controls (P = 9.14×10-6). Our findings suggest that RECQL is a potential breast cancer susceptibility gene and that mutations in this gene contribute to familial breast cancer development.

‣ Recurrent and Non-Recurrent Mutations of SCN8A in Epileptic Encephalopathy

Wagnon, Jacy L.; Meisler, Miriam H.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2015 Português
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Mutations of the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN8A have been identified in approximately 1% of nearly 1,500 children with early-infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEE) who have been tested by DNA sequencing. EIEE caused by mutation of SCN8A is designated EIEE13 (OMIM #614558). Affected children have seizure onset before 18 months of age as well as developmental and cognitive disabilities, movement disorders, and a high incidence of sudden death (SUDEP). EIEE13 is caused by de novo missense mutations of evolutionarily conserved residues in the Nav1.6 channel protein. One-third of the mutations are recurrent, and many occur at CpG dinucleotides. In this review, we discuss the effect of pathogenic mutations on the structure of the channel protein, the rate of recurrent mutation, and changes in channel function underlying this devastating disorder.

‣ Myopathic Lamin Mutations Cause Reductive Stress and Activate the Nrf2/Keap-1 Pathway

Dialynas, George; Shrestha, Om K.; Ponce, Jessica M.; Zwerger, Monika; Thiemann, Dylan A.; Young, Grant H.; Moore, Steven A.; Yu, Liping; Lammerding, Jan; Wallrath, Lori L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/05/2015 Português
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Mutations in the human LMNA gene cause muscular dystrophy by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. The LMNA gene encodes A-type lamins, intermediate filaments that form a network underlying the inner nuclear membrane, providing structural support for the nucleus and organizing the genome. To better understand the pathogenesis caused by mutant lamins, we performed a structural and functional analysis on LMNA missense mutations identified in muscular dystrophy patients. These mutations perturb the tertiary structure of the conserved A-type lamin Ig-fold domain. To identify the effects of these structural perturbations on lamin function, we modeled these mutations in Drosophila Lamin C and expressed the mutant lamins in muscle. We found that the structural perturbations had minimal dominant effects on nuclear stiffness, suggesting that the muscle pathology was not accompanied by major structural disruption of the peripheral nuclear lamina. However, subtle alterations in the lamina network and subnuclear reorganization of lamins remain possible. Affected muscles had cytoplasmic aggregation of lamins and additional nuclear envelope proteins. Transcription profiling revealed upregulation of many Nrf2 target genes. Nrf2 is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm by Keap-1. Under oxidative stress Nrf2 dissociates from Keap-1...

‣ Disease-Associated Mutations Prevent GPR56-Collagen III Interaction

Jin, Zhaohui; Deng, Yiyu; Strokes, Natalie; Luo, Rong; Piao, Xianhua
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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GPR56 is a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Mutations in GPR56 cause a devastating human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP). Using the N-terminal fragment of GPR56 (GPR56(^{ ext{N}})) as a probe, we have recently demonstrated that collagen III is the ligand of GPR56 in the developing brain. In this report, we discover a new functional domain in GPR56(^{ ext{N}}), the ligand binding domain. This domain contains four disease-associated mutations and two N-glycosylation sites. Our study reveals that although glycosylation is not required for ligand binding, each of the four disease-associated mutations completely abolish the ligand binding ability of GPR56. Our data indicates that these four single missense mutations cause BFPP mostly by abolishing the ability of GPR56 to bind to its ligand, collagen III, in addition to affecting GPR56 protein surface expression as previously shown.

‣ Androgens and androgen receptor signalling in men.

Need, Eleanor Frances
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Androgens are critical for the development and maintenance of adult male characteristics such as muscle mass and sexual function. Consequently, the established decline with age of serum testosterone (T) in males has major health implications. While the androgen receptor (AR) is the major mediator of genomic androgen action and is required for the development of the male phenotype, reproductive organs and the maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, it is the entrance of androgens into the cell that mediates the activation of the AR and the subsequent modulation of expression of androgen regulated genes. Testosterone, biologically the most important androgen in male serum, circulates either free, loosely bound to albumin or tightly bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Each of these forms of serum T have different abilities to enter cells, and which proportion of serum T is capable of entering cells and initiating the androgen signalling cascade, thereby leading to the activation of the AR has not been precisely defined. The AR amino terminal domain (NTD) is responsible for the majority of the ability of the AR to activate genes but the relative roles of the two activation functions in the AR NTD (activation functions 1 and 5; AF1 and 5) have not been precisely defined while the role of the AF2 surface which forms in the ligand binding domain upon agonist binding is responsible for interactions with key coregulators and also with the NTD in the amino-carboxyl (N/C) interaction. Our laboratory has recently identified a region within AF5 between amino acids 500-535 to which somatic mutations in castrate resistant prostate tumour samples collocate. Due to the lack of functional information on the AF5 region and the NTD in general...

‣ ZC4H2 mutations are associated with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and intellectual disability through impairment of central and peripheral synaptic plasticity

Hirata, H.; McMichael, G.; Haan, E.; MacLennan, A.; Yap, T.; Nguyen, L.; Shaw, M.; Gecz, J.
Fonte: Univ Chicago Press Publicador: Univ Chicago Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is caused by heterogeneous pathologies leading to multiple antenatal joint contractures through fetal akinesia. Understanding the pathophysiology of this disorder is important for clinical care of the affected individuals and genetic counseling of the families. We thus aimed to establish the genetic basis of an AMC subtype that is associated with multiple dysmorphic features and intellectual disability (ID). We used haplotype analysis, next-generation sequencing, array comparative genomic hybridization, and chromosome breakpoint mapping to identify the pathogenic mutations in families and simplex cases. Suspected disease variants were verified by cosegregation analysis. We identified disease-causing mutations in the zinc-finger gene ZC4H2 in four families affected by X-linked AMC plus ID and one family affected by cerebral palsy. Several heterozygous females were also affected, but to a lesser degree. Furthermore, we found two ZC4H2 deletions and one rearrangement in two female and one male unrelated simplex cases, respectively. In mouse primary hippocampal neurons, transiently produced ZC4H2 localized to the postsynaptic compartment of excitatory synapses, and the altered protein influenced dendritic spine density. In zebrafish...

‣ DJ-1 mutants binding partners: insights into Parkinson's Disease; Interactores de DJ-1 mutadas: elucidações sobre a Doença de Parkinson

Loureiro, Liliana Raquel Rodrigues
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
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Parkinson´s disease (PD), the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is a multifactorial disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the genes associated with PD, DJ-1 is a multifunctional protein involved in oxidative stress response and neuroprotection. DJ-1 mutations, such as L166P, M26I and E163K lead to loss of protein function causing early onset autosomal recessive PD. Moreover, the residue C106 is considered crucial in DJ-1 function as a sensor of oxidative stress. In this study, one missense mutations (E163K) and two engineered mutations in the residue C106 (C106A and C106DD) were produced and characterized in order to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of each mutation and also characterize their dynamic interactome. Structural analysis confirmed the production of all the mutants in the dimeric form, with a molecular weight of approximately 43kDa. Moreover, protein´s thermal stability was assessed by thermal shift and the results showed that the mutant E163K was the less stable and the C106A the most stable. Secondary structure analysis was performed by circular dichroism and revealed similar secondary structures between DJ-1 WT and mutants. In addition, a LC-MS/MS was performed to determine proteins´ contaminants and the majority of the protein contaminants were coming from the expression system and culture medium used in proteins´ production. Moreover...

‣ The Dominant Cold-Sensitive Out-Cold Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster Have Novel Missense Mutations in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Gene paralytic

Lindsay, Helen A.; Baines, Richard; ffrench-Constant, Richard; Lilley, Kathryn; Jacobs, Howard T.; O'Dell, Kevin M. C.
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2008 Português
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Here we report the molecular characterization of Out-cold (Ocd) mutants of Drosophila melanogaster, which produce a dominant, X-linked, cold-sensitive paralytic phenotype. From its initial 1.5-Mb cytological location within 13F1-16A2, P-element and SNP mapping reduced the Ocd critical region to <100 kb and to six candidate genes: hangover, CG9947, CG4420, eIF2a, Rbp2, and paralytic (para). Complementation testing with para null mutations strongly suggests Ocd and para are allelic, as does gene rescue of Ocd semilethality with a wild-type para transgene. Pesticide resistance and electrophysiological phenotypes of Ocd mutants support this conclusion. The para gene encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel. Sequencing the Ocd lines revealed mutations within highly conserved regions of the para coding sequence, in the transmembrane segment S6 of domain III (I1545M and T1551I), and in the linker between domains III and IV (G1571R), the location of the channel inactivation gate. The G1571R mutation is of particular interest as mutations of the orthologous residue (G1306) in the human skeletal muscle sodium channel gene SCN4A are associated with cases of periodic paralysis and myotonia, including the human cold-sensitive disorder paramyotonia congenita. The mechanisms by which sodium channel mutations cause cold sensitivity are not well understood. Therefore...

‣ Mutations in the neuronal β-tubulin subunit TUBB3 result in malformation of cortical development and neuronal migration defects

Poirier, Karine; Saillour, Yoann; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Jaglin, Xavier H.; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Nabbout, Rima; Castelnau-Ptakhine, Laetitia; Roubertie, Agathe; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Desguerre, Isabelle; Genevieve, David; Barnerias, Christine; Keren, Bo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Mutations in the TUBB3 gene, encoding β-tubulin isotype III, were recently shown to be associated with various neurological syndromes which all have in common the ocular motility disorder, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscle type 3 (CFEOM3). Surprisingly and in contrast to previously described TUBA1A and TUBB2B phenotypes, no evidence of dysfunctional neuronal migration and cortical organization was reported. In our study, we report the discovery of six novel missense mutations in the TUBB3 gene, including one fetal case and one homozygous variation, in nine patients that all share cortical disorganization, axonal abnormalities associated with pontocerebellar hypoplasia, but with no ocular motility defects, CFEOM3. These new findings demonstrate that the spectrum of TUBB3-related phenotype is broader than previously described and includes malformations of cortical development (MCD) associated with neuronal migration and differentiation defects, axonal guidance and tract organization impairment. Complementary functional studies revealed that the mutated βIII-tubulin causing the MCD phenotype results in a reduction of heterodimer formation, yet produce correctly formed microtubules (MTs) in mammalian cells. Further to this...

‣ Compound Heterozygous Mutations in SLC30A2/ZnT2 Results in Low Milk Zinc Concentrations: A Novel Mechanism for Zinc Deficiency in a Breast-Fed Infant

Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/05/2013 Português
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Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles...

‣ Molecular insights into HSD10 disease: impact of SDR5C1 mutations on the human mitochondrial RNase P complex

Vilardo, Elisa; Rossmanith, Walter
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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SDR5C1 is an amino and fatty acid dehydrogenase/reductase, moonlighting as a component of human mitochondrial RNase P, which is the enzyme removing 5′-extensions of tRNAs, an early and crucial step in tRNA maturation. Moreover, a subcomplex of mitochondrial RNase P catalyzes the N1-methylation of purines at position 9, a modification found in most mitochondrial tRNAs and thought to stabilize their structure. Missense mutations in SDR5C1 cause a disease characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy, called HSD10 disease. We have investigated the effect of selected mutations on SDR5C1's functions. We show that pathogenic mutations impair SDR5C1-dependent dehydrogenation, tRNA processing and methylation. Some mutations disrupt the homotetramerization of SDR5C1 and/or impair its interaction with TRMT10C, the methyltransferase subunit of the mitochondrial RNase P complex. We propose that the structural and functional alterations of SDR5C1 impair mitochondrial RNA processing and modification, leading to the mitochondrial dysfunction observed in HSD10 patients.